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Seminar: What Causes Gender Inequality? - A Working Syllabus - SOC-UA 937 – Spring 2017. Robert Max Jackson. In this course we will investigate what causes inequality between women and men . How does it arise, why does it take different forms, why does it vary in degree across societies, what are the components that add up to gender inequality, how do various institutions and practices contribute to it, and how does it change? The course will emphasize the history of indutry gender inequality in tempest the United States.
While we focus on gender inequality, we will also seek to sugar, understand social causation more generally. We will explore the diverse ways social causation works and how we can identify the naturalistic observation definition, causes behind important social phenomena. click on a topic to go to sugar, that section. click on a topic to go to that section. Description – Scope, Organization, and Access: The Scope of the naturalistic definition psychology, Topics and Materials. Indutry! We know a lot about gender inequality – its history, how people experience it in their lives, the ways it varies in intensity and form across time and place, the beliefs that make it seem natural, and much more. The outpouring of research and commentary on gonzalo in the, gender inequality over the past half century has been extraordinary.
Unfortunately, despite all this, our understanding of what causes gender inequality remains troubled. Both ordinary people and experts (such as scholars) commonly fluctuate between simplistic explanations that founder under close scrutiny and throwing up their hands in frustration over indutry what can seem an enigma beyond human comprehension. Here we will seek to surmount this dilemma. We will explore diverse facets of gender inequality and varied ideas about Research Paper: Of Women In American what causes might be decisive. We will also look carefully at the ways we can identify and verify the sugar, causes of social phenomena. Through these efforts we will aim both to enhance our understanding of what produces gender inequality and to improve our general ability to do causal social analyses effectively. The class organization and goals. In this class, each week's work will be organized around an analytical task, as well as a set of readings. The Religious World Culture Essay! Rather than focusing on discussion of the readings, the analytical tasks involve attempting a causal analysis of some aspect of gender inequality related to the week's issue, building on the materials we read (in brief papers of indutry a couple pages). The approach in this class seeks to develop analytical skills as well as understandings of the Social Of Women In American History, relevant literature by stressing doing actual analyses of gender inequality. (Note: this class does not have an exam nor a final paper.)
All class meetings are organized as discussions. Part of our class discussions will be on the common readings and part on students' efforts to explore the analytical tasks each week. We will adjust the time devoted to indutry, these two goals according to our experiences over the class. Every week, students will initiate discussions on readings and papers. The Puritan Pdf! To make this work, each week's papers will be exchanged (electronically) with enough lead time that we can all read all the papers prior to indutry, the class meetings. Each topic below includes – beside the common readings – three other subsections. These are: an analytical task , recommended readings , and related readings . The analytical task is the writing assignment for the week. Everyone should read the common readings while doing the analytical task (and be prepared to The Religious World Of Amish Culture, discuss them). In each of these papers – always brief papers – students will try out causal ideas related to the week's topic.
Recommended and related readings are optional materials useful for those who want to dig deeper into a topic. To simplify navigating through the syllabus, these subsections are hidden until the viewer clicks on the subsection heading, then they will appear. Most of our readings will be articles available for downloading. The links will appear in sugar the online version of the definition psychology, course syllabus. Excerpts from Down So Long . . .: The Puzzling Persistence of Gender Inequality (book manuscript by indutry RMJ not yet published) will similarly be available for downloading from the class web site. (As we will read selections from Jackson's book Destined for Equality [Harvard U Press] throughout the gonzalo tempest, course, you might want to buy it or borrow it.) Any student unfamiliar with the study of indutry gender, can (and probably should) pick up the gonzalo tempest, basics from a standard textbook in the area – I recommend Michael Kimmel's Gendered Society (which I use in my basic general undergraduate class on gender, so used copies should be easy to find). For further relevant sources, my reading lists/syllabi for two graduate courses might be valuable.
The one most directly related is What Causes Gender Inequality: Analytical Foundations ; a more general class, What Causes Inequality: Analytical Foundations , may provide materials for broader questions about different kinds of sugar inequalities and how to think about gender inequality in observation definition relationship to them. A note on sugar, the hidden material below : Each section of this guide includes – beside the common readings – three subsections, one for frost make good neighbors, an analytical task , one for recommended readings , and one for related readings . To simplify navigating through the course guide, only the headings for these subsections are initially visible. Sugar Indutry! The contents of all these subsections are hidden (so that the beginning appearance of the page is similar to World Of Amish, a standard syllabus) until the viewer clicks on a subsection heading, then its contents will appear. Indutry! While this organization is helpful for negotiating the page most of the time, it can become an obstacle if we want to gonzalo in the, search the page (for example, for indutry, a particular article) as searches will ignore the hidden material (that is, if you search a page you are viewing in an internet browser, the gonzalo, search will only sugar, examine what is shown on the page at that time). To overcome this limitation, you can open all the about Twenty-Five Days, hidden sections to show everything on the page by clicking the § symbol at the top of the page. (To restore the page to the normal condensed view, simply reload the page which will collapse all the hidden sections to their usual look).
The table of contents at sugar indutry the top of this page will aid speedy navigation to Research Social Movement In American History, any topic, which is particularly helpful if you reveal all the hidden material. I. Sugar! Introduction. Essay! What do we mean by gender inequality? To analyze the causes of gender inequality, we need to know what we mean by gender inequality. How can we conceive of and sugar talk about gender inequality in ways that are general enough to apply across the range of relevant phenomena, consistent enough to minimize conceptual ambiguities, and precise enough to be analytically effective? Gender inequality has been extraordinarily diverse and wide spread. Women and men are unequal in every conceivable way in endless circumstances, both immediate and enduring, by both objective criteria and subjective experience.
So, what counts as gender inequality? Can we characterize it in ways that let us confidently and impartially assess when there is more or less of it? No task for the introductory meeting. Janet Saltzman Chafetz Feminist Theory and Sociology: Underutilized Contributions for Mainstream Theory Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. In The Tempest! 23, (1997), pp. 97-120; or Janet Saltzman Chafetz The Varieties of Gender Theory in Sociology Handbook of the Sociology of Gender , 1999, p3-23, 21 Rachel A. Rosenfeld. What Do We Learn about Difference from the Scholarship on Gender? Social Forces , Vol.
81, No. 1 (Sep., 2002), pp. 1-24 Destined for Equality : Egalitarian Impulse. II. Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and the like? We casually refer to sugar indutry, causes and naturalistic observation definition psychology effects in normal interactions all the time. We all conduct our lives – choosing actions, making decisions, trying to influence others – based on theories about why and how things happen in the world. From the sugar, early stages of childhood we attribute causes, building a vision of the social (and physical) world that makes it understandable.
Every action, every choice about what to do, is The Religious World Of Amish Essay based on our anticipation of its effects, our understandings of consequences. Indutry! Analytical and scientific reasoning has a similar form, but requires that we approach causation more systematically and self-consciously. The general analytical problem . In this and other societies, women and observation definition men commonly dress differently. Prepare a causal analysis that seeks to explain why women and indutry men dress differently . Our analytical task this week is to attempt a simple causal analysis of a gender difference that is Research History obvious but not often questioned - the way we dress. The purpose of this exercise is to get us thinking about causality. To the degree that we can, we want to try to think of different kinds of indutry causes based on varied ways of framing the causal question. Realistically, one could easily write a book about all the possible ways of interpreting this causal question and answering it. We are just trying to develop some sensible insights in a couple pages. Thinking Tools . The starting point of most causal analyses is a comparison. When we start with the general question what causes X? we turn it into possible comparisons to produce an answer. Examples of such questions might be why do people in group A do X more than those in group B?, why does X occur more often in The Religious World Essay summer than winter?, or why does the rate at sugar which people do X go up and down with the business cycle?
The underlying idea is simple but powerful. If we are trying to explain some phenomenon, X, then we need to identify variations in the likelihood of X or the rate of X, and look for potential causes that (1) vary across the relevant circumstances in a way that could explain X and (2) that we can connect to the outcomes for X in some way. For example, with the gender distinctive clothing question, some ways to better specify the question and about Twenty-Five look at it through comparisons are: What causes individual conformity to the cultural pattern? What induces women and men to conform to indutry, the expectations for dressing differently? Whenever we observe a consistent pattern of social behavior, some common conditions or processes must be inducing people to act in a similar way. Figuring out what encourages conformity and discourages deviance allows us to Paper: Social Movement, provide a causal explanation. Indutry! Think about dilemma what happens to people who do not conform to the expectations about male and female appropriate clothing. And, just as important, ask why it is that people punish nonconformists. Here the basic comparison is between people who conform and those who do not, or between the reactions of people to sugar, conformity and the puritan dilemma pdf nonconformity. What causes differences in indutry dress codes across cultures?
What circumstances could exist across societies that consistently produce gender differences in modes of dress? The clothing characteristic of each sex varies greatly across societies (and time). Clothing differs between primitive cultures and gonzalo in the tempest modern ones, between warm and cold climates, and sugar between different parts of the world. But seemingly everywhere men and women dress differently. How can we explain this pattern? Here the primary comparison is between cultures that have different clothing.
Why do the expectations about clothing differences vary by context ? Why are gender differences in dress greater in some circumstances than in others? For example, both women and Days men may wear similar coveralls in a factory, but women and men generally wear dramatically different clothing to formal dances. Our efforts to sugar indutry, find causes behind any phenomena are improved by the puritan dilemma pdf looking at variations. If male and female clothing is just a little different in some contexts but greatly different in others, we can usefully focus on sugar, what might produce this variance in gender differences. Here the primary comparison is between contexts with greater differences in the expected clothing and contexts with lesser differences. Thinking Tools 2 . While considering how to explain the differences in the ways women and men dress, it can also be helpful to think through ways that this pattern could be considered an example of a larger pattern. World Culture! The explanation for the broader pattern may be different or easier to develop. Sugar! For example: The gender differences in apparel (and appearance adjustment more generally) could be considered as one example of apparel differences that find groups defined by age, ethnicity, or region dressing differently. That is to say, it is not only women and Essay about Twenty-Five In Australia men who consistently dress differently. Different ways of dressing also distinguish other groups.
If we think about those other groups, does it give us insights into sugar indutry, explaining the difference between women's and men's clothing? The gender differences in Paper: Of Women In American History dress could be considered as one example of a wider range of behavioral differences between women and men such as rules of sugar proper decorum, speech patterns, or displays of sexuality. That is, we can point to other presentational differences between women and men. If we think about the range of these presentational differences, do they suggest ideas that might help explain differences in apparel? Wikipedia. Causality Richard Hamming, You and Your Research, Bell Communications Research Colloquium Seminar (7 March 1986) Andrew Abbott. The Causal Devolution. Sociological Methods Research November 1998 27: 148-181. Ernest Nagel. History! 1960.
Determinism in History. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 20:3:291-317. Lieberson, Stanley; Modeling Social Processes: Some Lessons from Sports Sociological Forum , 12. March 1997:11-35. III. How is gender inequality symbolized and reproduced in everyday life? To start our investigation of the causes of gender inequality, we will consider how people experience and act out indutry gender in their day to day lives. We want to think about the most basic questions. Why and when do women and men act differently? Why and when do people respond differently to women than men?
How do all these private individual actions when taken together over time influence the Research Paper: In American History, understanding of indutry gender in a culture and gender inequality? The general analytical problem . Gonzalo! Using a typical setting where women and indutry men meet, assess how Ridgeway's framing approach helps explain the Essay Twenty-Five Days, role of gender in these interactions and where it might fall short. For this task, we choose some familiar (to us) setting or type of interaction where women and men typically engage each other. Indutry! For example, this could be a workplace, a bar, interactions between buyers and sellers, or parties. We use this as our source of empirical data and the puritan focus our argument on explaining gender interactions there.
First, we need to indutry, read Ridgeway's argument carefully. Then we try to apply her argument to the setting we have chosen. We want to assess how much we believe people's actions (in the context we chose) fit the expectations we can derive from her argument and when they might not. As we work on our analyses, we are evaluating Ridgeway's approach as a tool. The right tool allows us to construct a better edifice with less effort; the wrong tool does not. Thinking tools . The remaining notes for this analytical task look at some analytical steps that allow us to think through this problem effectively. Systematic steps in the analysis . The Puritan! Doing this kind of thought experiment, we want our thinking to be as systematic as possible. For all systematic causal analyses, we want to consider how the phenomenon being examined varies in regular or predictable ways across conditions, settings, types of people, places, or the like. Then, we ask what conditions or events typically precede or occur along with the outcomes that could plausibly influence those outcomes. For example, first, we simply consider possible differences between men's and women's actions. Then we consider how their actions might differ between opposite-sex and same-sex encounters.
We can broaden the range of the examples we use to sugar, think about these differences by considering other characteristics that might affect interactions, such as the age or race of the people, whether the interaction is cordial or unfriendly, how well the people know each other, and so on. We want to ask ourselves if the gender aspect of the interaction will be influenced by these other circumstances that seem relevant to interactions. For example, does gender influence cordial interactions differently from the ways it influences confrontations in our setting? If we believe the answer is yes, then we consider how and why. Essay About Twenty-Five! Analogously, we want to think about the ways that people's goals in gendered interactions vary in these kinds of circumstances, and how these goals influence their actions.
For example, in the same setting, a person seeking sex will commonly act differently than someone trying to curry favor or sell a product. When we apply a systematic logic to the analysis, we usually do not want to write about all the possibilities we think about. Instead, we use the ones that we find telling. But we will not identify those telling possibilities unless we systematically work through all the relevant possible influences. Gender context . Sugar! We can take the analysis of interactions another step by considering how the influence of observation gender on these interactions is potentially affected by conditions like: the presence or absence of onlookers (i.e., the relative privacy of the interaction) or the sugar, gender distribution of other people present (i.e., mostly male, mostly female, or mixed) Conformity . Whenever we try to explain patterns like this, we want to consider the naturalistic definition psychology, exceptions.
When will people violate the implications of gender expectations and what follows when they do? Are there circumstances that make it more likely people will depart from indutry conventional behavior? Violations of norms or common expectations are valuable for causal analyses because cracks in the veneer of social order can reveal its structure and dynamics. Bring it together . After working through the steps above, we try to assess when Ridgeway's approach does a good job explaining how gender influences behavior in our chosen setting, and when her approach seems to fall short. The Puritan! Do we see ways that her approach neglects or misunderstands important causes influencing the gender character of sugar indutry behavior in the context we examine? Our central goal here is to robert good, explain how and why gender organizes interactions in our chosen example. We are not attempting a general evaluation of sugar indutry Ridgeway's ideas, but a focused assessment of the puritan pdf their effectiveness in the setting we have selected to try them out. Erving Goffman, The Arrangement between the Sexes Theory and Society, Vol.
4, No. 3 (Autumn, 1977), pp. 301-331 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Gender and Society , Vol. Indutry! 2, No. 3 (Sep 1988), pp. 274-290 Cecilia L. Good Neighbors! Ridgeway, Framed Before We Know It: How Gender Shapes Social Relations. Gender Society 2009 23:145-160 Candace West and indutry Don H. Zimmerman Doing Gender Gender Society 1987 1: 125-151. Cecilia Ridgeway. Framed by Gender . Oxford: 2011. . IV. Why have women apparently occupied a subordinate position in all societies?
And how does explaining the origins of gender inequality relate to explaining the persistence of naturalistic observation gender inequality? Although some scholars may question if women have been subordinate in all societies, all agree that men have been dominant in most societies although the degree of sugar indutry dominance varies greatly. This raises the very tricky question, how do we explain the prevalence of male dominance? This exceedingly elusive question continues to elude any answer that will evoke a consensus. Analytical Task Alternative 1: An analytical critique . As most of definition psychology us lack the substantive knowledge needed to develop even simple analyses of gender inequality's possible origins, we will explore the causal possibilities by indutry responding to the arguments of people who are knowledgeable. The Religious World Of Amish Culture! Please read the Basics of Causal Descriptions on sugar indutry, a separate page for some simple, beginning ideas about describing a causal analysis. Isolate what you believe are the the puritan dilemma, most important causal arguments in the common readings . Give a critical assessment of their different approaches . In doing this, try to pay attention to what it is that makes you find the causal arguments more or less persuasive. The recommended and related readings provide a range of sugar material that you can look at as you need to deepen and sharpen your arguments.
It can be helpful to look back at the material from Topic II, especially Gerring's list of criteria for causal arguments. Analytical Task Alternative 2: A hypothetical scenario . Research Movement! When we cannot hope to research a social phenomenon with empirical observations, we can sometimes gain some traction by indutry trying to think through hypothetical possibilities. Here is an example. Assume that sometime in the near future we launch a rocket into space with a crew of 1,000. This crew is evenly divided between women and Essay Twenty-Five In Australia men, the sugar indutry, women and men have similar credentials and observation psychology accomplishments, and the two sexes are about equally represented at each level of sugar indutry authority. Dilemma Pdf! The crew members' cultural understandings are similar to those of college students today. Indutry! This ship reaches a far away planet much like earth but lacking intelligent life. Unfortunately, the good fences good neighbors, ship's engines have become unstable and the crew must abandon it. So they must start life on sugar, this new planet. While they possess much advanced knowledge, they have no technology. They must start from scratch, producing food, organizing themselves into a community, pairing off to reproduce, slowly building toward some kind of technological development over generations. [Note: If the distant planet scenario seems unnerving, we could have the same effect by dropping a 1,000 people on a remote island that is good fences isolated as a social experiment.] Under these conditions, what are the alternative possibilities for women's status?
What might decide which alternative occurs? Sapolsky, Robert. Testosterone rules Discover . Chicago: Mar 1997. Vol. Sugar! 18, Iss. 3; p. 44 Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. World Of Amish! (2002). A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. Evolutionary Psychology and sugar indutry similar approaches : The debates over evolutionary psychology - in general and as applied to gender inequality - are very important but often difficult to follow and assess.
Here are some starting points for learning the basics. Buller's supplies a sophisticated overview and critique of the most influential paradigm in evolutionary psychology (while supportive of the Social Of Women, more general venture), Downes and sugar Walter present guided views of the field, and other pieces provide further commentaries and some studies that explore key issues facing this approach. Downes, Stephen M., Evolutionary Psychology, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2014 Edition) Sven Walter, Evolutionary Psychology, The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2009 Bolger, Diane. Introduction. Research Social In American History! In A Companion to sugar, Gender Prehistory , edited by Diane Bolger, 1-19. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley Sons, Inc, 2012. Twenty-Five In Australia! [doi:10.1002/9781118294291.ch0] Buller, David J. Evolutionary Psychology: A Critique. In Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology , edited by Elliott Sober. Cambridge, MA: A Bradford Book, 2006. [also, compare David Buller.
A Guided Tour of sugar indutry Evolutionary Psychology (In A Field Guide to the Philosophy of Mind . Eds. Marco Nani and Massimo Marraffa. An official electronic publication of the Department of naturalistic definition psychology Philosophy of sugar University of Rome 2000.) Also by Buller see: Evolutionary Psychology: The Emperor's New Paradigm, Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (2005): 277-283 and for a full treatment his book Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for Human Nature . Research Social Movement History! Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/Bradford Books, 2005.] Fausto-Sterling, Anne. Sugar! Beyond Difference: A Biologist's Perspective. Journal of World Social Issues 53, no. 2 (2010): 233-58. [doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.1997.tb02442.x] Goodman, Madeleine J., P. Bion Griffin, Agnes A. Estioko-Griffin, and John S. Grove. Sugar! The Compatibility of frost good good Hunting and Mothering among the Agta Hunter-Gatherers of the Philippines. Sex Roles 12, no. 11-12 (1985): 1199-209. [doi:10.1007/bf00287829] Rigby, Nichole, and Rob J. Sugar Indutry! Kulathinal. Genetic Architecture of Sexual Dimorphism in Humans. Journal of observation definition Cellular Physiology 230, no.
10 (Oct 2015): 2304-10. [doi:10.1002/jcp.24979] Stulp, Gert, and Louise Barrett. Sugar Indutry! Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Height Variation. Biological Reviews 91, no. 1 (Feb 2016): 206-34. [doi:10.1111/brv.12165] Joseph Henrich. A cultural species: How culture drove human evolution Psychological Science Agenda . World Of Amish Essay! Science Brief. 2009 Rosemary L. Hopcroft. Gender Inequality in Interaction – An Evolutionary Account. Social Forces 87.4 (2009): 1845-1871. Randall Collins.
A Conflict Theory of Sexual Stratification. Sugar! Social Problems , Vol. 19, No. 1 (Summer, 1971), pp. 3-21 Rae Blumberg. A General Theory of Gender Stratification. Sociological Theory 2 (1984): 23-101. Rae Blumberg.
Extending Lenski's Schema to Hold Up Both Halves of the gonzalo in the tempest, Sky.aˆ?A Theory-Guided Way of Conceptualizing Agrarian Societies that Illuminates a Puzzle about Gender Stratification Sociological Theory 22:2 (June 2004):278-291 Matthew H. McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. The Early Development of Gender Differences Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38 (2009): 83-97 Laurie Wermuth and Miriam Ma'at-Ka-Re Monges. Gender Stratification: A Structural Model for sugar indutry, Examining Case Examples of Women in Less-Developed Countries. Essay In Australia! Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 23.1 (2002) 1-22 Randall Collins, Janet Saltzman Chafetz, Rae Lesser Blumberg, Scott Coltrane, Jonathan H. Turner Toward an Integrated Theory of Gender Stratification Sociological Perspectives , Vol. 36, No. 3 (Autumn, 1993), pp. 185-216 Janet Saltzman Chafetz Gendered Power and Privilege: Taking Lenski One Step Further Sociological Theory, Vol.
22, No. 2, Religion, Stratification, and Evolution in Human Societies: Essays in Honor of Gerhard E. Lenski (Jun., 2004), pp. 269-277 Joan N. Indutry! Huber. Observation Definition Psychology! Comparative Gender Stratification. Handbook of the Sociology of indutry Gender , 1999, p65-80 Maurice Godelier, The Origins of Male Domination New Left Review , May-June 1981, pp. 3-17 William Tulio Divale, Marvin Harris.
Population, Warfare, and the Male Supremacist Complex. American Anthropologist , New Series, Vol. 78, No. Robert Frost Good Fences Make Neighbors! 3 (Sep., 1976), pp. 521-538 [See also: William Divale, Marvin Harris, Donald T. Williams. On the Misuse of Statistics: A Reply to indutry, Hirschfeld et al. American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol.
80, No. 2 (Jun., 1978), pp. 379-386; William Divale, Marvin Harris. The Male Supremacist Complex: Discovery of a Cultural Invention American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 80, No.
3 (Sep., 1978), pp. 668-671 C C Mukhopadhyay, and P J Higgins. Naturalistic Observation Definition! Anthropological Studies of Women's Status Revisited: 1977-1987. Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. Sugar! 17 (1988): 461-495 Naomi Quinn. Anthropological Studies on Women's Status. Annual Review of Anthropology Vol. 6 (1977): 181-225 Chris Hann.
Reproduction and Inheritance: Goody Revisited. Annual Review of gonzalo in the Anthropology , Vol. 37 (2008): 145-158. V. What determines men's and women's roles and positions within families? Family and kinship are potentially relevant to sugar, gender inequality in varied ways and a lot of work had pursued such issues. Probably the two most important general issues involve the ways that women and men are unequal within families and the ways that family organization both contributes to and is influenced by gender inequality beyond the family institution.
We will just touch the surface of these issues this week. The general analytical problem . We want to provide an integrated analytical overview of the principal causal arguments about gender inequality and family organization that appear in the common readings. Each of the readings has various causal arguments about family organization, some directly about gender inequality, some relevant to gender inequality but not directly exploring it. Some of the causal questions may receive different causal analyses by these authors. Sometimes two or more authors may use a similar causal approach to naturalistic definition psychology, explain different causal problems. Sugar Indutry! Our goal is to sort this out. Our overviews should be organized around the causal arguments, not a series of summaries of Social Movement Of Women History what each author wrote (see Thinking Tools). Thinking tools . We want to use one of the sugar, following two possible ways to organize the causal assessment (unless one of us has a better way). The first organizes around what is to be explained, the second around the causes. First approach . Naturalistic! We start by identifying the principal causal problems addressed by the group of papers. That is, we figure out what they suggest needs to sugar, be explained.
Then, we organize these causal problems in a sensible order (including consideration of some problems potentially being secondary or sub-problems of others). Under each causal problem, we summarize and assess all the relevant explanations found in the readings. Second approach . We start by identifying the principal causal frameworks used in the papers. That is, we figure out robert what they suggest are the conditions or processes that have the most important influence over the outcomes. Then, we organize these causal frameworks in a sensible order, taking into account which are entirely different and which might be variations of a similar theme, and indutry which are competing versus complementary. For each of these, after summarizing the gonzalo in the tempest, causal logic of the framework, we show how it has been used by these authors, describing the range of outcomes the framework is supposed to determine and how it has such effects. Note that regardless which way we organize our analysis of competing causal arguments, it can be valuable to think about not only what is considered by sugar indutry the authors being examine, but also which theoretical questions and which causal frameworks seem relevant but absent. Please reread the Basics of Causal Descriptions on Twenty-Five Days, the starting point for describing a causal analysis. Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to produce a critical overview of the principal causal arguments concerning the family and gender inequality, starting with the ideas present in the common readings for this week. To do this effectively, we need to identify all the relevant causal arguments, deduce the logical structure of indutry each causal argument and determine how to present that clearly (even if the original source is the puritan dilemma inconsistent or ambiguous), detect how the causal arguments (from different sources) relate to each other and sugar present them in a way that makes those relations clear, and, where possible, summarize the important analytical strengths and weaknesses of each argument (or facet to an argument). (We should start with the understanding that this kind of analytical overview is rather easy to do poorly and very demanding to do well and thoroughly.
At this stage we are not aspiring to dilemma pdf, a professional job but hoping to achieve a reasonable, if basic, analysis.) Destined for sugar, Equality : Institutional Individualism: Individualistic Family 157-169 Coltrane, Scott. 1989. Household Labor and the Routine Production of Gender. Social Problems 3 Stephanie Coontz. The Historical Transformation of Marriage, Journal of Marriage and Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 974-979) November 2004.
Beth Anne Shelton, Daphne John. The Division of the puritan dilemma pdf Household Labor. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 22, (1996), pp. 299-322 Andrew J. Sugar Indutry! Cherlin, The Deinstitutionalization of American Marriage Journal of tempest Marriage and Family , Volume 66, Issue 4 (p 848-861) November 2004. Kathleen Gerson. Moral Dilemmas, Moral Strategies, and sugar indutry the Transformation of Gender: Lessons from Two Generations of naturalistic observation psychology Work and Family Change Gender Society . Vol. 16 No. 1, February 2002 8-28 Sara B. Sugar Indutry! Raley, Marybeth J. Mattingly, Suzanne M. Bianchi.
How Dual Are Dual-Income Couples? Documenting Change From 1970 to 2001. Journal of Marriage and Family 68:1 (2006), 11-28 Davis, S. N., T. Greenstein and J. Good Fences Good Neighbors! G. Sugar Indutry! Marks, Effects of Union Type and Division of Household Labor, Journal of Family Issues 28 (2007):1247-72. World Of Amish Essay! [doi: 10.1177/0192513X07300968] Scott Coltrane. Father-Child Relationships and the Status of Women: A Cross-Cultural Study. American Journal of Sociology, 93 (1988): 1060-1095. Joann Vanek. Time Spent in sugar Housework. Scientific American 231 (Nov 1974):116-120.
Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. The Sociology of Women's Economic Role in the Family. American Sociological Review , Vol. The Religious World Of Amish Culture! 42, No. 3 (Jun., 1977), pp. 387-406 Kathleen Gerson. (2004) 'Understanding work and sugar indutry family through a gender lens', Community, Work Family , 7: 2, 163 - 178 Rodrigo R. Soares, Bruno L. S. FalcA?A?o. The Demographic Transition and the Sexual Division of Labor. In The Tempest! The Journal of Political Economy , Vol. 116, No. 6 (Dec., 2008), pp.
1058-1104 Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in Romantic Relationships', Journal of Bisexuality , 9:1, 33-69 Veronica Tichenor. Maintaining Men's Dominance: Negotiating Identity and Power When She Earns More. Sex Roles 53:3-4, (2005): 191-205 Becker, G. S., Human Capital, Effort, and the Sexual Division of Labor, Journal of Labor Economics 3(1) (1985):33-58. [ VI. Sugar! What is the role of sex differences in naturalistic observation definition psychology the functioning and perpetuation of gender inequality? Attempts to explain gender inequality at all levels are haunted by essentialism . Sugar Indutry! Essentialist arguments impute distinctive attributes to women and naturalistic definition psychology men and attribute the social differences between women's and men's activities, opportunities, statuses, and roles to these distinct attributes.
Even theoretical analyses of gender inequality that expressly reject the possibility of consequential, inherent sex differences, commonly build their explanations of inequality on sugar indutry, gender differences. To complicate matters, essentialist arguments proclaiming superior attributes for women exist alongside of the arguments proclaiming women inferior. Moreover, while for dilemma, some, essentialism always means a difference based in biology or genetics, for others it includes cultural differences that are embodied in women and men. The general analytical problem . To investigate how essentialist arguments work, we will examine how different kinds of essentialist arguments might be applied to explain some aspect of gender inequality, in contrast to a non-essentialist argument. We aim to see both the attraction of essentialist arguments and the possibilities for alternatives. Select one form or facet of gender inequality that you will try to explain for sugar indutry, this task.
This instance or aspect of gender inequality should be sufficiently important, widespread, and enduring or recurring to merit thoughtful theory and the puritan dilemma explanation. It should also be narrow or specific enough that the goal of explaining it is plausible. For example, the facet might be that wives commonly defer to husbands. For the indutry, selected type or aspect of gender inequality, you will suggest five alternative explanations, each one representing a different approach to explaining such social phenomena. The Puritan Dilemma Pdf! The explanations should be succinct but clear. They should also be plausible to the extent that a reasonable person might make such an sugar, argument. Good Fences Make Neighbors! Plausible does not mean true, of course. Rather, we are trying to imagine an argument that would seem plausible to people who are advocates for each of the perspectives. The five types of sugar explanation . Attempt to devise the best explanations you can for the relevant facet of naturalistic definition psychology inequality from each of the following perspectives.
Explanations may be categorized in many ways. The five perspectives defined here are meant to sugar indutry, engage different responses to the problem of psychology essentialism. Direct biological - Devise an sugar, explanation claiming that some biological difference between the sexes produces the relevant aspect of inequality by gonzalo in the making women and men act differently. For example, an argument might be that men are stronger than women so men dominate women as a simple result of sugar indutry superior strength. (More complex biological explanations might be derived from evolutionary psychology.) This type of explanation is usually purely essentialist. Note that this type of explanation can be divided further into those relying on real biological differences and those imputing fictional biological differences.
Let us stress biological differences that are at least potentially real here, leaving the fictitious ones for below. Fences Make Neighbors! Indirect biological - Formulate an sugar indutry, explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the inequality, but the biological difference has important effects or implications of some sort, and those effects that make likely or unavoidable the emergence or persistence of the naturalistic observation, selected aspect of gender inequality. Indutry! For example, someone might argue that women's child bearing makes them anxious about the welfare of Culture Essay their children, and that anxiety makes them feel weak and in sugar indutry want of a protector, leading them to defer to husbands. Or, others might suggest that women's biologically induced child rearing orientation encourages both women and men to make men responsible for warfare, and that men's resulting skill at combat, their possession of weapons, and men's organization around mutual defense leaves wives typically in their husbands' control. Social History! The key for this type of explanation is that the relevant biological differences do not directly cause the sugar indutry, gender inequality being explained, but have effects on social behavior and robert good fences social organization that lead to gender inequality. Indutry! These types of explanations have essentialist origins in Social Movement Of Women a biological difference, but the explanation as a whole may invoke mediating causal influences that reduce the essentialist quality, sometimes greatly. Non-biological sex difference - Suggest how some socially constructed difference between women and men – one that is neither biological nor a direct result of biological differences – initiates or preserves the sugar, aspect of gender inequality being explained. This will usually be an enduring individual characteristic (a difference that people carry with them, not a difference in their circumstances). For example, one might claim that women are fearful and dependent because of socialization processes (that have no biological basis), and this psychological condition induces wives to about Twenty-Five Days In Australia, defer to their husbands. Or, one might argue that childhood sports available only to boys result in a higher competitive drive that accounts for adult men's greater success in business.
This type of explanation claims a real difference exists between women and men (in the society or social context where the inequality being explained occurs; the relevant sex difference need not exist in all or any other society or social context), but this difference is a social construction. This type of indutry explanation often becomes redundantly circular: each aspect of inequality exists as a result of inequality, and that overall inequality is constituted by the various aspects. Fictitious sex difference - An imputed sex difference that does not really exist is claimed to play a significant role in producing the selected facet of gender inequality. For example, someone might suggest that although women have no better capacity for child rearing, people commonly assume they do because women bear children, and that this false expectation produces a division of labor and power favoring men. This type of naturalistic definition psychology explanation focuses on the consequences of beliefs, relying on the observation that beliefs can organize behavior even if they are false beliefs. Sugar! While such fictitious differences are commonly assumed to be biological, they need not be. Causes independent of pdf sex differentiation - A causal process that does not involve any difference between the sexes is argued to produce the inequality being considered.
For example, some might argue that for sugar, families to fulfill their social functions effectively, they need one spouse/parent to perform the critical emotional actions needed and the other spouse/parent to perform the practical and leadership actions (this is essentially a well-know idea of Talcott Parsons). This role differentiation can then result in spouse inequality, as an indirect and unintended consequence. This category includes highly diverse explanations, the one critical similarity among them being that they do not rely on a sex difference in naturalistic observation psychology their central causal argument. It may be worth noting that one reason explanations based on indutry, sex differences (including all the preceding perspectives) are more common is that formulating a plausible analysis that forgoes the Essay about Twenty-Five, mechanism of sex differences is often a hard task. (Note, in sugar indutry this task we are aiming to produce explanations that those advocating each of the above types of explanation would think are reasonable. Frost Make Good! It is often hardest to conceive good explanations from the points of view we find unconvincing or unappealing, but the capacity to do this is a valuable skill.) Bringing it together . The point of this exercise is to examine how it is possible to sugar, devise a range of alternative causal explanations of gender inequality stressing some mechanism of Of Amish sex differences, while developing alternative theories that do not rely on sex differences is rather hard. The difference arguments run the full range from being directly and fully biological to relying on non-biological or fictitious differences in indirect ways.
The arguments that exclude not only biology but all dependence on sex differences commonly derive from another theoretical approach, such as functionalism or conflict theories. The challenge with these approaches is not only to sugar, make the in the tempest, immediate causal process eschew differences, but to avoid relying on sex differences one or two steps earlier in the causal chain. Uri Gneezy, Kenneth L. Leonard, And John A. List. Gender Differences in sugar indutry Competition: Evidence From a Matrilineal and a Patriarchal Society. Econometrica, Vol.
77, No. 5 (September, 2009), 1637-1664 Review : Section II Common Readings above and the DeLamater and Hyde piece from Section VI. Douglas Schrock, Michael Schwalbe. Men, Masculinity, and Manhood Acts. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 35: 277-295 (August 2009). [doi: 10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115933] Janis S. Essay Twenty-Five In Australia! Bohan. Regarding gender: Essentialism, Constructionism, and Feminist Psychology.
Psychology of Women Quarterly , Mar 93, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p5-22 Matthew H. Sugar! McIntyre, Carolyn Pope Edwards. The Early Development of Gender Differences. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 83-97 (October 2009) Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. (2002). A Cross-Cultural Analysis Of The Behavior Of Women And Men: Implications For The Origins Of Sex Differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. [doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.128.5.699] Nancy Chodorow. Oedipal Asymmetries and Heterosexual Knots. Social Problems , Vol. The Religious World Essay! 23, No.
4, Feminist Perspectives: The Sociological Challenge (Apr., 1976), pp. 454-468. Eagly, A. H., Wood, W. (1999). The Origins Of Sex Differences In Human Behavior: Evolved Dispositions Versus Social Roles. American Psychologist, 54, 408-423. Valian, V. (1999). Sugar Indutry! The Cognitive Bases Of Gender Bias.
Brooklyn Law Review, 65, 1037-1061. Clopton, Nancy A.; Sorell, Gwendolyn T. Gender differences in moral reasoning. . Psychology of Women Quarterly, Mar93, Vol. 17 Issue 1, p85 [doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1993.tb00678.x] Pamela L. Geller. Identity and Difference: Complicating Gender in Archaeology. Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 65-81 (October 2009) [doi: 10.1146/annurev-anthro-091908-164414] Barbara J. Risman, Intimate Relationships from a Microstructural Perspective: Mothering Men. Gender and Society 1:1 (March 1987).
Nancy Chodorow. Mothering, Object-Relations, and the Female Oedipal Configuration. Feminist Studies , Vol. 4, No. 1 (Feb., 1978), pp. 137-158 [jstor: 3177630] Timothy J. Biblarz Judith Stacey. How Does the dilemma pdf, Gender of Parents Matter? Journal of Marriage and Family 72:1 (2010):3-22 [doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2009.00678.x] Adrienne Rich. 1980.
Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence. Signs: Journal of Women in sugar Culture and Society 5 (4): 631-660 Judith Butler. Performative Acts and Gender Constitution: An Essay in Phenomenology and Feminist Theory. Theatre Journal , Vol. 40, No. 4 (Dec., 1988), pp. The Religious World Culture Essay! 519-531. Sugar Indutry! Nussbaum, M. About Twenty-Five Days In Australia! C. The Professor Of Parody [J. Butler]. Sugar Indutry! The New Republic v. 220 no. 8 (February 22 1999) p. 37-45.
Timothy V. Kaufman-Osborn. Fashionable Subjects: On Judith Butler and pdf the Causal Idioms of Postmodern Feminist Theory. Sugar Indutry! Political Research Quarterly , Vol. Observation Definition Psychology! 50, No. 3 (Sep., 1997), pp.
649-674 Veronica Vasterling. Butler's Sophisticated Constructivism: A Critical Assessment. Hypatia , Vol. 14, No. 3 (Summer, 1999), pp. 17-38 Barbara F. Reskin.
Including Mechanisms in Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality. American Sociological Review, Vol. 68, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21. VII. What is the role of sexuality? Sexuality has been evoked in multiple ways in the study of gender inequality.
Some have considered it as a possible motivating cause for inequality, others have explored how gender inequality can mold the experience and practice of sexuality, and others have tried to theoretically incorporate sexuality as a peculiar tension between women and men that mediates both the causes and sugar indutry effects of gender inequality. Essentially, everyone recognizes sexuality is critically important to gender inequality, but we lack agreement or clarity on how it matters. The general analytical problem . Focusing on heterosexual behavior, it appears that men seek to Culture Essay, have sex with women much more than women seek to have it with men, relative both to how often they have sex and with how many partners . Our central task this week is to propose causal accounts that plausibly explain this. Give a brief account of sugar indutry possible explanations from the following perspectives. In each case, describe a plausible approach (accepting the in the tempest, assumptions of the perspective), then assess its strengths and weaknesses.
Evolutionary Psychology - Trying to explain this phenomenon (well, part of it) has been a highlight of the work that evolutionary psychologists have done on gender differences. Provide an appropriate brief explanation of this sort, identify the sugar, fundamental assumptions it requires. Also, consider the Essay Twenty-Five In Australia, evidence and what might be important shortcomings. Indirect biological - Formulate an sugar, explanation claiming some biological difference does not directly produce the inequality, but the biological difference has important effects or implications of some sort, and fences good neighbors those effects that make likely or unavoidable the sugar indutry, emergence and persistence of this sexuality difference. Naturalistic Definition! Also, consider under what social conditions this sexual difference should be larger or smaller, assuming that this explanation is correct. Sugar Indutry! A Fictional Difference - Try to explain how this purported difference in sexuality might not be real. In The! This includes explaining why the fictional belief in this difference would arise and sugar indutry become prevalent. Secondary effect of naturalistic observation gender inequality - Consider how this difference can arise as a result of gender inequality. Examine what social conditions must be true for indutry, this causal sequence to occur. A different approach - What plausible explanation can you provide that does not fit into naturalistic observation, the above categories?
Can you provide reasoning or evidence to show that one of the explanations is better than the others? Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to indutry, construct and assess alternative basic causal arguments seeking to understand a widely accepted difference in the sexuality of women and men. In each case, try to be clear about the logic of the causal argument. In each case, provide a logical description of the mechanisms that link the causes to the outcomes. Alternative Analytical Task [ignore]
The general analytical problem . Our central task this week is to propose a causal account that plausibly explains the gonzalo in the tempest, relationship between one aspect of sugar indutry sexuality and gender inequality. Everyone who analyzes gender inequality considers sexuality important, but they have highly varied ideas about The Religious World Of Amish Essay what matters and indutry why. This disagreement suggests that the underlying problems are difficult. We cannot hope to solve them in this brief effort. So, our aim is to propose a simple and reasonable account of some part of the relationship between inequality and sexuality. In The Tempest! We are not trying to develop a full, professional analysis. We also want to consider how our proposed accounts agree with, differ from, or challenge the existing scholarly arguments. Again, our goal here is sugar indutry limited. The aim is to tempest, give a reasonable first sense of how the sugar, proposed account fits (or does not fit). Thinking tools As suggested above, we can use any aspect of sexuality that seems interesting. However, it may help if the selected facet of gonzalo in the tempest sexuality: has a relationship to gender inequality that at least some writers think is important.
Which way it is important is wide open. The role of the chosen sexuality characteristic relative to indutry, gender inequality may be cause, effect, catalyst, or whatever else seems causally relevant. allows discussion of relevant ideas from at least three scholarly works. These may be part of the common readings, any of the The Religious, other readings recommended here, or another legitimate source. This doesn't mean that the texts must directly discuss the specific relationship we write about, but that they include ideas or arguments which we can apply or to which we can respond. A basic approach to the task presentation might have the following three parts: First, we lay out the causal, explanatory problem. What are the outcomes, patterns, processes, or relationships that we would like to explain by identifying reasonable causes? And why is this important enough to merit attention? (The latter part may seem self-evident, but we still want to describe why we think explaining the phenomenon is important.) Second, we provide the sugar indutry, causal analysis. We want to be as complete as possible within reasonable space limits. And, we want to be clear, simple, and direct. Third, we try to show how our proposed causal analysis relates to the existing literature. For our purposes, we can limit ourselves to considering a couple theories or perspectives that would support or compliment our approach and a couple that would be likely to question our proposed causal analysis. (In a professional effort, we would need to consider every important relevant argument.) These may come from the common readings or any other relevant scholarship.
When discussing those who might disagree, we want to be as specific as possible about robert fences make what criticism we would expect from each of sugar these opponents and how we might respond. Bringing it together . In short, our aim is to construct a basic causal argument seeking to understand how some aspect of sexuality is related to gender inequality, and to gonzalo, assess how that causal argument relates to the existing literature (as represented in our readings). Zaylia, Jessica Leigh(2009) 'Toward a Newer Theory of Sexuality: Terms, Titles, and the Bitter Taste of Bisexuality', Journal of Bisexuality , 9 (2): 109 - 123. Crawford, M., et. Sugar Indutry! al., Sexual Double Standards: A Review and Methodological Critique of Two Decades of World Culture Research. The Journal of sugar indutry Sex Research v. 40 no. 1 (February 2003) p. 13-26 Dennis D. Waskul, Phillip Vannini, Desiree Wiesen. Women and Their Clitoris: Personal Discovery, Signification, and Use. Tempest! Symbolic Interaction May 2007, Vol. 30, No. 2: 151-174 Breanne Fahs.
Compulsory Bisexuality?: The Challenges of Modern Sexual Fluidity. Journal of Bisexuality , Volume 9, Issue 3 4 July 2009 , pages 431-449 John A. Indutry! Miller, Joan Acker, Kate Barry, Miriam M. Johnson and Essay In Australia Lois A. West. Comments on MacKinnon's 'Feminism, Marxism, Method, and the State'. Signs , Vol. 10, No. 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp. 168-184; [jstor: 3174252; and Catharine A. MacKinnon, Reply to Miller, Acker and Barry, Johnson, West, and Gardiner. Signs , Vol. 10, No. 1 (Autumn, 1984), pp. 184-188 [jstor: 3174253] Steven Epstein.
An Incitement to sugar indutry, Discourse: Sociology and the History of Sexuality . Sociological Forum , Vol. Paper: Movement Of Women History! 18, No. 3 (Sep., 2003), pp. 485-502. Nicole Constable. The Commodification of Intimacy: Marriage, Sex, and Reproductive Labor.
Annual Review of Anthropology , Vol. 38: 49-64 (2009) Impett, E. A., Peplau, L. A. (2003). Sexual Compliance: Gender, Motivational, And Relationship Perspectives. Journal of Sex Research, 40(1), 87-100 [doi: 10.1080/00224490309552169] Ronald Weitzer. Sociology of Sex Work. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. Sugar! 35: 213-234 (2009) Pennington, Suzanne(2009) 'Bisexuals Doing Gender in Romantic Relationships', Journal of Bisexuality, 9: 1, 33-69 Lisa Duggan From Instincts to Politics: Writing the History of Sexuality in frost good good the U.S. Sugar! The Journal of Sex Research , Vol. 27, No. World Culture Essay! 1, Feminist Perspectives on sugar, Sexuality. Part 1 (Feb., 1990), pp.
95-109 Michael W. Wiederman. The Truth Must Be in psychology Here Somewhere: Examining the Gender Discrepancy in Self-Reported Lifetime Number of Sex Partners. Sugar! The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 34, No. 4 (1997), pp. Dilemma! 375-386 Norman R. Brown, Robert C. Sinclair.
Estimating Number of Lifetime Sexual Partners: Men and Women Do It Differently. Sugar Indutry! The Journal of robert good good Sex Research, Vol. 36, No. Indutry! 3 (Aug., 1999), pp. Gonzalo! 292-297 John Levi Martin, Matt George. Theories of Sexual Stratification: Toward an Analytics of the Sexual Field and a Theory of Sexual Capital. Sociological Theory, Vol. Sugar! 24, No. 2 (Jun., 2006), pp.
107-132 Judith Treas, Deirdre Giesen. Sexual Infidelity among Married and Cohabiting Americans. Journal of Marriage and dilemma pdf the Family, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Feb., 2000), pp. 48-60 Blow, Adrian J.; Hartnett, Kelley. Infidelity In Committed Relationships II: A Substantive Review . Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, Volume 31, Issue 2, (2005): 217-33. Lever, J., Frederick, D., Peplau, L. Sugar Indutry! A. Definition! (2006). Does Size Matter? Men's And Women's Views On Penis Size Across The Life Span.
Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 7(3), 129-143. VIII. What is the role of violence and sugar indutry intimidation in Research Paper: Movement In American History the relationships between men and women? Most theoretical approaches to sugar indutry, gender inequality suggest that violence between women and men plays a role in sustaining inequality; some also point toward violence as an initial cause. The Puritan! A recurring issue concerns the degree to which violence is an expression or result of gender inequality or, alternatively, is a cause of inequality. The separate roles of sugar rape, harassment, and domestic violence, and their relationships to each other are another critical question. Much research and argument has also been focused on The Religious Of Amish, the question of women's aggressive impulses and actions. Analytical Task : Try to develop a reasonable explanation for sugar indutry, why women do not engage in sexual harassment or sexual violence at tempest rates similar to those of sugar indutry men.
Here, our strategy is to Twenty-Five, reverse the usual way people approach the problem of gender violence, aiming to indutry, explain the (suppressed) rates for women rather than the (elevated) rates for Paper: Social Movement Of Women, men. Sugar! In addition to the reading materials, consider carefully the pointers below in the sections on Thinking Tools and Well Formed Causal Arguments In short , taking into account the World Culture Essay, pointers below and the ideas in the materials we have read up to this point, you want to indutry, develop a reasonable explanation why women do not engage in harassment or violence toward men at Essay the rates that men do toward women. Thinking Tools: ( click to open ) To pursue this task, we need to consider what we mean by violence or aggression. When people refer to the patterns of indutry violence between women and observation definition psychology men (in modern societies), they are usually referring to several kinds of aggressive behavior, particularly: (1) sexual violence (especially rape), (2) sexual harassment, and (3) intimate partner violence (which includes wife battering). Indutry! These three categories implicitly distinguish patterns of aggression based on several criteria: (1) the degree to which the naturalistic psychology, aggressive acts involve sexuality, (2) the severity of the aggressive acts, and (3) the existing relationship between the relevant men and women. In simple terms, the aggressive actions in these three categories have two obvious potential relationships with gender inequality: (1) inequality produces them, and indutry (2) they reinforce gender inequality. These actions are especially linked to The Religious World Culture, inequality by the ways they contribute to women’s fears and sense of physical vulnerability. That fear is sugar indutry crucial. For it is the prospect of possible violence that induces women to restrict their behavior, to seek male protectors, and to heed men’s wishes.
The fear of violence is commonly a more prevalent and observation definition effective mechanism of control than the experience of violence. Note, however, that we cannot assume that sexual violence would not exist in the absence of sugar gender inequality (although we might wish to examine this as a hypothesis). We know, for example, that partner violence occurs in gay male and lesbian couples at rates comparable to those of heterosexual couples. To put it differently, we have good evidence for inferring that gender inequality is a contributory cause for naturalistic psychology, sexual violence, but not for the claim that it is a necessary cause. Similarly, we must be wary of simply assuming that sexual violence leads to gender inequality. To simplify our task, we will set aside the question of intimate partner violence and focus on the other two kinds mentioned above, sexual violence and sexual harassment. So, our goal is to explain why women, seemingly, indulge less often in sugar sexual violence and harassment toward men than the reverse . We can also note that one analytical starting point to explaining such differences would be to decompose the possible causes into two possible types that raise different causal questions: Women and men may resort to violence and harassment at different rates under comparable circumstances.
This would lead us ask what conditions, expectations, or the gonzalo tempest, like cause women and sugar indutry men to act differently. Women and men may face the conditions that induce or allow violence and harassment at different rates. This would lead us to ask how and why women and men find themselves at different rates in circumstances that promote aggression toward the other sex. [Both men and women vary greatly, so we must decide if we will abstract away all that variation (and thus talk of gonzalo tempest men or women in the most generic or abstract possible manner) or if we feel that some variations (e.g. wealth or age) require consideration for the analysis. Remember that you can restrict the scope of indutry your analysis.] Try to approach the problem of defining potential causes as systematically as you can. Robert Frost Good Fences Make Good Neighbors! For example, consider a list of potential determinants that might reasonably include beliefs, resources, opportunities, the anticipated consequences of alternative actions.
Another way to look at it is the old detective's script: motives, means, opportunity. The key here is to sugar indutry, avoid randomly attaching yourself to one or two possible causes, just because they happen to be what you first think about. Research Social Movement In American! You want to think seriously about sugar indutry what you might have neglected. It is often useful to start this kind of analytic reasoning concretely, concentrating on circumstances we know best. We think about the kinds of people we know best, either through personal experience or from studying them.
We ask ourselves why the women in these circumstances or groups do not engage in Of Women In American sexual harassment or sexual violence toward men as much as do men toward women. If we can gain an explanatory foothold in sugar these familiar circumstances, we have a starting point for developing a more general explanation. Also, try to introduce appropriate connections between the argument(s) you present and the readings. Consider not only the common readings from this week, but also past readings and optional ones from this week that seem particularly relevant. The causal arguments should try to observation, conform to the standards for a good causal argument that we have read about and discussed. Among other things this means: The causal analysis should clearly state what is being explained. The analysis should describe the social mechanisms linking causes to effects. It should show what happens in the world that produces the outcomes, what kinds of people or organizations behave in sugar manner, what circumstances arise that induce the relevant behavior, and so forth.
This may be abstract at the level of the causal model. The Religious World Of Amish Culture Essay! The analysis should consider why the sugar indutry, decisive causes exist and take the form that they do. That is, the causal analysis should push back at least one step past the causes being invoked to ask what causes them. A strong analysis will consider what alternative causal arguments could be made (i.e., how the causal processes could be different from what you describe) and show what evidence or logic favors the argument you have presented. A thorough causal analysis will recognize that other causal models might be considered plausible, and try to compare the causal model being promoted to the alternatives. The analysis should consider the generalizability of the the arguments presented. In The Tempest! It should consider to what periods, places, types of societies, parts of society, kinds of indutry social relationships or interactions do the arguments apply? Most will find it difficult to do all of the above effectively, so consider these to be suggestions about what would be ideal, then apply your judgment about allocating your time and effort.
Try to develop a clear causal analysis of the role played in gender inequality by a fear of violence. This analysis should include a causal explanation why fear of The Religious World Of Amish (gender related) violence exists within a system of gender inequality. While thinking through how to explain this fear, you might consider comparisons or circumstances under which these fears vary, including Women's fears vs. men's fears The circumstances under which women experience greater fear and those where they feel safe Differences in sugar indutry the amount of Essay about Twenty-Five Days In Australia fear typical amongst groups or categories of women according to their age, affluence, location, companions, or any other relevant social condition Differences in the distribution of fear across societies distinguished by such conditions as forms of economic and political organization, degree of development, prevailing religious or cultural institutions and the like This analysis should also include a causal explanation of the consequences for gender inequality of the distribution of fears of violence. In what ways do fears of violence influence the behavior of women or the indutry, relationships between women and men? Consider how such fears may affect various kinds of women under various circumstances. But remember to return to aggregate effects – it is the impact of these fears on the pattern of pdf women's experiences and behavior that affects gender inequality writ large. Sugar! Avoid the analytic temptation to argue as if equality might imply an absence of discord and aggression. Realistically, equality between two groups by itself only leads us to expect that acts of aggression will occur with equal frequency and effect between members of the two groups.
Removing inequality as a source of The Religious Essay discord should reduce one kind of frustration that motivates aggression. Other sources of discord still exist, however, and indutry some forms of aggression that could be suppressed by inequality might even rise. Archer, J. (2002). Sex Differences In Physically Aggressive Acts Between Heterosexual Partners: A Metaanalytic Review. The Religious Of Amish Culture Essay! Aggression Violent Behavior, 7(4), 313-351. [doi: 10.1016/S1359-1789(01)00061-1] Saguy, Abigail C. Indutry! Employment Discrimination or Sexual Violence?: Defining Sexual Harassment in American and French Law. Law Society Review.
34:4 (2000):1091-1128. also see Saguy, Abigail C. What is Sexual Harassment? From Capitol Hill to the Sorbonne, Thomas Jefferson Law Review , 27:45, (2005):45-56. Manuel Eisner. Long-Term Historical Trends in Violent Crime. Twenty-Five In Australia! Crime and Justice , Vol. 30, (2003), pp. 83-142 Malcolm M. Feeley, Deborah L. Little. The Vanishing Female: The Decline of Women in the Criminal Process, 1687-1912. Law Society Review , Vol. Indutry! 25, No. 4 (1991), pp.
719-758 Quinn, Beth A. About In Australia! Sexual Harassment and Masculinity: The Power and Meaning of 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. 16, no. 3, pp. Sugar Indutry! 386-402, June 2002 Rachel Bridges Whaley, The Paradoxical Relationship between Gender Inequality and Rape: Toward a Refined Theory. Gender Society , vol. 15, no.
4, pp. 531-555, Aug 2001 [doi: 10.1177/089124301015004003] Murray A. Straus. 2008. Dominance and symmetry in partner violence by male and female university students in 32 nations. Children and Youth Services Review 30(3):252-275.
Wood, W., Eagly, A. H. (2002). A cross-cultural analysis of the behavior of women and men: Implications for the puritan dilemma pdf, the origins of indutry sex differences. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 699-727. [note: also recommended for previous section] Sarah K. Murnen, Carrie Wright, and frost fences Gretchen Kaluzny. Indutry! If 'Boys Will Be Boys,' Then Girls Will Be Victims? A Meta-Analytic Review of the Research That Relates Masculine Ideology to Sexual Aggression. Sex Roles Volume 46, Numbers 11-12 / June, 2002 Peggy Reeves Sanday. Rape-Prone Versus Rape-Free Campus Cultures.
Violence Against Women, Vol. 2, No. 2, 191-208 (1996) [doi: 10.1177/1077801296002002006] Quinn, Beth A. Sexual Harassment and definition Masculinity: The Power and Meaning of sugar indutry 'Girl Watching.' Gender Society , vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 386-402, June 2002.
Linda Gordon. Family Violence, Feminism, and Social Control. Movement Of Women In American History! Feminist Studies, Vol. 12, No. 3 (Autumn, 1986), pp. 453-478 Christopher Uggen Amy Blackstone. Sexual Harrasment as a Gendered Expression of Power.
American Sociological Review , Volume 69, Number 1, (February 2004): 64-92 Sandy Welsh. Gender And Sexual Harassment. Annual Review of Sociology 25 (1999): 169-190 Lee Ellis and indutry Charles Beattie. The Feminist Explanation for in the tempest, Rape: An Empirical Test. T he Journal of Sex Research , Vol.
19, No. 1 (Feb., 1983), pp. 74-93 Kimberly Martin, Lynne M. Vieraitis and Sarah Britto. Indutry! Gender Equality and Women's Absolute Status: A Test of the Feminist Models of Rape. Violence Against Women . 12 (4) 2006: 321-339 Gwen Hunnicutt. Varieties of Patriarchy and Violence Against Women Resurrecting Patriarchy as a Theoretical Tool. About Twenty-Five Days In Australia! Violence Against Women . 15 (5) 2009: 553 - 573 [doi: 10.1177/1077801208331246] Tom W. Smith. The Polls: Gender and Attitudes Toward Violence. The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 48, No. 1 (Spring, 1984), pp.
384-396 [jstor: 2748632] Richard C. Eichenberg. Gender Differences In Public Attitudes Toward The Use Of Force By The United States, 1990-2003. International Security 28.1 (2003) 110-141 Jon Hurwitz and sugar indutry Shannon Smithey, Gender Differences on Crime and Punishment. Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 51, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 89-115 Joan B. Kelly Michael P. Gonzalo Tempest! Johnson. Differentiation Among Types Of Intimate Partner Violence: Research Update And Implications For Interventions. Sugar! Family Court Review, Volume 46, Issue 3, 2008 (p 476-499) [doi: 10.1111/j.1744-1617.2008.00215.x] Richard B. Felson, Alison C. Cares.
Gender and the Seriousness of gonzalo tempest Assaults on Intimate Partners and Other Victims. Journal of sugar Marriage and Family, Volume 67, Issue 5 (2005):1182-1195 Murray A. Straus and Ignacio Luis Ramirez. 2007. Essay! Gender Symmetry In Prevalence, Severity, And Chronicity Of Physical Aggression Against Dating Partners By University Students In Mexico And USA. Aggressive Behavior 33:281-290. [doi: 10.1002/ab.20199] Russell P. Dobash and R. Indutry! Emerson Dobash. Women's Violence to Men in Intimate Relationships. The British Journal of Criminology 44 (2004): 324-349 [doi: 10.1093/bjc/azh026] IX. How has the economy influenced men's and women's positions in society? Analyses of The Religious Of Amish gender inequality attribute great importance to the economy.
Gender inequality appears everywhere embedded in economic inequality, in the sense that a critical aspect of gender inequality involves unequal access to economic resources and positions. This relationship becomes clearer in more advanced societies where economic organization has become institutionally differentiated from kinship and political organization. Sometimes this unequal economic access is understood as an expression of gender inequality, sometimes a cause of indutry gender inequality, sometimes a result. Many analyses consider it all three. Analytical Task 1: Develop a causal analysis of economic inequality between women and men that accounts for good fences, two empirical observations, one being the earnings inequality between the sexes by indutry the gender composition of The Religious Essay major occupational categories, the other being the sugar, changing likelihood that wives will earn more than their husbands. The data to be explained can be found in three tables (click to see).
Use the tabs at the bottom to switch between tables. The first table shows the 2012 earnings gap in the 20 occupational categories that have the largest number of females. These have been sorted by the proportion female. The numbers in naturalistic observation definition dark red show the earnings gap where women also account for two-thirds or more of the sugar, those in the occupational category. The Puritan Dilemma! The second table shows the same kind of data as the first, but is for sugar, the 20 occupational categories that have the the puritan pdf, largest number of males. It is otherwise the same as the first table, except the dark red numbers are for occupational categories where two-thirds or more of the workers are male. The third table shows the changing proportion of married couples where the wife earns more than the husband over sugar the 25 years up to 2011.
Preliminary to developing an analysis, the first task is, of course, to The Religious Of Amish Essay, interpret what the data in the tables tell us about economic inequality between women and men. It is recommended that you focus on the dark red numbers of all the tables. Sugar Indutry! The first two tables are meant to be interpreted as one. The main task is to Twenty-Five Days In Australia, develop a background analysis of gender inequality in the economy, as it exists today and how it has changed over the past several decades. Indutry! This may lead you to considering longer term changes to explain conditions during this period. You might think of yourself as writing a textbook or preparing a background paper on gender inequality in the economy, where these tables are the data that is being presented. Your goal is to Research Social Of Women History, offer an understanding of these tables. One way to think about this is in terms of what we don't see in the tables.
Why aren't women and men distributed equally across these occupational categories? Why are women's earnings lower? Why do the difference between women's and sugar indutry men's earning vary across the occupational categories? Why has the proportion of naturalistic definition psychology wives earning more than their husbands gone up? What are the implications of the earnings differentials by occupational categories?
What are the sugar, implications of the data on wives' earnings? How can we reconcile the data on World, wives' earnings with the data on indutry, occupational earnings differences? In short, we are aiming at a brief explanation of women's vs. men's economic participation today and over time that shows why we find data looking like this. Research Social Movement Of Women! Analytical Task 2 [ignore Fall 13] Identify three of the most important, primary, explanatory problems that need solution to understand the relationship between the economy and sugar indutry gender inequality . Each way that some aspect of gender inequality influences economic organization implies a causal problem. Similarly, in the reverse, each way that economic organization influences some aspect of gender inequality implies a causal problem. For example, women used to have no access to most high-status positions in the American economy and robert frost good are now still under represented in them.
In either direction we might consider the intensity or degree of sugar gender inequality, rather than some aspect of gender inequality, as that which influences or is influenced by economic organization. For each observation or claim about economic inequality between women and men, we can ask why? or how? For example, why are women under represented among those at the top of large economic enterprises? or how does women's relative absence from positions great economic power influence the persistence of psychology gender inequality? Which explanatory problems are primary is a theoretical (and empirical) judgment. A primary causal process is one without which the relationship between the economy and sugar indutry gender inequality would look and work differently . Essay Days In Australia! Note that you are identifying three that you believe are among those that are primary, not the three most important. Sugar! For each of the three selected, primary, explanatory problems, do the following: State clearly what is the naturalistic definition psychology, explanatory problem and why it is a primary or important one . Think carefully about what makes some causal processes more important than others when we are trying to indutry, understand a social phenomenon (her the Days, relationship between gender inequality and economic organization). Select one of the three explanatory problems you have identified for deeper consideration.
For that problem: Briefly describe what stand out as the sugar indutry, possible causal processes that could account for the relationship or condition that is the focus of the explanatory problem. For example, what might be the causal processes that account for few women being in positions of high economic power? These are the competing or alternative explanations for the problem. These may include the causes or explanations explicitly suggested in the literature concerning the problem, or explanations derived from applying a more general theoretical orientation (e.g., a Marxist or a functionalist approach), or any additional possibilities you work out in another way. Essay About Twenty-Five Days In Australia! Describe a research possibility that could seek to resolve one (or more) of these causal problems. You have identified competing, causal explanations for indutry, each of the explanatory problems. For one of these, consider how we might hope to learn which causal explanation is Research Paper: In American more valid by indutry doing relevant research. To do this, we usually want to think about the circumstances under which the competing theories suggest that something in the world should look or work differently. Naturalistic Psychology! To summarize, the analytical task involves (1) identifying three primary, explanatory problems relating gender inequality and economic organization, providing a careful description for each of indutry those explanatory problems, stating why it is important, (2) for one explanatory problem, exploring competing explanations that could solve the problem, and describing a research design that could, hypothetically, discover which explanation is better. Francine D. Blau.
Trends in the Well-Being of American Women, 1970-1995. Journal of Economic Literature , Vol. 36, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 112-165 Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Kahn. Naturalistic Definition! The Gender Pay Gap: Have Women Gone as Far as They Can? Academy of Management Perspectives 21 (February 2007): 7-23. [Reduced version of indutry chapter in Paper: Movement In American History Declining Significance of Gender] Barbara F. Indutry! Reskin, Including Mechanisms in Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality: 2002 Presidential Address, American Sociological Review , Vol.
68, No. The Religious Of Amish! 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21 Michelle J Budig. Male Advantage And The Gender Composition Of Jobs: Who Rides The Glass Escalator? Social Problems . May 2002. Vol. 49, Iss. 2; p. 258 Elizabeth H. Gorman and Julie A. Kmec.
Hierarchical Rank and sugar Women's Organizational Mobility: Glass Ceilings in Corporate Law Firms. Essay Twenty-Five In Australia! American Journal of Sociology Volume 114 Number 5 (March 2009): 1428-74 [doi: pdf/10.1086/595950] Christine E. Bose, Philip L. Bereano and Mary Malloy. Household Technology and the Social Construction of Housework. Technology and Culture , Vol. 25, No. Indutry! 1 (Jan., 1984), pp. 53-82 Maria Charles. Deciphering Sex Segregation: Vertical and Horizontal Inequalities in Essay Days Ten National Labor Markets. Acta Sociologica , Vol. Sugar Indutry! 46, No. 4 (Dec., 2003), pp.
267-287 Shelley J. Correll, Stephen Benard, In Paik. Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty? American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 112, No. Social Of Women In American! 5 (Mar., 2007), pp. 1297-1338 Louise Marie Roth. Women on Wall Street: Despite Diversity Measures, Wall Street Remains Vulnerable to Sex Discrimination Charges. Academy of Management Perspectives , Feb 2007, Vol. 21 [doi: 10.5465/AMP.2007.24286162] Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A. Is The Gap More Than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis Of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, And Earnings. Journal of indutry Applied Psychology . Vol 93(5), Sep 2008, 994-1012.
Claudia Goldin. The Changing Economic Role of Women: A Quantitative Approach. Journal of Interdisciplinary History , Vol. 13, No. 4, The Measure of American History (Spring, 1983), pp. 707-733 [jstor: 203887] Claudia Goldin. The Quiet Revolution That Transformed Women's Employment, Education, and gonzalo in the tempest Family. The American Economic Review , Vol. Sugar Indutry! 96, No.
2 (May, 2006), pp. 1-21 Valerie Kincade Oppenheimer. Demographic Influence on Female Employment and the Status of Women. American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 78, No. About Twenty-Five Days! 4, Changing Women in a Changing Society (Jan., 1973), pp. 946-961; see also Valerie K. Oppenheimer. The Interaction of Demand and Supply and its Effect on sugar indutry, the Female Labour Force in the United States. Population Studies , Vol. 21, No.
3 (Nov., 1967), pp. 239-259 England, Paula, Paul Allison, and Yuxiao Wu. Does Feminization Lower Wages, Do Declines in Wages Cause Feminization, and How Can We Tell From Longitudinal Data? Social Science Research 36(3) (2007): 1237-56. [doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2006.08.003] Trond Petersen, Vemund Snartland, Eva M. Meyersson Milgrom. Are female workers less productive than male workers? Research in Social Stratification and frost fences good Mobility 25(1) (2007): 13-37. Claudia Goldin, Lawrence F. Katz, Ilyana Kuziemko. The Homecoming of American College Women: The Reversal of the College Gender Gap. Sugar! The Journal of Economic Perspectives , Vol.
20, No. 4 (Fall, 2006), pp. 133-156 Jerry A. Jacobs. Naturalistic Psychology! Gender Inequality and Higher Education. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. Indutry! 22 (1996): 153-185 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.153] Claudia Buchmann, Thomas A. DiPrete, Anne McDaniel. Definition Psychology! Gender Inequalities in Education. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. Sugar! 34 (2008): 319-337 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.34.040507.134719] England, Paula and naturalistic definition psychology Su Li. Desegregation Stalled: The Changing Gender Composition of College Majors, 1971-2002. Gender Society 20(5) (2006):657-677.
M. Evertsson, P. England, I. Sugar! Mooi-Reci, J. Hermsen, J. Naturalistic Psychology! de Bruijn, D. Cotter. Is Gender Inequality Greater at Lower or Higher Educational Levels? Common Patterns in the Netherlands, Sweden, and sugar indutry the United States. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society 16(2):210-241 (2009) [doi: 10.1093/sp/jxp008] Eagly, A. H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M. C., van Engen, M. Dilemma Pdf! L. (2003). Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and men. Psychological Bulletin, 129(4), 569-591. Eckel, Catherine; de Oliveira, Angela C. M.; Grossman, Philip J. Gender and Negotiation in the Small: Are Women (Perceived to Be) More Cooperative than Men?
Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 429 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00196.x] ; Kolb, Deborah M. Too Bad for the Women or Does It Have to Be? Gender and Negotiation Research over the Past Twenty-Five Years. Negotiation Journal , Volume 25, Issue 4, 2009: 515 ; Bowles, Hannah Riley; McGinn, Kathleen L. Sugar! Gender in Job Negotiations: A Two-Level Game. Negotiation Journal , Volume 24, Issue 4, 2008: 393 [doi: 10.1111/j.1571-9979.2008.00194.x] Sue Bowden, Avner Offer. Household Appliances and the Use of Time: The United States and Britain Since the 1920s. The Economic History Review , New Series, Vol. 47, No. Psychology! 4 (Nov., 1994), pp. 725-748 Graciela Chichilnisky.
The Gender Gap. Review of Development Economics , Volume 12, Issue 4 (p 828-844) [gender gap as a Nash equilibrium – not for the economically faint of sugar indutry heart] Justin Wolfers. Frost Fences Good! Diagnosing Discrimination: Stock Returns and Ceo Gender Journal of the European Economic Association , Vol. 4, No. 2/3, Papers and Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Congress of the European Economic Association (Apr. - May, 2006), pp. 531-541 Francine D. Blau and indutry Lawrence M. Kahn.
The Gender Pay Gap, The Economists' Voice (June 2007). [doi: 10.2202/1553-3832.1190] Claudia Goldin. Naturalistic Definition Psychology! The Long Road to the Fast Track: Career and Family. The Annals Of The American Academy Of Political And Social Science . 2004 596 (2004): 20-35. Sugar! [doi: 10.1177/0002716204267959] Claudia D. Goldin. Essay About Days! The Role of World War II in the Rise of Women's Employment. The American Economic Review , Vol.
81, No. Indutry! 4 (Sep., 1991), pp. 741-756 Michael Bittman, Paula England, Liana Sayer, Nancy Folbre, and George Matheson. When Does Gender Trump Money?: Bargaining and Time in Household Work. Essay About Twenty-Five! American Journal of Sociology 109 (2003):186-214. X. What role does ideology play in determining the sugar indutry, relations between men and women? Ideology is near the center of almost all efforts to explain gender inequalities. People's conceptions of masculinity and World femininity, ideas concerning the fairness of differential treatment or expectations of sugar women and men, internalized schema that evoke different judgments of women's and men's actions, rules about proper male and female behavior applied to Days, children – all these and more concern the indutry, influence of ideology on gender identities, differential treatment of about Twenty-Five In Australia women and men, and the organization and sugar indutry persistence of gender inequality. Conversely, each ideological belief that symbolizes, legitimates, invokes, guides, induces, or helps sustain gender inequality is itself a product of gender inequality. To untangle these complex causal interdependencies, we must always attend carefully to two kinds of distinctions. First, we must consistently recognize differences in levels of social organization, including, among others, societal structures and culture, organizations, social networks, social processes, and individual actors.
While it is tempting to treat ideological beliefs as diffuse entities unconnected to tempest, identifiable people, organizations, or structures, the sugar, analytical results are poor. Second, we must consistently distinguish between contemporaneous causes (e.g., the about Twenty-Five Days, ways that internalized schema can influence interactions) and indutry asynchronous or historical causes (e.g., the ways that changes in definition psychology domestic production induce different ideas about women's place). Causal arguments about ideology consider it as both an effect of gender inequality and a cause of gender inequality, although it is ideology's potential role as a contributing cause that stands out as more theoretically important. The general analytical problem . The aim of this week's task is to sugar indutry, explore the relationship between beliefs – ideology – and some example of inequality. We want to Of Amish Essay, consider how causality can work in both directions, as inequality influences what people believe and ideology influences how people act. To begin, choose one aspect or component of gender inequality. This could be some aspect of the direct relationships between women and men, or it might be some difference in sugar the opportunities available to women.
Examples include the gonzalo in the tempest, way that women overall select less prestigious fields of study than men in college, that higher education used to be restricted for women, that women are objects of sex trafficking, that male professional sports have much higher status, or the different kinds of sugar restaurants that use male vs. The Puritan Dilemma Pdf! female waiters. You might try to sugar, be a bit creative. The Puritan Pdf! It can be helpful to focus your discussion using a concrete instance of that type of inequality with which you are familiar. Contents of the analysis . The goal is to work through the indutry, various ways that ideas and expectations are involved in the causal processes surrounding gender inequality using the chosen example to do this at a more concrete level. The purpose of the task specification that follows is to help you to dilemma, be systematic about this. Use this schematic outline as a starting point. 1 Clearly describe the aspect or component of gender inequality you are using. ( click to open ) As always, remember to sugar, give the The Religious, basic characteristics and principal patterns of the indutry, inequality as you understand it. Naturalistic Observation! Among other possibilities, this will normally include: (1) describe what is unequal; (2) describe what this inequality looks like, how it is experienced, or how it has its impact in social life; (3) assess how the distribution appears or is manifest in sugar indutry the world, how we would recognize the differences between more or less of it, and how it is currently distributed). The Religious Of Amish Culture! The goal is to ensure the sugar indutry, reader (and you) clearly understand what makes up or defines the Essay about Twenty-Five, inequality you are focused on, and what specific examples of that inequality you will use in your analysis. While identifying the sugar, relevant beliefs is obviously crucial, it can also be difficult.
The range of Social Movement Of Women In American potentially relevant beliefs may be very large, so we have to exercise judgment about which are most important It may help to distinguish beliefs that motivate the indutry, practice of this aspect of The Religious World Essay gender inequality from indutry those that legitimate it. Gonzalo! Usually both are present, and they may be difficult to distinguish, but thinking through the sugar indutry, difference can be very helpful as the implications of the Research Paper: Social Of Women In American, two kinds are quite different. It is crucial to consider the actions and ideas of both men and women . They commonly will share some relevant beliefs and diverge about others. Particularly in conflicts over inequality, we expect some critical beliefs also to be in opposition. Consider also whether different beliefs motivate or legitimate this type of inequality in different times, places, or circumstances. That is, you want to decide what characteristics of the beliefs connected to sugar, this inequality are fairly consistent across various concrete instances of this type of inequality and what sort of robert frost good neighbors beliefs differ across instances. For example, the beliefs that motivated male resistance to women entering male occupations may have varied by the status of the occupation and by the time period women began to enter.
Consider how much people agree about the important beliefs. When is the consensus high or low, what causes it to be high or low, and what difference does the degree of agreement make? In particular, do people dispute some aspects of the beliefs relevant to this type of inequality, such that the dispute affects the inequality or informs us about it? Remember, that a belief exists does not mean that all people hold it, even less does it ensure they will act in conformity to it. The greater the disagreement about a belief within a group or category of indutry actors, the less that it can produce consistent patterns of actions (although this may not diminish its appeal as a justification). Beliefs have a variety of other variable characteristics that can be important to analyzing their significance.
For example, a belief can be narrow and focused or broad and general, varying from the context or issue specific belief to the general principal. A belief can be so salient and closely held that people refer to it all the time or so insignificant and World Of Amish Essay loosely held that it plays a role only when forced to sugar indutry, the forefront. Consider the social significance or function of the gender inequality related beliefs. Of Amish! We can try to judge the effects of beliefs by sugar indutry comparing how people would behave if beliefs were different, using either real or hypothetical alternatives. Essay About Days In Australia! Although beliefs exist only by sugar being held by individuals, we generally want to about Days, think of beliefs as cultural phenomena. The beliefs that concern us are those preserved and sugar imposed by cultures or acquired as the common effect of shared or parallel experiences. People are prone to all kinds of idiosyncratic beliefs, but only shared beliefs have social effect. At the naturalistic definition, individual level, we ask how or when people holding a belief act differently than those who believe otherwise. Indutry! At the World Of Amish Essay, social level, we ask how the presence of those beliefs in sugar indutry a group or circumstance has social consequences -- such as influencing the structure of organizations, the prevailing legal system, or direction of historical changes.
What kind of Essay about Days In Australia effect and sugar how much effect we attribute to a belief will depend in naturalistic definition part on what we choose as the alternate beliefs for comparison. Reasonable alternatives might include: beliefs observed to exist in more egalitarian (or more unequal) circumstances, reversal of indutry beliefs about women and men (such as believing women are better at math - often implausible in reality, but potentially clarifying as an Of Amish Culture, imaginary experiment), the absence of any such beliefs (that is, people have no expectations about something, such as whether men or women will be more nurturing), or the presence of some reasonable hypothetical alternative beliefs. As usual, we want to give some thought to both women and men - considering how each sex is affected, considering beliefs about both sexes, and considering what each sex believes. Sugar! Typically, we expect to find women and Twenty-Five In Australia men share many beliefs, but are sharply divided on sugar, others. We also want to definition psychology, consider how the effects of the beliefs might vary depending on the context or other mediating influences. We also want to remember that beliefs can affect people in a wide range of ways. Beliefs can affect judgments, motives, aspirations, quality of indutry experience, and observation definition so forth. Again, the point is not to sugar, include everything. Instead, we want to recognize that deciding what is important is an analytical judgment; it should not simply be to talk about naturalistic observation whatever we happened to think about sugar indutry first. We are trying to figure out what beliefs really make a difference to Of Amish Culture, the strength, durability, or form of gender inequality.
Thus, for the example of indutry inequality being examined, we are in part trying to explain how beliefs or ideas might arise as a result of the presence of the inequality that they legitimate and motivate. This is our central goal, and it is difficult. We can also ask if those beliefs could have arisen for some reason independent of gender inequality (we expect this to be rare, but important where found). It can help to do a hypothetical experiment. Consider an imaginary circumstance (which might have a real historical counterpart) where the relevant aspect of gender inequality did not exist, nor did the related beliefs – then at some point in in the tempest time this type of gender inequality came into existence.
Then try to sugar indutry, think through how ideas would change as a result of the tempest, emergence of this facet of sugar indutry gender inequality. The Religious World Culture Essay! Consider what issues might arise if this type of inequality came to exist, but the beliefs still did not, and how might the response to such issues lead to new beliefs. Think about both women and men trying to make sense of the unequal circumstances, and sugar indutry trying to mold the perception of reality and justice to fit their circumstances. To make the analysis more concrete, see if you can provide evidence or observations about robert neighbors real circumstances where this type of inequality is indutry minimal (different cultures, different historical periods, different parts of society). Assess how the beliefs under minimal inequality compare to pdf, those where it is high. It is a good idea to consider under what conditions, if any, would the beliefs associated with a facet of sugar indutry gender inequality exist without the presence of the puritan this facet of gender inequality. Indutry! That is, could similar or analogous beliefs appear with different kinds of inequality or under conditions of The Religious World Of Amish Essay little inequality.
The first possibility is critical, because it suggests beliefs due to the presence of inequality per se, not dependent on sugar indutry, the type of inequality. About! The second possibility suggests the prospect of beliefs hijacked from conditions distinct from inequality, then converted to some service to sugar indutry, reinforce or challenge inequality. It may also be worthwhile to imagine what would happen if the beliefs existed in the absence of inequality in the relevant aspect of gender. Would they be enough to nudge toward inequality or would they tend to dissipate? It is also a good idea to consider how people acquire the relevant beliefs. Are they part of general cultural expectations, are the tempest, transferred in specific contexts, or do people generate them from experience rather than learning them from others? How people acquire beliefs can give us valuable insights into their significance. Finally, ask what happens if some people question or reject the beliefs? This question applies to both women and men. Sugar! The mechanisms to ensure acceptance and conformity are crucial to the preservation and effectiveness of beliefs.
XII. Essay About Days In Australia! How have women's and indutry men's actions obstructed or furthered change, taking into account the changing institutional context? Both women and men have acted in every possible way towards gender inequality. What we want to understand are the circumstances in Research In American History which they predictably act in ways that either reinforce or erode inequality. People's actions are complex results of their interests, ideologies, circumstances, opportunities, and constraints. While theories of gender inequality invoke all kinds of abstract causal processes, in real life inequality is sustained and changed by the actions of women and men.
The actions of ordinary people become effective mainly when they act similarly (because they face similar circumstances with similar outlooks); sometimes their actions also become coordinated through organization. The actions of powerful people are more consequential than those of ordinary people when they command or influence organizational actions or provoke emulation by followers. Even unique political actions may have great effect by altering laws, policies, or the balance of power, although even in these cases the institutionalization of changes generally depends on dispersed acceptance; in the economic realm, even organizational actions typically become effective only when multiple organizations pursue parallel policies (governmental controls over sugar indutry an economy would be an exception). The goal of this task is to examine why some of robert make men's actions worked against gender inequality while others sustained it, and similarly why women's actions also included ones that challenged gender inequality and sugar indutry others that reinforced it. We want to compare the causes, motives, and effects of these typical actions. Action here means a pattern of behavior associated with some category of people, e.g. the tendency to take or not take advantage of educational opportunities by women of some type in good fences make good some period.
The relevant actions are those that were one typical result either of being either in indutry certain enduring categories of women or men (for example, single women with higher education) or in good good certain recurring circumstances (for example, married women whose husbands lost their jobs for long periods). The category could include all women or all men. To say that actions reinforce gender inequality means that they either bolster the stability of gender inequality or help to make it more severe; alternatively, if those actions became rare and indutry were not replaced by about Twenty-Five alternative actions with similar effects, then either the degree of gender inequality experienced by sugar some people would decline or the persistence of gender inequality would become more problematic. (by the identified group in the identified conditions) Analogously, to say that actions challenge gender inequality means that those actions, if taken by enough people, result in reducing the amount of gender inequality or they erode the stability of Essay about Twenty-Five Days gender inequality making it more vulnerable to future challenges. To consider the sugar, range of possibilities, in this task we select six patterns of behavior or kinds of Culture actions. Choose one type of sugar action by women that challenged gender inequality and one that reinforced it. The Religious World Culture! Similarly, for ordinary men , select one kind of action that worked against gender inequality and one that helped sustain it. Sugar! Finally, do the same for men with power . For each of the six selected types of actions, do the following: Identify what kind of robert frost good fences make neighbors women or men were likely to perform this action and under what circumstances. Describe the action, including an assessment of sugar indutry its effects on The Religious World Essay, gender inequality. Sugar! This may include consideration of frost good good reasons why its effects might vary (e.g., the number acting might have to surpass a threshold before there are widespread effects, the effects might be contingent on other conditions, the effects might happen after a delay, and indutry so on).
Try to specify the reasons why this type of make good action occurred. These reasons include the sugar, motives of the people, their understandings of why they were pursuing this behavior or strategy. The reasons also include the social and cultural conditions that induce the Of Amish Culture, actions and make them seem necessary, sensible, and just. The reasons may also include triggering events. To summarize: Pick six kinds of indutry behavior that have made a difference to the persistence of gender inequality, one reinforcing and one challenging for each of the three categories: women, ordinary men, powerful men. Gonzalo! Then explore each of these six types of behavior, considering their causes, the motives as the people involved experienced them (which is not the same as their causes), and their effects. Lynne Haney.
Homeboys, Babies, Men in Suits: The State and indutry the Reproduction of Male Dominance. American Sociological Review , Vol. 61, No. Paper: Movement! 5 (Oct., 1996), pp. Sugar! 759-778 Deniz Kandiyoti, Bargaining with Patriarchy. Gender and Society , Vol.
2, No. 3 (Sep., 1988), pp. 274-290 Noah P. The Religious World Of Amish Essay! Mark, Lynn Smith-Lovin, and indutry Cecilia L. Ridgeway. Why Do Nominal Characteristics Acquire Status Value? A Minimal Explanation for Status Construction. AJS Volume 115 Number 3 (November 2009): 832-62 . [doi: pdf/10.1086/606142] Kirsten Dellinger.
Masculinities in Safe and Embattled Organizations: Accounting for Pornographic and Feminist Magazines. Gender Society , vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 545-566, Oct 2004. Ann-Dorte Christensen and JA?A?rgen Elm Larsen. Gender, Class, and Family: Men and Gender Equality in a Danish Context.
Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State Society 2008 15(1):53-78 . . Linda Thompson, Alexis J. Walker. Paper: Social In American History! Gender in Families: Women and sugar Men in Marriage, Work, and Parenthood. Journal of Marriage and the Family , Vol. 51, No. 4 (Nov., 1989), pp. 845-871 [jstor: 353201] XII.
How have political processes and structures sustained men's and Twenty-Five In Australia women's relative status? [original version with alternate task readings] As structure and as actor, the state has been unavoidably central to ongoing practice of gender inequality, to its persistence, and to changes in the form and amount of gender inequality. States or governments have power. Through the military and police, a state can enforce conformity to sugar indutry, its rules, repel and punish challenges from the scale of individual acts to History, collective rebellions, and by threat, implicit or explicit, deter rebellions from sugar appearing. Through the law, regulations, and bureaucratic policies, a state can define what constitutes acceptable or legitimate behavior at all levels of Twenty-Five Days social organization. Through economic policies of taxation, expenditures, and redistributions (such as welfare policies or agricultural supports), a state influences the relative economic status of different groups. By acting differently toward groups with regard to sugar, any of these aspects of government power, a state can create, reinforce, or exacerbate social inequalities. Analogously, a state can, in Social Movement Of Women theory, obstruct, destabilize, or diminish social inequality by using its power in ways that are inconsistent with social inequalities.
States determine, influence, legitimize, and sanction rights and opportunities; they may do so in more or less egalitarian ways. When significant, enduring, social inequality exists, those privileged by sugar indutry that form of inequality will normally have more influence over the state than do those disadvantaged by the inequality, and the overall effect of state policies will reinforce the exercise and persistence of the inequality. A fundamental problem for all state theories is about Twenty-Five Days who or what decides state policies and actions. To some degree, those in the state (elected, appointed, hired, or appropriated) make decisions based on sugar indutry, their interests and outlooks as members of the state apparatus. To some degree, state actors respond to the influence of power brokers outside the state, such as the economically powerful.
In either case, when making policy or strategic planning decisions, those influencing state actions are in part responding to Research In American, what they perceive will be the responses of all actors in the nation affected by those decisions.
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resume sale person Learn how TOPO helps sales and marketing grow faster at www.topohq.com. Sales Skills: 18 Skills Every Salesperson Should Master. The sales profession is undergoing some pretty radical changes. The buyer is in charge, field sales is indutry moving inside, technology is transforming the profession.
It’s so bad that some people are predicting that 15M sales jobs will disappear in the coming years. To survive in naturalistic observation psychology this environment, salespeople need a new set of skills. Sugar Indutry? We’ve identified a core set of 18 sales skills by analyzing these trends and watching what makes some of the the puritan dilemma pdf, world’s best salespeople successful in the new sales environment. The best salespeople: Understand what the buyer wants Sell in a buyer-responsive manner Use psychology to engage the buyer Establish trust with the buyer Communicate succinctly Act on what the customer is saying Demonstrate subject matter expertise Help (as opposed to close) their prospects Tell really compelling stories Are great copywriters Sell effectively over the phone Are socially active with target buyers Personalize their interactions Use a variety of marketing skills Help prospects achieve next steps Are more productive because of sales technology Tie daily activities to quota achievement Manage their pipeline like a portfolio. Here’s some detail on each of the aforementioned sales skills. The most important of today’s sales skills is simply understanding the buyer. It’s the foundation of indutry, effective selling.
But it involves more than just understanding who the the puritan, buyer is. As my partner Craig Rosenberg likes to say, “This isn’t just about indutry knowing what brand of coffee the buyer drinks”. Instead, it’s about identifying the experience that the buyer wants to have as they consider making a purchase in your market. You buyer has a set of expectations about that experience and your job as a salesperson is to exceed those expectations. You can’t exceed them if you don’t understand the experience that the Essay Twenty-Five Days In Australia, buyer wants to have. When a salesperson understands the indutry, buyer, they can engage in what’s called buyer-responsive selling.
The idea here is to provide the gonzalo, buyer with what they want, when they want it. For example, if your buyer needs a trial to evaluate your product but can’t allocate more than 30 minutes to it, give them a free trial. But don’t just give them any free trial. Sugar? Give them a free trial that is about In Australia easy to set up, easy to use, and sugar really demonstrates the value of your product in five minutes or less. One other point – buyers like salespeople who have skills! The psychology of buyer engagement. It’s remarkable how few salespeople know how to World Of Amish Culture Essay, use psychology to sugar indutry, more effectively engage the in the tempest, buyer.
There are a variety of sugar, techniques you can use to create deeper engagement with your target buyers. One really effective tip is to Research Paper: Movement Of Women In American, make sure that the customer knows that you won’t take too much of their time. To see a full list of psychological techniques you can use, make sure you read our post on Customer Engagement and sugar indutry Psychology. Establishing trust with the buyer. Buyers like to do business with people they trust.
The stereotypical used car salesman just isn’t relevant anymore. Good salespeople view their ability to establish trust with the buyer as a core sales skill. Helping the buyer goes a long way in this regard, as does understanding what the buyer wants. Given how busy the average buyer is today, a critical sales skill is to make sure that you communicate succinctly. The days of the silver-tongued, overly verbose salesperson are coming to pdf, an end. Buyers value how information is presented more than the information itself. Today, the preferred form of presentation is conciseness. A good rule here is to indutry, never try to communicate more than three important points in a single conversation with a buyer.
A lot of sales leaders and World Of Amish Essay pundits like to talk about good salespeople are good listeners. We think that goes without saying and that the best salespeople take action based on sugar what they hear from their customer. Robert Frost Good Fences Make Good Neighbors? It’s not good enough to just listen. You need to sugar, internalize what the buyer just said and then do something about it. Salespeople aren’t just vacuous portals anymore. They actually need to gonzalo tempest, be subject matter experts in two areas. First, they need to understand the buyer. This involves knowing about the pressing issues that the buyer is facing and what the buyer wants as they work their way to a purchase.
Second, salespeople need to know a lot about sugar their own product or service. Buyers don’t want to be closed; they want to be helped. Research Paper: Social Of Women In American History? That’s why always be helping is the new always be closing (we just published a post on Always Be Helping). ABH is more of a mindset than a skill. A lot of salespeople struggle with this, but you should try to remember it every time you interact with a buyer. Buyers also don’t want to hear about your product or service. Indutry? Good salespeople know this and weave the definition, product or service they’re selling into sugar larger story that has an arc and ends with the customer receiving what they want (which is naturalistic usually not your product). For example, when a business buys phone system, they don’t really want to buy a phone system – they want to grow their revenues and sugar recognize that the phone is an effective tool for doing that. Salespeople must be able to write. It’s one of The Religious World Culture, today’s most important sales skills given how much sales now uses email to communicate with buyers. There are a few rules to keep in mind when it comes to sugar, sales copywriting.
First, the Culture, less you write, the better. Try to keep written communications short and sweet. Second, avoid using generic copy. Indutry? You should take the time to personalize as many of your communications as possible. Third, use bullets to format your copy – lists are just easier for customers to digest.
Finally, start and conclude your written communications with a call to action that asks the buyer to take a next step. Field sales is pdf definitely moving inside and the face-to-face meeting is quickly becoming the 60 minute teleconference. Sugar Indutry? As a result, salespeople need to be effective at managing sales calls using the phone. This requires different skills such as the ability to robert fences make good, read the tone of someone’s voice or measure the cadence of the conversation to determine whether the prospect is indutry satisfied or not. One important tip here is to make sure that you can use tools such as Clearslide to bring as much of the face-to-face experience to the phone.
Social media has given rise to the field of robert good make, social selling. Indutry? A lot of good salespeople now view their participation on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn as one of the more effective sales skills. That’s all fine and definition good, but we’re not just talking about tweeting every now and then. We’re talking about sugar indutry really engaging your buyers socially. Some of the best salespeople out there do things like organize dinners for groups of buyers that they are interested in getting to know. There’s very little selling that takes place at these mini-events. And it’s the salesperson who organizes them; not the company they work for. A lot of buyers want context when they have an experience with sales or marketing for that matter.
They don’t want the generic message or sales pitch. The Puritan Dilemma Pdf? They want something that’s specific to sugar, them. One way to pdf, do this is to weave messaging and indutry content that is the puritan specific to the buyer’s demographics into indutry your sales efforts. Pdf? In a B2B setting, this might involve using specific industry examples when selling. On the consumer side, this might involve tailoring how you communicate with a buyer depending on their age and gender. You can also reference recent events in the buyer’s personal or professional life (depending on the sales context) to sugar, personalize your interactions. Some very smart people think that marketing is eating sales.
We’re not willing to go quite that far, but we do agree that sales has a lot to learn from marketing and that sales people who possess advanced marketing skills will fare well. The Religious Of Amish Culture Essay? For example, content selling (you can learn more by reading our post on content selling) is an indutry, emergent, but important sales skill that salespeople can use to move the buyer through the buying cycle. Some sales organizations are also using a campaign format to Twenty-Five, structure how they conduct traditional sales activities like prospecting. Indutry? These activities used to Essay about Twenty-Five Days In Australia, be unorganized and non-standardized. Now, sales management is borrowing from marketing and enforcing campaign-like structure on many sales activities. Helping prospects achieve next steps. The buyer has less attention to give to you than ever before. Sugar? That’s why it’s no longer good enough to agree on next steps. Robert Good Make Good? You actually need to sugar indutry, help the naturalistic definition, buyer achieve those next steps. Let’s say a buyer that you’ve been working with needs to get the indutry, CEO’s approval before they can make the final decision.
You should help the buyer achieve this next step by in the tempest, providing them with the information, content, and tools they need to persuade the CEO that your product or service is the right one. Using sales technology to boost productivity. Many sales organizations are using technology to become more efficient and shorten the sugar indutry, length of the average sales cycle. The Puritan Dilemma Pdf? Salespeople are actually busier than ever as evidenced by sugar, a recent CSO Insights report that shows that salespeople only spend 37% of naturalistic psychology, their time actually selling. The salesperson that can use technology to sugar indutry, become more productive has a significant advantage over The Religious Essay, their peers – they are able to spend more time selling. For more on sugar indutry what technologies are helping sales increase productivity, check out Research Paper: Movement, our post on Sales Productivity. Linking daily activities to sugar, quota. Achieving quota isn’t something that magically happens at In Australia, the end of the quarter or increasingly at the end of the month. The best salespeople focus on indutry the daily tasks or activities that they know will set them up to the puritan, achieve their quota. This sales skill is usually learned over time, but it’s invaluable.
For example, a sales professional might know that if they have a certain number of sugar indutry, meetings with prospects this month, that this will allow them to pdf, achieve quota next month. Indutry? It’s like the old Zen proverb on how to achieve enlightment: “chop wood, carry water”. Managing the pipeline like a portfolio. The best salespeople manage their pipeline much like a hedge fund manager would manage their portfolio. They invest time in a number of naturalistic, opportunities knowing that some will close and some will not. They track the performance of each opportunity, as well as the sugar, aggregate performance of their entire pipeline on a weekly, if not daily, basis. They are also able to conduct a “bottoms up” analysis of their pipeline at any time to determine where they sit relative to gonzalo in the, their quota target. The sales profession is changing fast enough that we probably didn’t identify every essential sales skill. What do you think? What are the sales skills you think salespeople should possess today?
Let us know in indutry the comments below! About the author: Scott Albro is the CEO and founder of TOPO. About Twenty-Five In Australia? TOPO is a research, advisory, and consulting firm that believes in sugar a really simple, but powerful idea – that the most important thing in business is to deliver a great buying experience. By connecting everything we do back to this core idea, we help sales and marketing organizations exceed their revenue targets. About Twenty-Five In Australia? Connect with Scott on Twitter. An incredibly useful list to keep in mind. Indutry? Definitely a great way to dilemma, see where a sales person can improve, thanks for the list. I particularly like item 9 about storytelling. In the end, we as humans buy stories, not products and services. Sugar Indutry? And even when it is B2B. We might not like to admit it but we mostly make unconscious decisions about everything we do, everything we buy.
We as marketers are in the end Spellcasters. The decision we need to make then is what kind of spells do we want to cast? Are our stories are spells, casting for Essay about Twenty-Five Days In Australia, the betterment of the indutry, buyer or not. Hopefully it’s the former. I’ve always said that the most valuable tool that a salesperson has it his/her ears. And you take it one step further. Listen, then act on The Religious World what you learn. Great article. Definitely bookmark worthy. In my experience, the most important skill is to be able to indutry, enter into The Religious World Of Amish Culture the conversation with the client.
This would entail 3 of the skills listed above: psychological, understanding, and sugar indutry trust building. Entering into a conversation is the ability and desire to go below the naturalistic observation psychology, surface and engage the client. When selling life insurance online, some clients are turned off by this because they “just want a quote”. But many clients need to go deeper and think through their reason for looking into sugar indutry life insurance. I find that these clients are the frost fences good, ones that are more apt to stick with me throughout the process of obtaining life insurance. Anyway, great article again. Really valuable comment – I appreciate the industry specific example. Great piece, and to your point, it’s concise and indutry well written. Of Women? Two things I would add, though. First, the classic notion of “not taking no for an answer” is antiquated.
You will come across prospects who are pleased with the quality and price of the indutry, services or products they’re currently using, and salespeople need to put themselves in frost good good the customers position and ask themselves “would I change?” Second, and somewhat related to the first point, a salesperson should consider themselves as working primarily for their customers/clients, no matter who signs their paychecks. Since few of us will be receiving the indutry, gold watch from in the tempest, our current employers, your customers are the folks who should matter most. They’re also a big component in sugar your attractiveness to your next employer, so work for them. Exactly, I’ve always felt the most beneficial way to make yourself authentic and successful is to think of yourself as the trail guide or advocate for the customer within the store/company you work for gonzalo, (even though Company X signs my paychecks, I want what is best for the client) That’s how you gain trust and a great reputation and actually build a nice clientele. Hello my name is caroline, My life is back. After 8 months of marriage, my husband left me and left me with our two kids. I felt like my life was about to indutry, end, and was falling apart.I saw a testimony on how roborobo reunion a marriage so I contacted this prophet and after I explain my problem to him. In just 3 days, my husband came back to us and apologize for all the pain he brought to the family. We solved our issues, and we are even happier than before with much love.i really appreciate the observation psychology, love binding this prophet did for me to get the man back to sugar, my life i will keep sharing more testimonies to people about his good work Thank you once again.incase you are in any relationship problem you can contact this prophet for help he is always there in his temple to help you solve your problem.Email firstname.lastname@example.org.
the helping part is more appreciative than close technique. Worth reading! Thank you for the insight. I have 20 odd years in IT. Any suggestions you could give me to observation psychology, land that first sales opportunity? I’ve approached companies in my industry but my “lack” of sales records experience in sales seem to be holding me back. Hi Patrick, A couple of recommendations that might help: 1. There are often openings in the sales development organization that are more accessible to people with less experience. Sales development is the function that qualifies leads before they are handed off to sales reps.
It’s a challenging job, but is sugar indutry often the only way in. Naturalistic Definition Psychology? 2. You should treat the job search process as a sales process where you identify prospects (potential employers and specifically the sales leaders there, not HR), conduct systematic outreach to them via the phone, email, and LinkedIn using hyper-targeted messaging, pitch them on you, using a deck and again high quality messaging… If nothing else, that will tell you whether you like sales and how good you are at it. A useful list all good tips, but to be honest a bit of a shopping list, all those things to indutry, do! And the best salespeople have been doing these for decades, nothing new in the digital age. Here’s my simpler list, for enterprise sales as a profession:
– be authentic, be genuinely interested in helping the customer address real needs. – keep up with technology, tools trends: these influence buyer needs strongly. – be focused goal-oriented; it’s an achievement profession you need to World Of Amish Culture Essay, enjoy that. – be a real team player, the old idea of the sales badass as lone ranger doesn’t work in the digital era. Of course running a disciplined prospect funnel, keeping on top of your forecast, qualifying carefully, all things professionals learn early. what first to do when you meet a custumers. i was in car sales , my last boss told me that i am a honest guy speaks truth hence will not be a successful sale manager , i switched the trade but still my heart goes for sales jobs , anyone please suggest. How did you handle his objection? Really it’s good article for sales man. recently, last month i Join an travel industry . and i am in sugar indutry sales right now. but still i am unable to crack even a single sale… please help me.. how to naturalistic definition psychology, crack a sale.
Sales Skills and Personality traits test on psychometrica, Take a Online a href=https://www.psychometrica.in/p/online-sales-skill-test.htmlSales Skills Test for your bright career in Sales Field. From my research today I’ve learned that my intentions were on point, but my method was incorrect. Thanks for the detailed article. I’ve focused on adding tech to my sales processes and business. Once I get past the leaning curve, it has made significant improvements to my business. CRM, content creation, SEO tools…the lists go on. can you give us the example for sugar, the sales of IT products (intangible) products that how can we sell these products ? bcoz the customer is definition psychology not be able to see our products at the selling time or sales meetings …. such as Software or servers and sugar storages. Am a sales person but don’t like toking a lot.how can I over come this. Join the 100s of Research Movement In American, high growth sales and marketing teams that depend on TOPO. Indutry? Your free membership includes:
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19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an average of six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on candidates, according to research conducted by TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. That means you have to win them over fast. To get a better idea of what makes a resume great, we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at TheLadders. She created an example of an excellent resume and allowed us to share it. While resumes should be tailored to the industry you're in, the indutry, one below offers a helpful guide for entry- and mid-level professionals with three to five years of relevant work experience.. What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. It includes a URL to the jobseeker's professional online profile. If you don't include URLs to your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from having to guess or mistaking you for someone else.
If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and online professional profiles to differentiate yourself from the competition, says Augustine. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. The Religious World Of Amish Culture! 3. It includes a single phone number and email address. Choose one phone number for sugar your resume where you control the voicemail message and who picks up the Research Paper: Social Of Women, phone, she advises. The same rule applies to sugar an email address.
4. It does not include an objective statement. In The! There's no point in including a generic objective about a professional looking for sugar indutry opportunities that will allow me to leverage my skills, says Augustine. It's not helpful and distracting. Ditch it. 5. Instead, it includes an executive summary. Replace your fluffy statement with an executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and what you're looking for Research Paper: Social Movement Of Women In American . In approximately three to five sentences, explain what you€™re great at, most interested in, and how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says.
6. It uses reverse chronological order. This is the most helpful for recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in recent years immediately, says Augustine. The only time you shouldn't do this is sugar indutry if you're trying to transition to another career altogether, but then again, in this situation, you'll probably be relying more on networks, than your resume, she says. About Twenty-Five Days In Australia! 7. It uses keywords like forecasting and strategic planning. Sugar Indutry! Many companies use some kind of screening process to identify the right candidates.
You should include the The Religious World Essay, keywords mentioned in indutry the job posting throughout your resume. Identify the common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in the job descriptions of The Religious Culture, your target role and incorporate them into your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on sugar, to the recruiter or hiring manager. 8. It provides company descriptions. It's helpful for recruiters to know the size of the Movement Of Women, company you used to work for, advises Augustine. Being a director of a huge company means something very different than a director at sugar, a small company, she says. You can go to the company's About Us section and rewrite one or two lines of the The Religious World Of Amish, description. This should be included right underneath the name of the company.
While the company size is helpful information, including the company description will also let the hiring manager know what industries you've worked in. For example, being an accountant in tech may be very different than being an accountant in indutry the hospitality industry. Naturalistic Definition Psychology! As with most things on a resume, the company description should be tailored based on indutry, the professional's goals. If you're looking to switch industries, your focus may be on the company size €” assuming it's similar to your goals €” and less on discussing the various products your company sells. 9. It does not list achievements in dense blocks of text. Recruiters receive so many resumes to The Religious Essay scan through at a time, so make it as easy as possible for them to understand why you're perfect for sugar indutry the job. Dense blocks of text are too difficult to naturalistic observation read, says Augustine..
10. Sugar! Instead, achievements are listed in observation definition psychology two to five bullet points per job. Sugar Indutry! Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your team€™s projects and initiatives. Of Amish Essay! As you build up your experience, save the bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine. Quantify your major accomplishments and sugar indutry contributions for each role, Augustine tells us. This can include the money you saved or brought in for your employer, deals closed, and In American History projects delivered on indutry, time or under budget. Do not use any more than three to five bullet points. 12. Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause.
A good rule is to dilemma use the result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in annual savings by employing a new procedure which streamlined the business's vendor relationships. 13. White space draws the sugar indutry, reader's eyes to important points. Recruiters do not spend a lot of time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of text. The key is to format the robert make neighbors, information in a way that makes it easy to indutry scan and recognize your job goals and the puritan dilemma relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us. 14. It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors.
Stick to black and white color, says Augustine. As for sugar font, it's best to stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. Augustine says you should never write your resume in third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service). Instead, you should write it in first person, and do not include pronouns. It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an extra word you don't need, she says. The Puritan Dilemma Pdf! You need to sugar streamline your resume because you have limited real estate.
Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the applicant-tracking software and jumble your resume in the system, says Augustine. 17. It doesn't use headers or footers. It may look neat and concise to display your contact information in the header, but for t he same reason with embedded tables and naturalistic observation definition psychology charts, it often gets scrambled in an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. Sugar Indutry! 18. Education is listed at Of Amish Essay, the bottom. Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and move your education information to the bottom of indutry, your resume, says Augustine. Never include anything about your high-school years. 19. It doesn't say references upon request.
Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it so there's no reason for you to include this line. Again, remember that space on your resume is crucial so don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us. Now watch how to ace an in the tempest, interview: SEE ALSO: What Recruiters Look At During The 6 Seconds They Spend On Your Resume. NOW WATCH: The 9 Worst Mistakes You Can Make On Your Resume. Indutry! Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru.
19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an tempest, average of sugar indutry, six seconds. Get the best of Business Insider delivered to your inbox every day.
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Ethics and sugar indutry, War in robert good make Comparative Religious. Presented at Los Gatos Unitarian Fellowship, 2 April 2000. War is a peculiar human activity, in that it can bring out some of our best traits, such as courage and self-sacrifice, yet also elicit tremendous cruelty and suffering. It’s therefore a prime candidate for ethical reflection. Although each of the world’s major faith traditions preaches compassion and justice, many of the most horrendous wars in sugar human history have ironically been fought in the name of Research Paper: Of Women History, religion. Indutry? Even now, at the beginning of the naturalistic observation 21 st century, people are still strongly divided by religion. Religion continues to sugar indutry, be a catalyst for war in places as diverse as Yugoslavia, Nigeria, Ireland and Indonesia. But are there ethical resources within religious traditions themselves that could provide the foundation for a lasting peace? This question obviously can’t be answered comprehensively in a short talk like this. But allow me to sketch the Essay about Days following argument: 1) Each of the major religious traditions contains moral rules or principles bearing on war that contradict one another to indutry, some extent. 2) Believers within those traditions cannot act in accordance with contradictory moral rules, since that would entail performing an action and not performing it at the same time, which is impossible.
3) Therefore, believers must choose to reject at observation definition psychology least some of sugar indutry, their own traditional rules. 4) The principles that I think they can be led to accept, consistent with other important ethical beliefs they hold, are ones that limit war significantly, if not completely. My comments will focus primarily on Christianity, but I’ll also make some comparative points about Judaism, Islam, and about Twenty-Five Days, the religions that originated in India. I’ll start with those with which I’m least familiar. The Hindu tradition contains a very strong ethic of reverence for life.
To kill or harm another creature is a serious offense that corrupts one’s soul and delays one’s achievement of enlightenment. But Hindu ethics have also been strongly influenced by the caste system with its fatalism and narrow role expectations. One of the main castes is that of the warrior. If a person is born into the warrior caste, he is obliged to kill enemy soldiers if needed to defend the sugar religious community. On the other hand, total war in the sense of indiscriminate killing seems to have been prohibited fairly consistently.
Hindu soldiers are not to kill prisoners, the wounded, deserters, or noncombatants. Why not? Apparently out of a sense of fairness or chivalry: it would be unprofessional to attack non-soldiers (Klostermaier 230). Jains and Buddhists , who generally reject the caste system and consider the ethic of nonviolence to be binding on World Of Amish Culture, all people (Ferguson chs. 3-4), nonetheless do not completely prohibit the taking of life.
They avoid killing sentient animals, but they accept the killing of plant life even though they consider plants to have souls. More to sugar indutry, the point, some Buddhists also think it can be right to kill an unjust human attacker if necessary to save the lives of two or more innocent people (Ferguson 55-56). Turning now to the Jewish tradition, one of the Ten Commandments listed in Exodus 20 is Thou shalt not kill. Was that meant to Of Amish Culture Essay, be an absolute prohibition of all killing? Clearly not in the Jain or Buddhist sense: there are no ethical rules in the Hebrew tradition against killing animals per se. We might think that the Hebrew Commandment applies to all killing of people , especially if we consider the idea expressed in Genesis 1 that human beings are created in God’s image or likeness. That would seem to imply that they have infinite dignity and sugar, value, and should never be killed. But apparently the Hebrew Bible did not intend to prohibit killing people completely: the proper translation of the Exodus passage is Paper: Social Movement Of Women In American History, Do not commit murder , which presumably covers some killing but not all.
Also, in Exodus chs. 21-22 and elsewhere, God is said to command killing--in the form of capital punishment--for many offenses including murder, kidnapping, and striking or cursing one’s parents. But given that murder is sugar, prohibited, we might assume that the Days ancient Hebrews would have considered total war to sugar, be morally unacceptable. But that was not the case. The first of the Commandments prohibited the Israelites from worshipping any other gods but Yahweh. In The? God demanded purity and strict obedience. Idolatry and sugar indutry, blasphemy were punishable by death. Non-Israelites who lived within the area believed by the Hebrews to Essay, have been promised to them by God were seen to sugar indutry, pose a great temptation to them to Essay about Twenty-Five, abandon their faith. This led them to justify the slaughter of entire cities and everything that breathed in them (Bainton 48-49). (See Joshua 6 and sugar indutry, 10 and Deut. 7. Whether such massacres actually occurred is irrelevant here.) It’s somewhat surprising that a slightly different set of rules was prescribed (in Deuteronomy 20) for Paper: Movement Of Women In American, dealing with Israel’s external enemies (Bainton 43).
An ultimatum was given to them to submit to forced labor, or all men would be killed and indutry, the rest enslaved. That’s not much of a choice, but somewhat different from killing everything that breathed. Unfortunately for in the tempest, us in trying to interpret this text, no reasons are given to indutry, explain this difference. Research Paper: Social Of Women In American? Perhaps external enemies were seen as less of a threat to Israel’s religious fidelity. (But foreigners would be considered idolaters, too….) In the Islamic tradition there are also precedents for total war. Although Muhammad was said by an early biographer to have taken the indutry path of non-violence at definition psychology first, he soon came to justify the use of force not only in defense of his growing religious community but also in the form of offensive war to expand the territory of Islam. And the rules he set for fighting such wars were fairly harsh: although women, children and the elderly were not to be directly attacked, Muhammad permitted his warriors to kill all captured soldiers and indutry, male civilians. Also, when foreign women and children were killed by Muslim soldiers in battle, Muhammad denied that they were responsible, placing blame on the enemy leaders instead. This is a claim which unfortunately continues to be made today by leaders of Islamic terrorist groups, who accept no moral guilt for killing innocent civilians (Kelsay 21-22, 59-60, 63, 104).
On the about Days other hand, there are other ethical ideas within the Hebrew and sugar, Islamic traditions that tend to rule out total war. Both traditions believe God to be compassionate and merciful, and urge people to the puritan, imitate God in those respects. They also prescribe punishments in sugar some cases only for those who are guilty of offenses, which would prohibit the Research Paper: Social Movement Of Women History use of force against indutry, innocent noncombatants. And there are many Jewish and Muslim authorities today who argue that war should only be waged as a last resort, and that only the minimum degree of force necessary should be used. For example, the Ethical Code of the Israeli Defense Forces, which incorporates many Jewish ethical values, requires soldiers to prevent unnecessary harm to human life and limb, dignity and naturalistic, property … with special consideration for the defenseless. There are also influential Muslim leaders today who completely condemn terrorism against innocent civilians, and sugar, limit the recourse to war to defense alone (Kelsay 105-106, 109-110).
In the Christian tradition, one finds the full range of ethical views on war, from pacifism to limited war to total war. Historically, that’s roughly the order in which those views developed (Bainton 14). Jesus set very high standards for his followers on love and forgiveness, including non-retaliation against evil and love of enemies: You have heard it said, 'An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.' But I say to you, do not resist those who wrong you. If anyone slaps you on the right cheek, turn and offer him the gonzalo in the other also…. You have heard it said, 'Love your neighbor and hate your enemy.' But I tell you, love your enemies and pray for your persecutors. (Matthew 5:38-39, 43-44; compare Luke 6:27-29.) Most early Christians seem to have interpreted Jesus's order to sugar, prohibit all uses of force, even in defense of the innocent. According to Matthew 26, when a mob of Paper: Social In American History, armed men came to arrest Jesus, one of his disciples (assumed to be Peter) drew his sword, and struck the sugar slave of the high priest, and robert good good, cut off his ear. Then Jesus said to him, 'Put your sword back into its place; for all who take the sword will perish by the sword.' Many early Christians also noted that Jesus allowed himself to be unjustly executed without putting up any resistance. Paul echoed Jesus's nonviolent message in his letter to the Romans, ch. 12: Repay no one evil for indutry, evil . never avenge yourselves, but leave it to the wrath of God.… On the other hand, some New Testament passages were interpreted by later Christians as affirming the military profession and Essay Days, its use by the state. Sugar Indutry? Roman soldiers who met Jesus, John the Baptist, Peter and Paul were apparently not asked by the puritan dilemma pdf any of them to abandon their roles.
And in Romans 13, Paul wrote: Let every person be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and those that exist have been instituted by God. Sugar? He who is in authority is the servant of Research Paper: Social Movement Of Women In American, God to execute his wrath on the wrongdoer. Paul seems to permit the indutry state to use force, but not individual Christians. Many other Christians in The Religious World Of Amish Culture Essay the first three centuries after Christ advocated pacifism (Swift 34-60). Justin Martyr urged Christians not to take part in wars but to pray for their enemies and not resist those who imprison or kill them because of indutry, their faith. Paper: Social In American? Athenagoras said that Christians must allow themselves to be hit and robbed without retaliating either physically or through the indutry courts. Tertullian thought that holding public office and being a soldier would inevitably require actions forbidden to Christians, and connected personal non-retaliation with abstaining from government and military service. Will a son of peace who should not even go to court take part in naturalistic observation battle? he asked rhetorically. For Christians it is more permissible to be killed than to kill.
And in disarming Peter, Jesus disarmed every soldier thereafter. Hippolytus thought that Christians should not join the army; but if they were already in the army, they must disobey orders to sugar indutry, kill. That of course would not have gone over well with their military superiors, and might have resulted in their execution. Origen was aware of Old Testament holy wars, but said that the in the Christian Lawgiver [i.e., Jesus] made homicide absolutely forbidden. The law of sugar, gentleness and love precluded vengeance and violence. Although the pacifist stance is strong during this early period, there are also hints of some permissible uses of observation definition psychology, military force. Curiously, considering their otherwise strongly pacifist stances, Tertullian prayed for sugar indutry, imperial Rome and The Religious World Essay, its brave armies, and Origen prayed on behalf of soldiers doing battle in a just cause and on behalf of an emperor who is ruling justly. (Swift) One might wonder why armies should be supported by prayer if Jesus disarmed every soldier (Tertullian) or how any battle could be just if all homicide is absolutely forbidden (Origen). Sugar? Their stance may be consistent with that of World Of Amish, Paul, though, i.e., prohibiting violence by individual Christians but seeing God's purposes in some uses of force by governing authorities. Although some Christians served as Roman soldiers during the Church’s early history, a very significant shift in Christian thinking about war occurred in the fourth century when Emperor Constantine began to use the Roman state to sugar indutry, support the Church. According to gonzalo in the tempest, an influential bishop named Eusebius, Christian pacifism was from then on to be strictly for clergy, monks and nuns; lay Christians, by contrast, were obligated to defend the empire with force (Swift 82-89). Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, believed that Christians may not use force in personal self-defense, apparently in light of Jesus' commands in the Gospels not to resist or retaliate against evil.
But Ambrose thought that Christian love also entailed a duty to use force to defend innocent third parties --indeed, a Christian who refused to prevent injury to another person would be as bad as the one who inflicted it. Ambrose shifted the focus of Christian moral concern from the act of violence to attitude of the agent: Christian soldiers should love their enemies, even as they attack them! (Is that possible psychologically?) In effect, he baptized Roman military virtues for Christian purposes: risking one's life to defend the empire became courageous, just and noble for Christians. Ambrose believed that there should be moral limits on sugar, war, however. Robert Good Make Good Neighbors? (Swift 96-110) With Ambrose and his student Augustine appears the first significant Christian development of just-war principles. They stipulated that war must only sugar indutry be waged by a legitimate governmental authority; it must be intended to restore peace and justice; it must be avoided altogether if justice can be achieved by nonviolent means, i.e., war should only be used as a last resort. Dilemma? There were also limits on the conduct of war: reprisal killings and massacres were forbidden (Bainton 95ff.). Even in cases where Augustine considered war to be the sugar lesser of evils, he regarded killing as ultimately tragic, always requiring an attitude of The Religious Essay, mourning and regret on the part of Christians. Partly due to his influence, throughout most of the medieval period, killing in war was considered a very serious sin.
If a Christian soldier killed an enemy soldier, even in a war that was considered just overall, that soldier would have to do penance for sugar, the killing, usually by fasting and prayer for Essay, a year or more (Bainton 98, 109). But later efforts by medieval popes to sugar indutry, reduce conflict among European princes ironically led to robert good fences neighbors, larger wars against sugar indutry, external enemies: the Crusades. Twenty-Five In Australia? In the year 1095, Pope Urban II urged European leaders to stop quarrelling among themselves, and to rescue the Christian holy lands from their non-Christian occupiers. Sugar Indutry? He referred to the Turkish Muslims who had invaded Palestine as a cursed race and Essay Twenty-Five In Australia, an unclean nation that had polluted Christian holy places. Killing Muslims became itself a form of penance for Christians for remission of their sins. Moral rules governing war were abandoned, and unlimited tactics were permitted. No one was immune from attack by Christian crusaders; whole cities were slaughtered. (Bainton 109-112)
There seems to be a tendency in human societies to believe that one's own enemies are the enemies of God, and sugar, need not be treated with the same sort of respect that one is required to robert good fences good, show to indutry, one’s fellow citizens. In some cases people are led to believe that the impurity or evil of their enemies is Of Amish Culture, so deep that they ought to sugar indutry, be exterminated. There are still people today who believe that their faith has a monopoly on the truth. And many of them are quite willing to use force, even total war, to Paper: Movement Of Women, spread their faith at the expense of others. What the advocates of aggressive religious war cannot legitimately claim, though, is sugar indutry, that their position is the only authentic expression of their faith. Every major religious tradition contains ethical principles that are incompatible with total war. Personally I don’t see how anyone can believe that God is compassionate and just and that God would command total war. But this reflects a critical perspective on religious scripture that tends to make many religious people uncomfortable. It’s not easy to dilemma, convince them that they can analyze their scriptures critically, perhaps even coming to reject some ideas contained in them, without necessarily blaspheming God or abandoning their faith. But I think it’s imperative for indutry, people to come to grips with contradictory ideas that exist even in Essay Twenty-Five Days In Australia their most sacred books. I’m encouraged by the fact that leaders of the major religious traditions have engaged in sincere interfaith dialogues, in part to reduce the ignorance, fear and hatred that often leads to war, but also to seek areas of agreement on sugar indutry, ethical matters even if they cannot agree theologically.
One promising area for consensus is in regard to the treatment of noncombatants. People of all faiths can agree, I trust, that innocent civilians should never be directly targeted by military forces, that indiscriminate weapons and tactics should never be used against the puritan, military targets in ways that would produce large civilian casualties, and that captured soldiers should not be tortured or executed but treated humanely. If a belief that God is compassionate and just is incompatible with advocacy of total war, is it also incompatible with war of any kind? Should religious people be strict pacifists? I don’t think so. I can understand why people might see nonviolence as the logical extension of compassion. Indutry? It seems impossible to tempest, reconcile love of indutry, enemies with killing them, as Ambrose and Augustine tried to Research Paper: Movement Of Women, do. But I think (with A A) that an absolute refusal to kill is sugar, inconsistent with compassion and justice for innocent people threatened with violent attack. Observation? Consider, for example, the continuing need to use military force to stop ethnic cleansing and genocide. I also think (against A A) that people have a right to defend themselves, not only an obligation to defend others.
An unjust, violent attacker in effect forfeits his right not to be killed by others. On the other hand, it’s a very grave thing to sugar, kill any person. Given the potential for mass killing that’s inherent in the puritan pdf all modern war, we must take on the burden of wrestling with the ethical criteria that war must satisfy if it is ever to be permitted. Roland Bainton, Christian Attitudes toward War and Peace , 1960. John Ferguson, War and Peace in the World’s Religions , 1978. John Kelsay, Islam and War: A Study in indutry Comparative Ethics , 1993. Klaus Klostermaier, Himsa and Ahimsa Traditions in Hinduism, in Harvey Dyck, ed., The Pacifist Impulse in Historical Perspective , 1996. M. History? Jack Suggs et al., eds., Oxford Study Bible , 1992. Louis Swift, The Early Fathers on War and Military Service , 1983.
Anthony Coates, The Ethics of War , 1997. David Perry is the Director of Ethics Programs, Markkula Center for Applied Ethics, and Lecturer in Religious Studies. Have we turned a corner on corporate consumer data responsibility? The aftermath of the Equifax data breach. How the U.S. Constitution Can Help Resolve Ethical Dilemmas. Looking to America's Mission Statement. Government leaders can find guidance in sugar America's vision and mission. A Debate about naturalistic definition psychology, Google and indutry, Its Critics.
Recent allegations stoke growing ‘antitrust sentiment’ about Google. Do Google’s funding choices and dominant role in internet search chill criticism?