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American Jeremiad: A Manifesto - The New York Times

EOD/Weapons Technical Intelligence (WTI) Instructor. Provide expert support, analysis and research into the EOD portion of C-IED. Serve as technical expert on project teams providing technical direction, interpretation and alternatives. Provide the linkage between the american, supported unit, other EOD elements, JIEDDO enterprise and other agencies. Applies critical thinking and demonstrates exceptional written and oral communications skills.

The contractor will contribute to the development, proliferation and application of advanced EOD principles and concepts. Provides highly innovative complex solutions to complex technical problems. Thinks independently and epic poem example demonstrates exceptional written and oral communications skills. Apply advanced technical principles, theories, and concepts. Contributes to the development of new principles and concepts. Works on complex technical problems and jeremiad provides solutions which are highly innovative and baroque and classical ingenious. American? Works under consultative direction toward predetermined long-range goals and objectives. Assignments are often self-initiated. Determines and pursues courses of action necessary to imported inflation, obtain desired results.

Develops advanced technological ideas and guides their development into a final product. Specific tasks as an EOD WTI Instructor may include: - Maintain knowledge of all applicable regulations and doctrine regarding military training. - Analyze Government provided training curriculum. Propose and prepare recommend changes to the approved course of instruction. - Assist in the identification of synchronizing tasks, conditions, standards, and performance measures for the required training. - Maintain knowledge of current EOD TTPs, military, commercial and home-made explosives. - Provide advice on training Program execution, status, plans and american policies. Recommend to Team Lead suggested changes in training delivery and execution. - Ensure that current information on enemy TTPs is continuously acquired and analyzed. Recommend curriculum changes to the Government to keep the Program of instruction at the leading edge of the C-IED problem as it pertains to EOD. Summarize acquired information as required in written reports. - Liaise with JIEDDO COIC Intelligence Specialists regarding current worldwide IED threats. - Liaise with appropriate EOD units and stands for school houses to ensure the latest in american, TTPs is utilized in the course of instruction. - Monitor resource utilization to correct deficient situations, and provides balanced Program recommendations. - Plan and prepare task scenarios in concert with CTC instructor and unit leadership guidance. - Construct and maintain in complete and up-to date form all lesson plans and other associated materials to facilitate training. - Present military training when required. - Maintain accountability of EOD training aid inventory. - Monitor and distribute training aids and associated training materials to units. Prepare and set-up EOD/IED scenarios at training areas during rotations.

- Provide material solution recommendations to poem, EOD TTPs. Jeremiad? - In concert with CTC leadership, maintain the between and classical, material condition and realism of ranges and facilities to make them ready for training. - Prepare appropriate staffing memorandums as required. - Prepare and deliver various high quality communications and briefings up to and routinely including O6 level decision-makers. - Visually identify IED indicators. - Correctly react to jeremiad, IEDs. - Plan for movement in an IED environment. - Operate and maintain CREW and mine detection systems. - Identify and puritans period react to homemade explosives. - Assess, gather evidence, and exploit an IED scene using systematic searches. - Provide basic operator training for american, C-IED robotic systems. - Participate in and provide feedback during regular staff meetings and planning sessions. - Assist with classroom and training area set-up/teardown and equipment movement. - Maintain accountability and proper care of all assigned Government-owned equipment. - Keep an accurate record of student attendance to be submitted to the TPOC for review and approval upon training completion. - Remain knowledgeable on salt pillars, all relevant new technology, devices, and equipment involving C-IED. Successful candidates must: - Be able to withstand the rigors of jeremiad, inclement weather to include extreme heat and cold. - Have the epic, ability to carry up to 40 pounds of training equipment and emplace this equipment into the ground with digging devices. - Be capable of multitasking working several complex and jeremiad diverse tasks with simultaneous or near simultaneous deadlines in a dynamic fast-paced environment. - Be well-organized, punctual, reliable and conscientious, and epic example capable of managing resources and schedules to affect deadlines. American? - Total Working Experience: 7 Years. - C-IED Experience: 4 Years. - WTI Experience: 2 Years. - EOD Experience: 4 Years. - Training Experience: 4 Years. - Good proficiency with Microsoft Office (Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Office) - Excellent oral and written communication skills to include the ability to proficiently communicate in the English Language. - Understanding of Essay, Adult Learning Methodologies. - Deployed WTI experience at a Combined Explosive Exploitation Cell or C-IED Staff. - Understanding of basic construction, component parts, and TTPs for american jeremiad, emplacement and operation of IEDs. - Military Experience with a background in operations and training. - Experience at a Combat Training Center (CTC) - Weapons Intelligence Team (WIT) operational experience in Afghanistan or Iraq. - Ability to understand basic threat tactics, techniques, and procedures of existing and fictional threat groups sufficient to communicate with subject matter experts at poem example, the brigade through division level. - Experience with Army training and exercise programs desired. Jeremiad? - Experience with supporting the use of distributed simulations in support of Army and Joint LVC training events, mission rehearsals, and puritans period experiments.

The above statements are intended to describe the general nature and american jeremiad level of work being performed by people assigned to this employment classification. They are not to be construed as an exhaustive list of all responsibilities, duties, and puritans period skills required of personnel so classified. Jeremiad? All personnel may be required to perform duties outside of their normal responsibilities from time to time, as needed.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. A thinker with wide-ranging interests, Robert Nozick was one of the most important and influential political philosophers, along with John Rawls, in the Anglo-American analytic tradition. His first and most celebrated book, Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1974), produced, along with his Harvard colleague John Rawls’ A Theory of Justice (1971), the jeremiad revival of the discipline of social and political philosophy within the analytic school. Rawls’ influential book is a systematic defense of egalitarian liberalism, but Nozick’s Anarchy, State, and difference between Utopia is a compelling defense of free-market libertarianism. Unlike Rawls, Nozick neglected political philosophy for the rest of american jeremiad his philosophical career.

He moved on to address other philosophical questions and made significant contributions to other areas of imported inflation philosophical inquiry. In epistemology, Nozick developed an american, externalist analysis of example knowledge in terms of jeremiad counterfactual conditions that provides a response to radical skepticism. Puritans Period? In metaphysics, he proposed a “closest continuer” theory of american personal identity. His final work, Invariances (2001), offers a theory of objective reality. His other significant contributions to analytic philosophy notwithstanding, Nozick’s defense of libertarianism remains his most notable intellectual mark on philosophical inquiry. Robert Nozick was born in epic, Brooklyn, New York in jeremiad, 1938, and he taught at Harvard University until his death in January 2002. He was a thinker of the prodigious sort who gains a reputation for brilliance within his chosen field while still in puritans period, graduate school, in his case at the Princeton of the jeremiad early 1960's, where he wrote his dissertation on decision theory under the supervision of Carl Hempel. He was also, like so many young intellectuals of that period, drawn initially to the politics of the New Left and to the socialism that was its philosophical inspiration. But encountering the salt pillars works of such defenders of capitalism as F.A. Hayek, Ludwig von Mises, Murray Rothbard, and Ayn Rand eventually led him to american jeremiad, renounce those views, and to shift his philosophical focus away from the technical issues then dominating analytic philosophy and toward political theory.

The result was his first and most famous book, Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1974), an ingenious defense of libertarianism that immediately took on canonical status as the major right-wing philosophical counterpoint to his Harvard colleague John Rawls's influential defense of social-democratic liberalism, A Theory of Justice (1971). Like Rawls's book, Nozick's generated lively debate and Essay on Social an enormous secondary literature. But where Rawls made the american jeremiad development of imported his theory of justice and its defense against critics his life's work, Nozick took little interest either in responding to critics of Anarchy, State, and Utopia in american jeremiad, particular or in continuing to do systematic work in political philosophy in general. Instead, he moved on to produce groundbreaking work in several other areas of philosophical inquiry, particularly in epistemology and metaphysics. His development of an externalist theory of knowledge and his closest continuer account of personal identity have been particularly influential. On Social? It remains to be seen what impact on philosophy will be made by the general theory of objective truth developed in his last book, Invariances (2001), published shortly before his untimely death from stomach cancer. In any case, it seems clear, judging from the disproportionate amount of attention that it has received relative to the rest of american his writings, that it is his early work in political theory that will stand as his most significant and lasting contribution. 2. Anarchy, State, and Utopia and Libertarianism. Anarchy, State, and Utopia is, together with Rawls's A Theory of Justice , generally regarded as one of the two great classics of twentieth-century analytic political philosophy.

Indeed, these two works essentially revived the discipline of political philosophy within the analytic school, whose practitioners had, until Rawls and Nozick came along, largely neglected it. Salt Pillars? Nozick's book also revived interest in the notion of rights as being central to political theory, and it did so in the service of another idea that had been long neglected within academic political thought, namely libertarianism. Libertarianism is a political philosophy holding that the role of the state in society ought to american, be severely limited, confined essentially to police protection, national defense, and the administration of courts of law, with all other tasks commonly performed by modern governments - education, social insurance, welfare, and so forth - taken over by religious bodies, charities, and other private institutions operating in poem, a free market. Many libertarians appeal, in defending their position, to economic and sociological considerations - the benefits of market competition, the inherent mechanisms inclining state bureaucracies toward incompetence and inefficiency, the poor record of governmental attempts to deal with specific problems like poverty and pollution, and so forth. Nozick endorses such arguments, but his main defense of libertarianism is a moral one, his view being that whatever its practical benefits, the strongest reason to jeremiad, advocate a libertarian society is inflation simply that such advocacy follows from a serious respect for individual rights. a. Self-Ownership, Individual Rights, and the Minimal State. Nozick takes his position to follow from a basic moral principle associated with Immanuel Kant and enshrined in american jeremiad, Kant's second formulation of his famous Categorical Imperative: Act so that you treat humanity, whether in salt pillars, your own person or in american jeremiad, that of example another, always as an end and never as a means only. American? The idea here is that a human being, as a rational agent endowed with self-awareness, free will, and the possibility of formulating a plan of life, has an inherent dignity and cannot properly be treated as a mere thing , or used against his will as an between baroque, instrument or resource in the way an inanimate object might be. In line with this, Nozick also describes individual human beings as self-owners (though it isn't clear whether he regards this as a restatement of Kant’s principle, a consequence of it, or an entirely independent idea). The thesis of self-ownership, a notion that goes back in political philosophy at least to american jeremiad, John Locke, is just the claim that individuals own themselves - their bodies, talents and abilities, labor, and by Essay Marketing, extension the fruits or products of their exercise of their talents, abilities and labor.

They have all the prerogatives with respect to themselves that a slaveholder claims with respect to his slaves. But the thesis of self-ownership would in fact rule out slavery as illegitimate, since each individual, as a self-owner, cannot properly be owned by american jeremiad, anyone else. (Indeed, many libertarians would argue that unless one accepts the thesis of self-ownership, one has no way of example explaining why slavery is evil. American Jeremiad? After all, it cannot be merely because slaveholders often treat their slaves badly, since a kind-hearted slaveholder would still be a slaveholder, and thus morally blameworthy, for salt pillars, that. The reason slavery is jeremiad immoral must be because it involves a kind of stealing - the stealing of a person from himself.) But if individuals are inviolable ends-in-themselves (as Kant describes them) and self-owners, it follows, Nozick says, that they have certain rights , in particular (and here again following Locke) rights to their lives, liberty, and the fruits of their labor. Imported? To own something, after all, just is to have a right to it, or, more accurately, to possess the bundle of rights - rights to possess something, to dispose of it, to determine what may be done with it, etc. - that constitute ownership; and american thus to own oneself is to have such rights to the various elements that make up one's self. Salt Pillars? These rights function, Nozick says, as side-constraints on the actions of others; they set limits on how others may, morally speaking, treat a person. So, for example, since you own yourself, and thus have a right to yourself, others are constrained morally not to kill or maim you (since this would involve destroying or damaging your property), or to kidnap you or forcibly remove one of american your bodily organs for transplantation in someone else (since this would involve stealing your property). They are also constrained not to imported, force you against your will to work for another's purposes, even if those purposes are good ones. For if you own yourself, it follows that you have a right to determine whether and how you will use your self-owned body and its powers, e.g. either to work or to refrain from working.

So far this all might seem fairly uncontroversial. But what follows from it, in Nozick's view, is the surprising and radical conclusion that taxation , of the redistributive sort in which modern states engage in order to fund the various programs of the bureaucratic welfare state, is morally illegitimate. It amounts to a kind of forced labor , for jeremiad, the state so structures the puritans period tax system that any time you labor at all, a certain amount of your labor time - the amount that produces the wealth taken away from you forcibly via taxation - is time you involuntarily work, in effect, for the state. Indeed, such taxation amounts to partial slavery , for in giving every citizen an entitlement to certain benefits (welfare, social security, or whatever), the state in effect gives them an entitlement, a right , to a part of the proceeds of your labor, which produces the taxes that fund the american benefits; every citizen, that is, becomes in epic poem example, such a system a partial owner of you (since they have a partial property right in part of american jeremiad you, i.e. in imported, your labor). But this is flatly inconsistent with the principle of self-ownership. The various programs of the american jeremiad modern liberal welfare state are thus immoral, not only because they are inefficient and incompetently administered, but because they make slaves of the citizens of such a state. Indeed, the only sort of state that can be morally justified is what Nozick calls a minimal state or night-watchman state, a government which protects individuals, via police and military forces, from force, fraud, and theft, and administers courts of law, but does nothing else.

In particular, such a state cannot regulate what citizens eat, drink, or smoke (since this would interfere with their right to between baroque, use their self-owned bodies as they see fit), cannot control what they publish or read (since this would interfere with their right to use the property they've acquired with their self-owned labor - e.g. American Jeremiad? printing presses and paper - as they wish), cannot administer mandatory social insurance schemes or public education (since this would interfere with citizens' rights to use the puritans period fruits of their labor as they desire, in that some citizens might decide that they would rather put their money into private education and private retirement plans), and cannot regulate economic life in general via minimum wage and rent control laws and american the like (since such actions are not only economically suspect - tending to produce bad unintended consequences like unemployment and housing shortages - but violate citizens' rights to charge whatever they want to for the use of their own property). It might be thought that given Nozick's premises, no state at epic all , minimal or otherwise, could be justified, that full-blown anarchism is jeremiad what really follows from the notion of difference and classical self-ownership. For the activities of even a minimal state would need to be funded via taxation. Jeremiad? Wouldn't this taxation also amount to forced labor and partial slavery? Nozick thinks not. Indeed, in his view it turns out that even if an anarchistic society existed, not only could a minimal state nevertheless arise out of it in a way that violates no one's self-ownership rights, in salt pillars, fact such a state would, morally speaking, have to come into existence.

Suppose there is a certain geographical area in which no state exists, and everyone must protect his own rights to life, liberty, and property, without relying on american jeremiad a government and its police and military to do so. Given that doing so would be costly, difficult, and time-consuming, people would, Nozick says, inevitably band together to form voluntary protection associations, agreeing to take turns standing watch over each others' property, to decide collectively how to punish rights-violators, and salt pillars so forth. Eventually some members of this anarchistic community would decide to go into the protection business full-time, instituting a private firm that would offer protection services to members of the community in exchange for a fee. Other members of the american jeremiad community might start competing firms, and inflation a free market would develop in protection services. Inevitably, Nozick argues, this process will (via a kind of invisible hand mechanism of the sort discussed by economists) give rise to either a single dominant firm or a dominant confederation of firms. For most people will surely judge that where protection of their lives and property is american concerned, nothing short of the stands biggest and most powerful provider of such protection will do, so that they will flock to whatever firm is perceived as such; and jeremiad the snowball effect this will create will ensure that that firm ends up with an overwhelming share of the market. Puritans Period? Even if multiple large firms come into being, however, they are likely to form a kind of single dominant association of firms. For there will be occasions when the clients of jeremiad different firms come into conflict with one another, one client accusing the other of salt pillars violating his rights, the other insisting on his innocence. Firms could go to war over the claims of their respective clients, but this would be costly, especially if (as is likely) such conflicts between clients became frequent. More feasible would be an american jeremiad, agreement between firms to abide by certain common rules for adjudicating disputes between clients and to go along with the decisions of arbitrators retained by the firms to interpret these rules - to institute, that is, a common quasi-legal system of sorts. With the advent of epic such a dominant protection agency (or confederation of agencies) - an organization comprised essentially of american analogues of police and military forces and courts of law - our anarchistic society will obviously have gone a long way toward evolving a state, though strictly speaking, this agency is still a private firm rather than a government.

How will the dominant protection agency deal with independents - those (relatively few) individuals who retain no protection firm and insist on what is html stands for defending their rights themselves - who attempt to mete out justice to those of its clients they accuse of rights violations? Will it allow them to try and punish its clients as they see fit? Nozick argues that the dominant agency will not allow this and, morally speaking, must not. For the agency was hired to american, protect its clients' rights, and that includes a right not to epic poem, be arrested, tried, or punished unjustly or, where one really is guilty of a rights violation, to be punished more harshly than one deserves. Of course, its clients might really be guilty; but the jeremiad point is, so long as the dominant agency doesn't itself know that they are, it cannot allow them to be punished. The dominant agency must, accordingly, generally prohibit independents from salt pillars defending their own rights against its clients; it must take upon itself the jeremiad exclusive right to decide which of its clients is puritans period worthy of punishment, and what sort of punishment that ought to be. In doing so, however, it has taken on one of the defining features of american a state, namely, a monopoly on the legitimate use of force. It has become what Nozick calls an ultra-minimal state. Salt Pillars? In doing so, however, the dominant agency seems to have jeopardized the rights of independents - for though it has (rightly) prohibited those independents from exacting justice on its own clients, lest they inflict unjust punishments, it has thereby also left them unable to defend their own rights. To avoid committing an injustice against independents, then, the dominant agency or ultra-minimal state must compensate them for this - it must, that is, defend their rights for them by providing them the very protection services it affords its own clients. It can, Nozick says, legitimately charge them for this protection, but only the amount that they would have spent anyway in defending themselves.

The end result of this process, though, is that the ultra-minimal state has taken on another feature of a state, namely the jeremiad provision of protection to on Social Marketing, everyone within its borders. Moreover, in charging everyone for this protection it engages, in effect, in a kind of taxation (though this taxation - and only this taxation – does not violate self-ownership rights, because the jeremiad original clients of the what is html stands for agency pay voluntarily , while the later, formerly independent, clients are charged only an amount they would have spent anyway for protection). The ultra-minimal state has thus become a full-fledged minimal state. A minimal state would thus inevitably arise out of an originally anarchic society, given both practical circumstances and the moral requirements - concerning the prohibition of american potentially rights-violating self-defense and compensation for this prohibition - binding on example any agency acting to enforce the rights of others. Jeremiad? And it would do so in imported inflation, a way that violates no one's rights of self-ownership. So the anarchist can have no principled objection to it. Nozick's conception of the origins of the state is reminiscent of the jeremiad social contract tradition in political thought represented by Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, and, in contemporary thought, Rawls. For insofar as the state arises out of a process that begins with the salt pillars voluntary retention by individuals of the services of an agency that will inevitably take on the features of a state, it can be seen to american, be the result of a kind of salt pillars contract.

The details of the state-originating process in Nozick's account are very different from those of other social contract accounts, however; and, most importantly, for Nozick, unlike other social contract theorists, individual rights do not result from, but exist prior to , any social contract, and put severe constraints on the shape such a contract can take. Furthermore, the parties to jeremiad, the contract in Nozick's conception are to be imagined very much on the model of human beings as we know them in real life, rather than along the lines of the highly abstractly conceived rational agents deliberating behind a veil of ignorance in salt pillars, Rawls's original position thought experiment. Most critics of the libertarian minimal state don't complain that it allows for too much government; they say that it allows for far too little. In particular, they claim that a more-than-minimal state is necessary in order to fulfill the requirements of distributive justice. The state, it is american held (by, for instance, Rawls and for his followers), simply must engage in redistributive taxation in order to american, ensure that a fair distribution of wealth and income obtains in the society it governs. For? Nozick's answer to this objection constitutes his entitlement theory of justice. Talk about distributive justice is inherently misleading, Nozick argues, in that it seems to american jeremiad, imply that there is some central authority who distributes to Essay, individuals shares of american wealth and between income that pre-exist the american jeremiad distribution, as if they had appeared like manna from heaven. Of course this is not really the on Social way such shares come into existence, or come to be distributed, at all; in fact they come to american, be, and epic poem example come to be held by american jeremiad, the individuals who hold them, only difference and classical through the american scattered efforts and transactions of these innumerable individuals themselves, and epic poem these individuals' efforts and transactions give them a moral claim over these shares. Talk about the american distribution of wealth covers this up, and unjustifiably biases most discussions of distributive justice in a socialist or egalitarian liberal direction.

A more adequate theory of between baroque justice would in Nozick's view enumerate three principles of american justice in holdings. The first would be a principle of justice in acquisition , that is, the appropriation of natural resources that no one has ever owned before. The best-known such principle, some version of which Nozick seems to endorse, is the one enshrined in Essay, Locke's theory of american jeremiad property, according to salt pillars, which a person (being a self-owner) owns his labor, and by mixing his labor with a previously unowned part of the natural world (e.g. by whittling a stick found in a forest into a spear) thereby comes to own it. The second principle would be a principle of american jeremiad justice in transfer , governing the manner in which one might justly come to own something previously owned by another. Here Nozick endorses the principle that a transfer of holdings is just if and only if it is voluntary, a principle that would seem to follow from respect for a person's right to use the fruits of the exercise of his self-owned talents, abilities, and labor as he sees fit. The final principle would be a principle of justice in rectification , governing the proper means of setting right past injustices in acquisition and transfer. Anyone who got what he has in a manner consistent with these three principles would, Nozick says, accordingly be entitled to it - for, his having abided by these principles, no one has any grounds for complaint against him. Essay? This gives us Nozick's entitlement theory of american distributive justice: a distribution of wealth obtaining in a society as a whole is a just distribution if everyone in that society is entitled to for, what he has, i.e. has gotten his holdings in accordance with the principles of acquisition, transfer, and rectification. And it is therefore just however equal or unequal it happens to be, and indeed however fair or unfair it might seem intuitively to be. Standard theories of jeremiad distributive justice, Nozick says, are either ahistorical end-state or “end-result” theories, requiring that the distribution of wealth in poem example, a society have a certain structure, e.g. an egalitarian structure (regardless of jeremiad how the distribution came about or how people got what they have); or they are historical theories requiring that the distribution fit a certain pattern reflecting such historical circumstances as who worked the hardest or who deserves the most. Puritans Period? The entitlement theory of justice is historical yet unpatterned: The justice of a distribution is indeed determined by certain historical circumstances (contrary to american, end-state theories), but it has nothing to do with fitting any pattern guaranteeing that those who worked the hardest or are most deserving have the most shares.

What matters is only that people get what they have in a manner consistent with the three principles of justice in holdings, and this is fully compatible with some people having much more than others, unlucky hard workers having less than lazier but luckier ones, morally repulsive individuals having higher incomes than saints, and so forth. Nozick illustrates and defends the entitlement theory in a famous thought-experiment involving the basketball player Wilt Chamberlain. Imagine a society in which the distribution of what stands wealth fits a particular structure or pattern favored by a non-entitlement conception of justice - suppose, to keep things simple, that it is an jeremiad, equal distribution, and call it D1. Nozick's opponent must of course grant that this distribution is just, since Nozick has allowed the opponent himself to determine it. Now suppose that among the members of this society is is html stands for Wilt Chamberlain, and that he has as a condition of his contract with his team that he will play only if each person coming to american jeremiad, see the game puts twenty-five cents into a special box at the gate of the salt pillars sports arena, the american jeremiad contents of Essay on Social Marketing which will go to jeremiad, him. Suppose further that over the course of the epic season, one million fans decide to jeremiad, pay the twenty-five cents to watch him play.

The result will be a new distribution, D2, in which Chamberlain now has $250,000, much more than anyone else - a distribution which thereby breaks the original pattern established in D1. Now, is D2 just? Is Chamberlain entitled to his money? The answer to these questions, Nozick says, is clearly Yes. For everyone in D1 was, by hypothesis, entitled to what he had; there is epic example no injustice in the starting point that led up to D2. Jeremiad? Moreover, everyone who gave up twenty-five cents in the transition from D1 to puritans period, D2 did so voluntarily , and thus has no grounds for american jeremiad, complaint; and those who did not want to Marketing, pay to see Chamberlain play still have their twenty-five cents, so they have no grounds for american jeremiad, complaint either. But then no one has any grounds for a complaint of injustice; and thus there is no injustice. What this shows, in Nozick's view, is that all non-entitlement theories of justice are false. For all such theories claim that it is a necessary condition for a distribution's being just that it have a certain structure or fit a certain pattern; but the Wilt Chamberlain example (which can be reformulated so that D1 is, instead of an egalitarian distribution, a distribution according to hard work, desert, or whatever) shows that a distribution (such as D2) can be just even if it doesn't have a particular structure or pattern.

Moreover, the example shows that liberty upsets patterns, that allowing individuals freely to use their holdings as they choose will inevitably destroy any distribution advocated by non-entitlement theories, whether they be socialist, egalitarian liberal, or some other theory of distribution. Stands? And the corollary of this is that patterns destroy liberty , that attempts to enforce a particular distributional pattern or structure over time will necessarily involve intolerable levels of american coercion, forbidding individuals from using the fruits of their talents, abilities, and on Social labor as they see fit. As Nozick puts it, the socialist society would have to forbid capitalist acts between consenting adults. This is not merely a regrettable side-effect of the quest to attain a just distribution of wealth; it is american jeremiad a positive injustice, for it violates the epic poem example principle of self-ownership. Distributive justice, properly understood, thus does not require a redistribution of wealth; indeed, it forbids such a redistribution. Accordingly, the minimal state, far from being inconsistent with the american jeremiad demands of distributive justice, is in fact the only sure means of securing those demands. The minimal state might seem, even to those sympathetic to inflation, the arguments for it, to american jeremiad, make for imported, a rather austere vision of jeremiad political life.

But Nozick insists that we ought to puritans period, see it as inspiring, as well as right. Indeed, the minimal state constitutes in his view a kind of american jeremiad utopia . For, among all models of political order, it alone makes possible the attempt to realize every person's and group’s vision of the good society. It is often thought that libertarianism entails that everyone must live according to poem example, a laissez faire capitalist ethos, but this is not so; it requires only that, whatever ethos one is american committed to, one not impose it by force on anyone else without his consent. If some individuals or groups want to live according to socialist or egalitarian principles, they are free to do so as far as Nozick is concerned; indeed, they may even establish a community, of difference and classical whatever size, within the boundaries of the american minimal state, and require that everyone who comes to difference between baroque and classical, live within it must agree to american jeremiad, have a portion of his wealth redistributed. All they are forbidden from doing is forcing people to salt pillars, join or contribute to the establishment of american jeremiad such a community who do not want to do so. The minimal state thus constitutes a framework for utopia - an overarching system within the boundaries of which any number of social, moral, and religious utopian visions may be realized. Baroque? It thereby provides a way for jeremiad, people even of radically opposed points of view - socialists and capitalists, liberals and conservatives, atheists and religious believers, whether Jews, Christians, Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus - to make a go of implementing their conceptions of salt pillars how life ought to be lived, within their own communities, while living side by side in peace. This gives us, in jeremiad, Nozick's view, a further reason to endorse it. Nozick's most influential contributions to philosophy outside of political theory have been in epistemology and the metaphysics of personal identity. In the case of the former, he is best known for imported inflation, his version of an externalist theory of knowledge, developed in his second book, Philosophical Explanations (1981).

Traditional theories of knowledge hold that a knower S knows a proposition p if and only if S believes p, p is true, and S is justified in believing p. The third condition has always been the american jeremiad most problematic: the logical possibility of skeptical scenarios in which the would-be knower is the hapless victim of an omnipotent, omniscient, and deceiving Cartesian demon, or a brain in difference, a vat hooked up by mad scientists to a virtual reality supercomputer feeding it non-stop hallucinations, threaten to make the justification of almost any belief impossible. Examples of the sort made famous by Edmund Gettier - wherein S has a justified true belief (say, a belief that it is now 5:00, based on S's glance at a nearby clock) that nevertheless does not plausibly amount to knowledge (say, because the clock is broken, and just by chance happens to be displaying the correct time) - also cast doubt on the adequacy of the jeremiad traditional analysis of salt pillars knowledge, whatever one says about the jeremiad threat of skepticism. These supposed inadequacies in the traditional view of difference and classical knowledge are often said by its critics to stem from its internalism - the assumption that the factors that warrant S's claim to knowledge must be factors of which S is aware: factors internal to jeremiad, the set of Essay on Social his consciously held beliefs. But these inadequacies can, it is argued, be remedied by adopting an externalist perspective instead, on american jeremiad which the factors that warrant S's belief, and make it genuine knowledge rather than mere belief, may well be factors of poem which S is entirely unaware, and american jeremiad which are external to salt pillars, his conscious cognitive processes. One such factor (emphasized by american jeremiad, reliabilist versions of externalism) might be a belief's having been produced by a reliable belief-producing mechanism: a mechanism of the existence and operations of which S might be utterly ignorant. Nozick's unique contribution to puritans period, the externalist approach is to suggest that the conditions that make S's true belief that p count as knowledge are the counterfactuals: (a) that were p not true S would not believe it (the variation condition), and (b) that were p still true in somewhat different circumstances, S would still believe it and american would not believe that not-p (the adherence condition). A belief that fulfills these conditions is one that, in Nozick's expression, tracks the truth. (S’s belief that it is 5:00 in the example above would fail to meet these conditions, and thus fails to track the what truth: had it in fact been 4:55 when S looked at the broken clock, he would still have believed that it is 5:00; and had the clock been stopped at 4:55 instead, S would not believe that it is 5:00, and indeed would believe that it is american jeremiad not 5:00.) Nozick applies this analysis to salt pillars, answering skepticism as follows. We ought to american, concede to salt pillars, the skeptic that S cannot know that he is not in fact a brain in american, a vat, for his belief that he isn't is not one that tracks the truth (since the variation condition can't be met - if it were not true that S is not a brain in a vat, S would still believe he isn't). But though this might appear to give away the store to skepticism, in difference between baroque and classical, fact it does not.

For what the jeremiad skeptic claims to threaten are everyday beliefs such as, e.g., S's belief that he is example driving in his car - for obviously, if S is actually a brain in a vat, he isn't really driving in jeremiad, his car. Nozick argues that S can indeed know that he is driving and know that if he is driving then he isn't a brain in salt pillars, a vat, even though he cannot know that he isn't a brain in jeremiad, a vat. For it may well be that S's belief that he is driving tracks the truth (it might, for instance, be produced by a reliable belief-forming process) even if his belief that he isn't a brain in a vat doesn't; and if so, then it is at least possible, contra the skeptic, to know, for Essay Marketing, example, that one is driving in one's car. In taking this position, Nozick famously, and controversially, denies what is known among epistemologists as the closure principle, the principle that if S knows that p and that p entails q, then S knows that q. Nozick's contribution to the debate over personal identity is his closest continuer theory, also presented in Philosophical Explanations . Philosophical puzzles over personal identity arise from various bizarre thought experiments that seem to american, present genuine logical possibilities. For instance, there is Locke's famous example of the prince and the cobbler, wherein the man who wakes up in the cobbler's body one morning appears to puritans period, have all the memories of the prince, and none of the memories of the cobbler. So who is the man actually in the cobbler's body, the american jeremiad prince or the cobbler himself? Or we can imagine a person A stepping into a teleportation machine of the sort described in science-fiction stories, and, due to some glitch in the machine's operation, not one but two persons similar to A, call them B and C, appearing in the spot where the machine was supposed to send A. Epic? Which, if either, is the real A? Nozick's answer to american, such questions is that it is the imported inflation later person who most closely continues the earlier one who is the one who is truly identical to american, the latter. What counts as closeness in this context is not susceptible of a simple, cut and dried answer.

If we take psychological properties to be of greater importance to personhood than bodily ones, the closest continuer of the prince in Locke's example would be the man who wakes up in the cobbler’s body, even though he has none of the puritans period prince's bodily traits (and indeed, even though the prince's body may still exist, and especially if someone else - the cobbler, say -seems to be in the prince's body now). If instead we take bodily properties to be of greatest importance, then the closest continuer of the jeremiad prince would be the person in the prince's body, whatever memories, if any, that person has. In any case, part of what counts as contributing to closeness is, in Nozick's view, going to be determined by a person’s own self-conception, by what a person himself takes to be most important to puritans period, his identity. What about the case where two or more individuals seem equally close continuers of an earlier person, as in the transporter example? Here Nozick's view is american that, in the latter case, neither B nor C is identical to A - since there is no single closest continuer - and thus A no longer exists; though had only one person arrived in epic, the spot to which the machine was supposed to send A, A would have continued to exist. Personal identity thus depends in part on factors extrinsic to the person himself. Nozick made contributions to jeremiad, other areas of philosophy as well, developing a complex theory of rationality in The Nature of Rationality (1993) and meditating on puritans period the meaning of american jeremiad life in The Examined Life (1989), though these works received nothing like the attention garnered by Anarchy, State, and Utopia. Epic? But his work in epistemology and metaphysics has been nearly as controversial as his work in political philosophy, and has generated as large a literature.

Time will tell whether similar controversy will be generated by his final work, Invariances , wherein he developed a theory of objective reality on which the jeremiad mark of the objectively real or true, whether in science, metaphysics, or ethics, is invariance under transformations, a property of the sort exhibited by imported inflation, the relationships between the numbers we use to american, measure the temperature, relationships which remain constant or invariant whether we use the Fahrenheit or centigrade scales, despite the various differences these scales exhibit in other respects. In any event, it is almost certain that it is Nozick's defense of libertarianism that will stand as his most significant contribution to philosophy.

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ACT College and Career Readiness Standards. Measuring the skills and american, knowledge essential to success. Imported Inflation? Giving Clearer Meaning to Test Scores. The ACT College and Career Readiness Standards are the backbone of ACT assessments. The standards are empirically derived descriptions of the essential skills and knowledge students need to american, become ready for college and career, giving clear meaning to test scores and serving as a link between what students have learned and what they are ready to learn next. Parents, teachers, counselors, and students use the standards to: Communicate widely shared learning goals and expectations Relate test scores to the skills needed in high school and beyond Understand the increasing complexity of skills needed across the score ranges in English, mathematics, reading, science, and writing. The standards encompass the many paths available to students after high school, and they reflect our ability to provide insights related to both college and career readiness.

Standards are provided for Marketing, each English test score range except the 1–12 range. Students who score in the 1–12 range are most likely beginning to develop the knowledge and skills assessed in the other ranges. in Terms of Purpose and Focus (TOD) TOD 201. Delete material because it is obviously irrelevant in terms of the topic of the essay. TOD 301. American? Delete material because it is obviously irrelevant in terms of the focus of the essay. TOD 302. Identify the on Social Marketing purpose of a word or phrase when the american purpose is simple (e.g., identifying a person, defining a basic term, using common descriptive adjectives) TOD 303. Determine whether a simple essay has met a straightforward goal.

TOD 401. Determine relevance of material in terms of the salt pillars focus of the essay. TOD 402. Identify the american jeremiad purpose of a word or phrase when the imported purpose is american jeremiad, straightforward (e.g., describing a person, giving examples) TOD 403. Use a word, phrase, or sentence to accomplish a straightforward purpose (e.g., conveying a feeling or attitude) TOD 501. Determine relevance of material in terms of the focus of the paragraph. TOD 502.

Identify the difference purpose of american jeremiad a word, phrase, or sentence when the purpose is fairly straightforward (e.g., identifying traits, giving reasons, explaining motivations) TOD 503. Inflation? Determine whether an essay has met a specified goal. TOD 504. Use a word, phrase, or sentence to accomplish a fairly straightforward purpose (e.g., sharpening an essay’s focus, illustrating a given statement) TOD 601. Jeremiad? Determine relevance when considering material that is plausible but potentially irrelevant at a given point in the essay. TOD 602. Identify the purpose of a word, phrase, or sentence when the purpose is subtle (e.g., supporting a later point, establishing tone) or when the best decision is to delete the what is html for text in american jeremiad, question.

TOD 603. Use a word, phrase, or sentence to accomplish a subtle purpose (e.g., adding emphasis or supporting detail, expressing meaning through connotation) TOD 701. Identify the purpose of a word, phrase, or sentence when the purpose is complex (e.g., anticipating a reader’s need for background information) or requires a thorough understanding of the paragraph and essay. Imported Inflation? TOD 702. Determine whether a complex essay has met a specified goal. TOD 703. Use a word, phrase, or sentence to american jeremiad, accomplish a complex purpose, often in what stands, terms of the focus of the jeremiad essay. Unity, and Cohesion (ORG) ORG 201. Determine the need for transition words or phrases to establish time relationships in Essay on Social Marketing, simple narrative essays (e.g., then , this time ) ORG 301. Determine the most logical place for a sentence in a paragraph. ORG 302.

Provide a simple conclusion to a paragraph or essay (e.g., expressing one of the essay’s main ideas) ORG 401. Determine the need for transition words or phrases to establish straightforward logical relationships (e.g., first , afterward , in response ) ORG 402. Determine the most logical place for a sentence in jeremiad, a straightforward essay. Example? ORG 403. Provide an introduction to jeremiad, a straightforward paragraph. ORG 404. Provide a straightforward conclusion to a paragraph or essay (e.g., summarizing an essay’s main idea or ideas) ORG 405. Rearrange the sentences in a straightforward paragraph for the sake of logic. ORG 501. Determine the need for transition words or phrases to establish subtle logical relationships within and between sentences (e.g., therefore , however , in addition ) ORG 502.

Provide a fairly straightforward introduction or conclusion to or transition within a paragraph or essay (e.g., supporting or emphasizing an essay’s main idea) ORG 503. Rearrange the Essay on Social Marketing sentences in a fairly straightforward paragraph for the sake of jeremiad logic. ORG 504. Determine the best place to divide a paragraph to difference baroque and classical, meet a particular rhetorical goal. ORG 505. Rearrange the paragraphs in an essay for the sake of logic. American? ORG 601. Determine the need for transition words or phrases to establish subtle logical relationships within and between paragraphs. ORG 602. Determine the most logical place for a sentence in a fairly complex essay. ORG 603.

Provide a subtle introduction or conclusion to or transition within a paragraph or essay (e.g., echoing an essay’s theme or restating the main argument) ORG 604. Rearrange the sentences in a fairly complex paragraph for the sake of logic and difference between baroque and classical, coherence. ORG 701. Determine the need for transition words or phrases, basing decisions on a thorough understanding of the paragraph and essay. American Jeremiad? ORG 702. Provide a sophisticated introduction or conclusion to or transition within a paragraph or essay, basing decisions on a thorough understanding of the paragraph and essay (e.g., linking the conclusion to one of the essay’s main images) KLA 201. Revise vague, clumsy, and imported inflation, confusing writing that creates obvious logic problems. KLA 301. Delete obviously redundant and wordy material. Jeremiad? KLA 302.

Revise expressions that deviate markedly from the style and tone of the essay. KLA 401. Delete redundant and wordy material when the problem is contained within a single phrase (e.g., “alarmingly startled,” “started by reaching the between baroque point of beginning”) KLA 402. Revise expressions that deviate from the style and tone of the essay. KLA 403. Determine the need for conjunctions to create straightforward logical links between clauses. KLA 404. Use the word or phrase most appropriate in terms of the content of the sentence when the vocabulary is relatively common. KLA 501. American? Revise vague, clumsy, and confusing writing.

KLA 502. Delete redundant and wordy material when the meaning of the puritans period entire sentence must be considered. KLA 503. Revise expressions that deviate in subtle ways from the style and tone of the essay. KLA 504. Determine the jeremiad need for conjunctions to create logical links between clauses. Puritans Period? KLA 505. Use the american word or phrase most appropriate in terms of the content of the sentence when the vocabulary is uncommon. KLA 601. Revise vague, clumsy, and confusing writing involving sophisticated language. KLA 602.

Delete redundant and wordy material that involves fairly sophisticated language (e.g., “the outlook of an aesthetic viewpoint”) or that sounds acceptable as conversational English. KLA 603. Determine the need for puritans period, conjunctions to create subtle logical links between clauses. KLA 604. Use the word or phrase most appropriate in terms of the content of the sentence when the vocabulary is jeremiad, fairly sophisticated. KLA 701. Delete redundant and wordy material that involves sophisticated language or complex concepts or where the material is redundant in terms of the paragraph or essay as a whole. KLA 702. Use the word or phrase most appropriate in terms of the inflation content of the sentence when the vocabulary is sophisticated. Conventions of Standard English Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation. SST 201.

Determine the need for punctuation or conjunctions to american, join simple clauses. SST 202. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in imported, verb tense between simple clauses in a sentence or between simple adjoining sentences. SST 301. Determine the need for punctuation or conjunctions to correct awkward-sounding fragments and fused sentences as well as obviously faulty subordination and coordination of clauses.

SST 302. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense and voice when the meaning of the entire sentence must be considered. SST 401. Recognize and correct marked disturbances in sentence structure (e.g., faulty placement of adjectives, participial phrase fragments, missing or incorrect relative pronouns, dangling or misplaced modifiers, lack of parallelism within a simple series of verbs) SST 501. Recognize and jeremiad, correct disturbances in sentence structure (e.g., faulty placement of phrases, faulty coordination and between, subordination of jeremiad clauses, lack of parallelism within a simple series of phrases) SST 502. Maintain consistent and logical verb tense and salt pillars, pronoun person on the basis of the preceding clause or sentence. SST 601. Recognize and correct subtle disturbances in jeremiad, sentence structure (e.g., danglers where the intended meaning is clear but the sentence is ungrammatical, faulty subordination and coordination of clauses in long or involved sentences) SST 602. Maintain consistent and logical verb tense and voice and pronoun person on the basis of the paragraph or essay as a whole.

SST 701. Recognize and correct very subtle disturbances in sentence structure (e.g., weak conjunctions between independent clauses, run-ons that would be acceptable in conversational English, lack of parallelism within a complex series of phrases or clauses) USG 201. Form the past tense and puritans period, past participle of irregular but commonly used verbs. USG 202. Form comparative and american, superlative adjectives. USG 301. Determine whether an adjective form or an adverb form is called for imported inflation, in a given situation. USG 302. American? Ensure straightforward subject-verb agreement. USG 303.

Ensure straightforward pronoun-antecedent agreement. USG 304. Poem Example? Use idiomatically appropriate prepositions in simple contexts. USG 305. American? Use the appropriate word in frequently confused pairs (e.g., there and their , past and passed , led and lead ) USG 401. Puritans Period? Use the jeremiad correct comparative or superlative adjective or adverb form depending on context (e.g., “He is the oldest of my three brothers”) USG 402. Ensure subject-verb agreement when there is imported inflation, some text between the subject and american jeremiad, verb. Difference Between? USG 403. Use idiomatically appropriate prepositions, especially in combination with verbs (e.g., long for , appeal to ) USG 404.

Recognize and correct expressions that deviate from idiomatic English. USG 501. Form simple and jeremiad, compound verb tenses, both regular and irregular, including forming verbs by using have rather than of (e.g., would have gone , not would of gone ) USG 502. Ensure pronoun-antecedent agreement when the salt pillars pronoun and antecedent occur in separate clauses or sentences. USG 503.

Recognize and correct vague and ambiguous pronouns. USG 601. Ensure subject-verb agreement in some challenging situations (e.g., when the subject-verb order is inverted or when the subject is an american jeremiad indefinite pronoun) USG 602. Correctly use reflexive pronouns, the possessive pronouns its and is html, your , and the relative pronouns who and whom. American Jeremiad? USG 603.

Use the appropriate word in less-common confused pairs (e.g., allude and elude ) USG 701. Ensure subject-verb agreement when a phrase or clause between the subject and verb suggests a different number for the verb. USG 702. Poem Example? Use idiomatically and contextually appropriate prepositions in combination with verbs in situations involving sophisticated language or complex concepts. American Jeremiad? PUN 201.

Delete commas that create basic sense problems (e.g., between verb and direct object) PUN 301. Delete commas that markedly disturb sentence flow (e.g., between modifier and imported inflation, modified element) PUN 302. Use appropriate punctuation in straightforward situations (e.g., simple items in a series) PUN 401. Delete commas when an incorrect understanding of the sentence suggests a pause that should be punctuated (e.g., between verb and direct object clause) PUN 402. Delete apostrophes used incorrectly to form plural nouns. PUN 403.

Use commas to avoid obvious ambiguity (e.g., to set off a long introductory element from the rest of the sentence when a misreading is possible) PUN 404. Use commas to set off simple parenthetical elements. PUN 501. Delete commas in long or involved sentences when an incorrect understanding of the sentence suggests a pause that should be punctuated (e.g., between the elements of a compound subject or compound verb joined by and ) PUN 502. Jeremiad? Recognize and correct inappropriate uses of colons and semicolons. PUN 503.

Use punctuation to set off complex parenthetical elements. PUN 504. Use apostrophes to form simple possessive nouns. PUN 601. Use commas to avoid ambiguity when the syntax or language is sophisticated (e.g., to set off a complex series of items) PUN 602.

Use punctuation to set off a nonessential/ nonrestrictive appositive or clause. PUN 603. Use apostrophes to form possessives, including irregular plural nouns. PUN 604. Use a semicolon to puritans period, link closely related independent clauses. PUN 701. Delete punctuation around essential/restrictive appositives or clauses. American Jeremiad? PUN 702. Use a colon to introduce an example or an elaboration.

Score Range 1–12. Score Range 13–15. Score Range 16–19. Score Range 20–23. Score Range 24–27. Score Range 28–32.

Standards are provided for each Mathematics Test score range except the 1–12 range. Students who score in imported inflation, the 1–12 range are most likely beginning to develop the knowledge and skills assessed in the other ranges. Students who score in the 1–12 range are most likely beginning to develop the knowledge and skills assessed in the other ranges. Students who achieve the 28–32 level are likely able to use variables fluently so that they can solve problems with variables in the same way that they can solve the problems with numbers, and they can use variables to represent general properties. Because Algebra and Functions are closely connected, some standards apply to both categories. American Jeremiad? These have the abbreviation AF and are listed in both categories. N 201. Poem? Perform one-operation computation with whole numbers and decimals. N 202. Recognize equivalent fractions and fractions in lowest terms. N 203.

Locate positive rational numbers (expressed as whole numbers, fractions, decimals, and mixed numbers) on the number line. N 301. Recognize one-digit factors of a number. N 302. Identify a digit’s place value. N 303. Locate rational numbers on the number line. Note: A matrix as a representation of data is treated here as a basic table. N 401.

Exhibit knowledge of elementary number concepts such as rounding, the ordering of decimals, pattern identification, primes, and american, greatest common factor. N 402. Imported? Write positive powers of american jeremiad 10 by using exponents. Difference Between And Classical? N 403. Comprehend the concept of length on the number line, and find the american jeremiad distance between two points. N 404. Understand absolute value in Essay on Social, terms of distance. N 405. Find the distance in the coordinate plane between two points with the jeremiad same x -coordinate or y -coordinate. N 406. Add two matrices that have whole number entries.

N 501. Order fractions. N 502. Find and use the imported least common multiple. N 503. Work with numerical factors. N 504. Exhibit some knowledge of the complex numbers. N 505. Jeremiad? Add and salt pillars, subtract matrices that have integer entries. N 601.

Apply number properties involving prime factorization. N 602. American Jeremiad? Apply number properties involving even/odd numbers and factors/multiples. N 603. Apply number properties involving positive/negative numbers.

N 604. Salt Pillars? Apply the american facts that ? is irrational and that the square root of an integer is rational only if that integer is a perfect square. N 605. Apply properties of rational exponents. N 606.

Multiply two complex numbers. N 607. Use relations involving addition, subtraction, and scalar multiplication of vectors and of matrices. Difference Baroque? N 701. Analyze and draw conclusions based on jeremiad, number concepts. N 702. Apply properties of rational numbers and the rational number system. N 703.

Apply properties of real numbers and between baroque and classical, the real number system, including properties of irrational numbers. Jeremiad? N 704. Apply properties of complex numbers and the complex number system. N 705. Multiply matrices. N 706. Apply properties of matrices and properties of matrices as a number system. AF 201. Puritans Period? Solve problems in one or two steps using whole numbers and using decimals in the context of money. A 201.

Exhibit knowledge of basic expressions (e.g., identify an expression for a total as b + g ) A 202. Jeremiad? Solve equations in the form x + a = b , where a and b are whole numbers or decimals. AF 301. Solve routine one-step arithmetic problems using positive rational numbers, such as single-step percent. AF 302. Solve some routine two-step arithmetic problems. AF 303. Relate a graph to between and classical, a situation described qualitatively in jeremiad, terms of familiar properties such as before and after, increasing and decreasing, higher and epic poem, lower. AF 304.

Apply a definition of an operation for whole numbers (e.g., a • b = 3 a – b ) A 301. Substitute whole numbers for unknown quantities to evaluate expressions. A 302. Solve one-step equations to get integer or decimal answers. AF 401. Solve routine two-step or three-step arithmetic problems involving concepts such as rate and proportion, tax added, percentage off, and estimating by using a given average value in place of american jeremiad actual values. AF 402. Perform straightforward word-to-symbol translations. AF 403. Relate a graph to a situation described in Essay on Social Marketing, terms of a starting value and an additional amount per unit (e.g., unit cost, weekly growth) A 401. Evaluate algebraic expressions by substituting integers for unknown quantities.

A 402. American? Add and inflation, subtract simple algebraic expressions. A 403. Solve routine first-degree equations. A 404. American? Multiply two binomials. Epic Poem? A 405. Match simple inequalities with their graphs on american jeremiad, the number line (e.g., x? –3 5 x? –35 ) A 406. Exhibit knowledge of salt pillars slope.

AF 501. Solve multistep arithmetic problems that involve planning or converting common derived units of measure (e.g., feet per second to miles per hour) AF 502. Build functions and write expressions, equations, or inequalities with a single variable for common pre-algebra settings (e.g., rate and jeremiad, distance problems and problems that can be solved by using proportions) AF 503. Puritans Period? Match linear equations with their graphs in the coordinate plane. A 501. Recognize that when numerical quantities are reported in real-world contexts, the numbers are often rounded. A 502. Solve real-world problems by using first-degree equations.

A 503. Solve first-degree inequalities when the method does not involve reversing the inequality sign. A 504. Match compound inequalities with their graphs on american jeremiad, the number line (e.g., –10.5 x ? 20.3) A 505.

Add, subtract, and multiply polynomials. A 506. Identify solutions to simple quadratic equations. A 507. Solve quadratic equations in the form ( x + a )( x + b ) = 0, where a and b are numbers or variables. A 508. Factor simple quadratics (e.g., the Essay on Social Marketing difference of squares and jeremiad, perfect square trinomials) A 509.

Work with squares and square roots of numbers. A 510. Work with cubes and difference between, cube roots of numbers. A 511. Work with scientific notation. A 512. Work problems involving positive integer exponents. A 513.

Determine when an expression is undefined. A 514. Determine the american slope of a line from an equation. AF 601. Solve word problems containing several rates, proportions, or percentages. AF 602.

Build functions and write expressions, equations, and inequalities for common algebra settings (e.g., distance to a point on a curve and profit for Essay on Social Marketing, variable cost and demand) AF 603. Interpret and jeremiad, use information from graphs in the coordinate plane. AF 604. Given an equation or function, find an equation or function whose graph is a translation by a specified amount up or down. A 601. Manipulate expressions and equations.

A 602. Solve linear inequalities when the method involves reversing the inequality sign. A 603. Match linear inequalities with their graphs on the number line. Between Baroque And Classical? A 604. Solve systems of two linear equations. A 605. Solve quadratic equations. A 606. American? Solve absolute value equations.

AF 701. Solve complex arithmetic problems involving percent of epic poem example increase or decrease or requiring integration of several concepts (e.g., using several ratios, comparing percentages, or comparing averages) AF 702. Build functions and write expressions, equations, and inequalities when the process requires planning and/or strategic manipulation. AF 703. Analyze and american, draw conclusions based on properties of algebra and/or functions. AF 704. Imported Inflation? Analyze and draw conclusions based on information from american jeremiad, graphs in the coordinate plane. AF 705.

Identify characteristics of graphs based on a set of conditions or on a general equation such as y = ax ? + c. AF 706. Given an equation or function, find an equation or function whose graph is a translation by specified amounts in the horizontal and vertical directions. A 701. Solve simple absolute value inequalities. A 702. Match simple quadratic inequalities with their graphs on the number line. A 703. Apply the remainder theorem for polynomials, that P ( a ) is the remainder when P ( x ) is divided by ( x – a ) AF 201. Solve problems in one or two steps using whole numbers and using decimals in the context of money. F 201. Extend a given pattern by a few terms for patterns that have a constant increase or decrease between terms.

AF 301. Solve routine one-step arithmetic problems using positive rational numbers, such as single-step percent. AF 302. Solve some routine two-step arithmetic problems. AF 303. Relate a graph to a situation described qualitatively in terms of poem familiar properties such as before and after, increasing and decreasing, higher and lower. AF 304. Apply a definition of an operation for whole numbers (e.g., a • b = 3 a – b ) F 301.

Extend a given pattern by a few terms for patterns that have a constant factor between terms. AF 401. American Jeremiad? Solve routine two-step or three-step arithmetic problems involving concepts such as rate and proportion, tax added, percentage off, and estimating by using a given average value in place of actual values. AF 402. Perform straightforward word-to-symbol translations. AF 403.

Relate a graph to what is html for, a situation described in terms of a starting value and an additional amount per unit (e.g., unit cost, weekly growth) F 401. Evaluate linear and quadratic functions, expressed in american jeremiad, function notation, at integer values. AF 501. Solve multistep arithmetic problems that involve planning or converting common derived units of measure (e.g., feet per second to miles per hour) AF 502. Build functions and write expressions, equations, or inequalities with a single variable for common pre-algebra settings (e.g., rate and distance problems and problems that can be solved by using proportions) AF 503.

Match linear equations with their graphs in the coordinate plane. F 501. Between Baroque And Classical? Evaluate polynomial functions, expressed in function notation, at integer values. F 502. Find the next term in a sequence described recursively. F 503. Build functions and use quantitative information to identify graphs for relations that are proportional or linear. F 504. Attend to jeremiad, the difference between a function modeling a situation and the reality of the Essay Marketing situation. F 505.

Understand the jeremiad concept of a function as having a well-defined output value at salt pillars each valid input value. F 506. Understand the concept of domain and range in terms of valid input and output, and in terms of function graphs. F 507. Interpret statements that use function notation in terms of their context. Jeremiad? F 508.

Find the domain of polynomial functions and rational functions. F 509. Find the what stands for range of polynomial functions. F 510. Find where a rational function’s graph has a vertical asymptote. F 511. Jeremiad? Use function notation for simple functions of two variables.

AF 601. Solve word problems containing several rates, proportions, or percentages. AF 602. Build functions and write expressions, equations, and inequalities for common algebra settings (e.g., distance to for, a point on a curve and american jeremiad, profit for epic poem, variable cost and demand) AF 603. Interpret and american jeremiad, use information from graphs in the coordinate plane. AF 604.

Given an equation or function, find an equation or function whose graph is a translation by a specified amount up or down. F 601. Puritans Period? Relate a graph to american jeremiad, a situation described qualitatively in terms of faster change or slower change. F 602. Build functions for relations that are inversely proportional. F 603. Find a recursive expression for the general term in a sequence described recursively. F 604. Evaluate composite functions at integer values. AF 701. Solve complex arithmetic problems involving percent of increase or decrease or requiring integration of several concepts (e.g., using several ratios, comparing percentages, or comparing averages) AF 702.

Build functions and write expressions, equations, and inequalities when the what is html stands for process requires planning and/or strategic manipulation. AF 703. Analyze and draw conclusions based on properties of algebra and/or functions. AF 704. Analyze and draw conclusions based on information from graphs in the coordinate plane. AF 705. Identify characteristics of graphs based on jeremiad, a set of conditions or on a general equation such as y = ax ? + c. AF 706. Given an is html equation or function, find an equation or function whose graph is jeremiad, a translation by specified amounts in the horizontal and vertical directions. F 701. Compare actual values and puritans period, the values of a modeling function to judge model fit and compare models. F 702.

Build functions for relations that are exponential. F 703. Exhibit knowledge of geometric sequences. F 704. Jeremiad? Exhibit knowledge of unit circle trigonometry. F 705. Match graphs of basic trigonometric functions with their equations. F 706. Use trigonometric concepts and basic identities to solve problems.

F 707. Exhibit knowledge of logarithms. Marketing? F 708. Write an expression for the composite of two simple functions. G 201. Estimate the length of a line segment based on other lengths in a geometric figure. G 202. Calculate the length of a line segment based on the lengths of other line segments that go in the same direction (e.g., overlapping line segments and parallel sides of polygons with only right angles) G 203. Perform common conversions of money and of length, weight, mass, and time within a measurement system (e.g., dollars to dimes, inches to feet, and hours to minutes) G 301.

Exhibit some knowledge of the angles associated with parallel lines. G 302. Compute the american jeremiad perimeter of polygons when all side lengths are given. Salt Pillars? G 303. Compute the american area of rectangles when whole number dimensions are given. G 304. Puritans Period? Locate points in the first quadrant. American Jeremiad? G 401.

Use properties of parallel lines to find the measure of an difference between baroque and classical angle. G 402. Exhibit knowledge of basic angle properties and special sums of angle measures (e.g., 90°, 180°, and 360°) G 403. Compute the area and perimeter of triangles and rectangles in simple problems. G 404. Find the length of the hypotenuse of a right triangle when only very simple computation is involved (e.g., 3-4-5 and 6-8-10 triangles) G 405. American Jeremiad? Use geometric formulas when all necessary information is given. G 406.

Locate points in the coordinate plane. G 407. Translate points up, down, left, and right in the coordinate plane. G 501. Use several angle properties to puritans period, find an american jeremiad unknown angle measure. G 502.

Count the number of lines of symmetry of a geometric figure. G 503. Salt Pillars? Use symmetry of isosceles triangles to find unknown side lengths or angle measures. G 504. Recognize that real-world measurements are typically imprecise and that an appropriate level of precision is american, related to the measuring device and between baroque, procedure. G 505. Compute the perimeter of simple composite geometric figures with unknown side lengths.

G 506. Compute the jeremiad area of triangles and rectangles when one or more additional simple steps are required. G 507. Compute the area and circumference of circles after identifying necessary information. G 508. Given the length of two sides of epic poem example a right triangle, find the third when the american lengths are Pythagorean triples. G 509.

Express the sine, cosine, and salt pillars, tangent of an angle in a right triangle as a ratio of given side lengths. G 510. Determine the slope of a line from points or a graph. G 511. Find the midpoint of a line segment. G 512. Find the coordinates of a point rotated 180° around a given center point. G 601. Jeremiad? Use relationships involving area, perimeter, and volume of geometric figures to example, compute another measure (e.g., surface area for a cube of a given volume and simple geometric probability) G 602. American Jeremiad? Use the Pythagorean theorem. G 603.

Apply properties of 30°-60°-90°, 45°-45°-90°, similar, and congruent triangles. G 604. Apply basic trigonometric ratios to solve right-triangle problems. G 605. Use the distance formula. G 606. Use properties of parallel and perpendicular lines to Marketing, determine an equation of a line or coordinates of a point. G 607. Find the coordinates of a point reflected across a vertical or horizontal line or across y = x. G 608. Find the american jeremiad coordinates of a point rotated 90° about the origin. G 609.

Recognize special characteristics of parabolas and circles (e.g., the vertex of a parabola and the center or radius of a circle) G 701. Use relationships among angles, arcs, and distances in a circle. G 702. Compute the example area of composite geometric figures when planning and/or visualization is required. G 703. Use scale factors to determine the magnitude of a size change. G 704. Analyze and draw conclusions based on a set of conditions. American? G 705.

Solve multistep geometry problems that involve integrating concepts, planning, and/or visualization. S 201. Calculate the average of a list of positive whole numbers. S 202. Extract one relevant number from a basic table or chart, and use it in a single computation. S 301. Calculate the average of a list of numbers. S 302. Calculate the average given the number of data values and the sum of the data values.

S 303. Read basic tables and charts. S 304. Extract relevant data from on Social Marketing, a basic table or chart and use the data in a computation. Jeremiad? S 305. Use the relationship between the probability of an event and the probability of its complement. S 401. Calculate the missing data value given the average and all data values but one. S 402.

Translate from one representation of data to another (e.g., a bar graph to a circle graph) S 403. Determine the probability of salt pillars a simple event. S 404. Describe events as combinations of other events (e.g., using and , or , and not ) S 405. Exhibit knowledge of simple counting techniques. S 501. Calculate the american average given the Marketing frequency counts of all the data values. S 502. Manipulate data from tables and charts. S 503. Compute straightforward probabilities for common situations.

S 504. Use Venn diagrams in counting. S 505. Recognize that when data summaries are reported in the real world, results are often rounded and must be interpreted as having appropriate precision. S 506. Recognize that when a statistical model is used, model values typically differ from actual values. S 601. Calculate or use a weighted average. S 602. Interpret and use information from tables and jeremiad, charts, including two-way frequency tables. S 603.

Apply counting techniques. S 604. Compute a probability when the event and/or sample space are not given or obvious. S 605. Recognize the concepts of conditional and joint probability expressed in real-world contexts. S 606. Recognize the concept of independence expressed in real-world contexts. S 701. Distinguish between mean, median, and mode for a list of numbers.

S 702. Analyze and draw conclusions based on information from tables and charts, including two-way frequency tables. S 703. Understand the role of randomization in epic poem example, surveys, experiments, and observational studies. S 704. Exhibit knowledge of conditional and joint probability. S 705. Recognize that part of the power of american jeremiad statistical modeling comes from looking at regularity in the differences between actual values and model values. Between Baroque And Classical? Score Range 1–12. Score Range 13–15.

Score Range 16–19. Score Range 20–23. Score Range 24–27. Score Range 28–32. Standards are provided for each Reading Test score range except the 1–12 range. Students who score in jeremiad, the 1–12 range are most likely beginning to develop the knowledge and skills assessed in the other ranges. CLR 201. Locate basic facts (e.g., names, dates, events) clearly stated in difference baroque and classical, a passage. CLR 202.

Draw simple logical conclusions about the main characters in somewhat challenging literary narratives. CLR 301. Locate simple details at jeremiad the sentence and paragraph level in somewhat challenging passages. CLR 302. Draw simple logical conclusions in puritans period, somewhat challenging passages. CLR 401. Locate important details in somewhat challenging passages. CLR 402. Draw logical conclusions in somewhat challenging passages. CLR 403.

Draw simple logical conclusions in more challenging passages. CLR 404. Paraphrase some statements as they are used in somewhat challenging passages. CLR 501. Locate and interpret minor or subtly stated details in somewhat challenging passages. CLR 502. Locate important details in jeremiad, more challenging passages. CLR 503.

Draw subtle logical conclusions in difference baroque and classical, somewhat challenging passages. CLR 504. American Jeremiad? Draw logical conclusions in more challenging passages. CLR 505. Paraphrase virtually any statement as it is used in somewhat challenging passages. CLR 506. Paraphrase some statements as they are used in poem example, more challenging passages. CLR 601. Locate and interpret minor or subtly stated details in more challenging passages. CLR 602.

Locate important details in complex passages. CLR 603. Draw subtle logical conclusions in more challenging passages. CLR 604. Draw simple logical conclusions in complex passages. CLR 605. Paraphrase virtually any statement as it is used in more challenging passages. CLR 701.

Locate and interpret minor or subtly stated details in complex passages. CLR 702. Locate important details in highly complex passages. American Jeremiad? CLR 703. Draw logical conclusions in complex passages. CLR 704. Epic Poem? Draw simple logical conclusions in american, highly complex passages. CLR 705. Inflation? Draw complex or subtle logical conclusions, often by synthesizing information from different portions of the passage. CLR 706. Paraphrase statements as they are used in american, complex passages.

IDT 201. Identify the topic of passages and distinguish the topic from the central idea or theme. IDT 301. Identify a clear central idea in straightforward paragraphs in somewhat challenging literary narratives. IDT 401. Infer a central idea in on Social, straightforward paragraphs in somewhat challenging literary narratives. IDT 402. Identify a clear central idea or theme in american jeremiad, somewhat challenging passages or their paragraphs. IDT 403.

Summarize key supporting ideas and what, details in somewhat challenging passages. IDT 501. Infer a central idea or theme in somewhat challenging passages or their paragraphs. IDT 502. Identify a clear central idea or theme in more challenging passages or their paragraphs.

IDT 503. Summarize key supporting ideas and details in more challenging passages. IDT 601. Infer a central idea or theme in more challenging passages or their paragraphs. IDT 602. American? Summarize key supporting ideas and details in complex passages. IDT 701.

Identify or infer a central idea or theme in complex passages or their paragraphs. IDT 702. Summarize key supporting ideas and details in highly complex passages. REL 201. Inflation? Determine when (e.g., first, last, before, after) an event occurs in somewhat challenging passages.

REL 202. Identify simple cause-effect relationships within a single sentence in a passage. REL 301. Identify clear comparative relationships between main characters in somewhat challenging literary narratives. REL 302. Identify simple cause-effect relationships within a single paragraph in somewhat challenging literary narratives.

REL 401. Order simple sequences of events in somewhat challenging literary narratives. REL 402. Identify clear comparative relationships in american, somewhat challenging passages. REL 403. Identify clear cause-effect relationships in imported inflation, somewhat challenging passages. REL 501. American Jeremiad? Order sequences of events in somewhat challenging passages. Essay On Social? REL 502. Understand implied or subtly stated comparative relationships in somewhat challenging passages.

REL 503. Identify clear comparative relationships in american jeremiad, more challenging passages. REL 504. Understand implied or subtly stated cause-effect relationships in somewhat challenging passages. REL 505. Is Html For? Identify clear cause-effect relationships in more challenging passages.

REL 601. Jeremiad? Order sequences of events in poem, more challenging passages. REL 602. Understand implied or subtly stated comparative relationships in more challenging passages. REL 603. Identify clear comparative relationships in complex passages. REL 604. Understand implied or subtly stated cause-effect relationships in more challenging passages. REL 605.

Identify clear cause-effect relationships in complex passages. American? REL 701. On Social Marketing? Order sequences of events in jeremiad, complex passages. REL 702. Understand implied or subtly stated comparative relationships in complex passages. REL 703. Identify clear comparative relationships in highly complex passages. REL 704. Understand implied or subtly stated cause-effect relationships in complex passages. REL 705. Salt Pillars? Identify clear cause-effect relationships in american, highly complex passages.

WME 201. Understand the implication of a familiar word or phrase and of simple descriptive language. WME 301. Analyze how the choice of a specific word or phrase shapes meaning or tone in somewhat challenging passages when the effect is simple. Marketing? WME 302. American? Interpret basic figurative language as it is used in a passage. WME 401. Analyze how the choice of a specific word or phrase shapes meaning or tone in somewhat challenging passages.

WME 402. Interpret most words and phrases as they are used in somewhat challenging passages, including determining technical, connotative, and inflation, figurative meanings. WME 501. Analyze how the choice of a specific word or phrase shapes meaning or tone in somewhat challenging passages when the effect is subtle. WME 502. Analyze how the choice of a specific word or phrase shapes meaning or tone in american jeremiad, more challenging passages.

WME 503. On Social? Interpret virtually any word or phrase as it is used in somewhat challenging passages, including determining technical, connotative, and american, figurative meanings. WME 504. Interpret most words and phrases as they are used in more challenging passages, including determining technical, connotative, and between baroque, figurative meanings. WME 601. Analyze how the choice of a specific word or phrase shapes meaning or tone in complex passages.

WME 602. Interpret virtually any word or phrase as it is used in more challenging passages, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings. WME 603. Interpret words and phrases in a passage that makes consistent use of figurative, general academic, domain-specific, or otherwise difficult language. WME 701.

Analyze how the american jeremiad choice of a specific word or phrase shapes meaning or tone in passages when the between baroque and classical effect is subtle or complex. WME 702. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in complex passages, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings. WME 703. Interpret words and phrases in a passage that makes extensive use of jeremiad figurative, general academic, domain-specific, or otherwise difficult language.

TST 201. Difference Between? Analyze how one or more sentences in passages relate to the whole passage when the american function is stated or clearly indicated. TST 301. Analyze how one or more sentences in somewhat challenging passages relate to the whole passage when the function is simple. TST 302. Salt Pillars? Identify a clear function of straightforward paragraphs in somewhat challenging literary narratives. TST 401. Analyze how one or more sentences in somewhat challenging passages relate to the whole passage. TST 402. Infer the function of straightforward paragraphs in somewhat challenging literary narratives. TST 403.

Identify a clear function of american paragraphs in somewhat challenging passages. TST 404. Analyze the overall structure of what stands for somewhat challenging passages. American Jeremiad? TST 501. Analyze how one or more sentences in somewhat challenging passages relate to the whole passage when the function is subtle.

TST 502. Epic? Analyze how one or more sentences in jeremiad, more challenging passages relate to the whole passage. TST 503. Infer the function of paragraphs in somewhat challenging passages. TST 504. Epic? Identify a clear function of american paragraphs in more challenging passages. TST 505.

Analyze the overall structure of more challenging passages. TST 601. Analyze how one or more sentences in Marketing, complex passages relate to jeremiad, the whole passage. TST 602. Infer the Essay Marketing function of paragraphs in more challenging passages. American? TST 603. Analyze the overall structure of complex passages.

TST 701. Analyze how one or more sentences in passages relate to the whole passage when the function is subtle or complex. Imported? TST 702. Identify or infer the function of paragraphs in complex passages. TST 703. Analyze the overall structure of highly complex passages.

PPV 201. Jeremiad? Recognize a clear intent of an author or narrator in somewhat challenging literary narratives. PPV 301. Recognize a clear intent of an author or narrator in somewhat challenging passages. PPV 401. Imported? Identify a clear purpose of somewhat challenging passages and how that purpose shapes content and style.

PPV 402. Understand point of view in somewhat challenging passages. PPV 501. Infer a purpose in american, somewhat challenging passages and how that purpose shapes content and style. PPV 502. Identify a clear purpose of more challenging passages and example, how that purpose shapes content and style. PPV 503. Understand point of view in more challenging passages. PPV 601. Infer a purpose in more challenging passages and how that purpose shapes content and style.

PPV 602. Understand point of view in complex passages. PPV 701. American? Identify or infer a purpose in complex passages and inflation, how that purpose shapes content and style. PPV 702. Understand point of view in highly complex passages.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas. ARG 201. Analyze how one or more sentences in passages offer reasons for or support a claim when the relationship is clearly indicated. ARG 301. Analyze how one or more sentences in american, somewhat challenging passages offer reasons for or support a claim when the relationship is simple. On Social? ARG 401. Analyze how one or more sentences in somewhat challenging passages offer reasons for or support a claim. ARG 402. Identify a clear central claim in somewhat challenging passages. ARG 501.

Analyze how one or more sentences in more challenging passages offer reasons for or support a claim. ARG 502. Infer a central claim in somewhat challenging passages. ARG 503. Identify a clear central claim in more challenging passages. ARG 601.

Analyze how one or more sentences in complex passages offer reasons for or support a claim. ARG 602. Infer a central claim in more challenging passages. ARG 701. Analyze how one or more sentences in passages offer reasons for or support a claim when the relationship is jeremiad, subtle or complex.

ARG 702. Identify or infer a central claim in complex passages. ARG 703. Identify a clear central claim in highly complex passages. SYN 401.

Draw logical conclusions using information from two literary narratives. Score Range 1–12. Score Range 13–15. Score Range 16–19. Score Range 20–23. Score Range 24–27. Score Range 28–32. Standards are provided for each Science Test score range except the 1–12 range. Students who score in the 1–12 range are most likely beginning to develop the knowledge and skills assessed in the other ranges.

IOD 201. Select one piece of Essay on Social Marketing data from a simple data presentation (e.g., a simple food web diagram) IOD 202. Jeremiad? Identify basic features of a table, graph, or diagram (e.g., units of measurement) IOD 203. Find basic information in text that describes a simple data presentation. IOD 301. Select two or more pieces of data from a simple data presentation. IOD 302.

Understand basic scientific terminology. IOD 303. Find basic information in text that describes a complex data presentation. IOD 304. Determine how the values of variables change as the value of another variable changes in a simple data presentation. IOD 401. Select data from a complex data presentation (e.g., a phase diagram) IOD 402.

Compare or combine data from a simple data presentation (e.g., order or sum data from a table) IOD 403. Puritans Period? Translate information into american jeremiad a table, graph, or diagram. IOD 404. Perform a simple interpolation or simple extrapolation using data in a table or graph. IOD 501. Compare or combine data from two or more simple data presentations (e.g., categorize data from a table using a scale from another table) IOD 502. Compare or combine data from a complex data presentation. IOD 503. Determine how the values of variables change as the value of another variable changes in difference between and classical, a complex data presentation. IOD 504.

Determine and/or use a simple (e.g., linear) mathematical relationship that exists between data. American? IOD 505. Analyze presented information when given new, simple information. Difference Baroque? IOD 601. Compare or combine data from a simple data presentation with data from a complex data presentation. IOD 602. Determine and/or use a complex (e.g., nonlinear) mathematical relationship that exists between data.

IOD 603. Perform a complex interpolation or complex extrapolation using data in a table or graph. IOD 701. Compare or combine data from american, two or more complex data presentations. IOD 702. Analyze presented information when given new, complex information. SIN 201. Find basic information in text that describes a simple experiment. SIN 202. Understand the tools and functions of salt pillars tools used in a simple experiment.

SIN 301. Understand the methods used in jeremiad, a simple experiment. SIN 302. Understand the tools and functions of tools used in a complex experiment. SIN 303.

Find basic information in text that describes a complex experiment. Difference Between And Classical? SIN 401. Understand a simple experimental design. SIN 402. Understand the methods used in a complex experiment. SIN 403. Jeremiad? Identify a control in an experiment. SIN 404. Identify similarities and differences between experiments. SIN 405.

Determine which experiments utilized a given tool, method, or aspect of design. Puritans Period? SIN 501. Understand a complex experimental design. Jeremiad? SIN 502. Predict the results of an additional trial or measurement in an experiment. SIN 503. Determine the experimental conditions that would produce specified results.

SIN 601. Determine the hypothesis for an experiment. SIN 602. Determine an alternate method for testing a hypothesis. Is Html? SIN 701. Understand precision and accuracy issues. SIN 702. Predict the effects of modifying the american jeremiad design or methods of an experiment.

SIN 703. Determine which additional trial or experiment could be performed to puritans period, enhance or evaluate experimental results. EMI 301. Identify implications in a model. EMI 302. Determine which models present certain basic information. EMI 401. Determine which simple hypothesis, prediction, or conclusion is, or is not, consistent with a data presentation, model, or piece of information in text. EMI 402. Identify key assumptions in a model.

EMI 403. Determine which models imply certain information. Jeremiad? EMI 404. Identify similarities and differences between models. EMI 501. Essay On Social? Determine which simple hypothesis, prediction, or conclusion is, or is not, consistent with two or more data presentations, models, and/or pieces of information in text. EMI 502.

Determine whether presented information, or new information, supports or contradicts a simple hypothesis or conclusion, and why. EMI 503. Identify the strengths and american, weaknesses of models. EMI 504. Poem? Determine which models are supported or weakened by new information. EMI 505. American Jeremiad? Determine which experimental results or models support or contradict a hypothesis, prediction, or conclusion. EMI 601. Stands For? Determine which complex hypothesis, prediction, or conclusion is, or is not, consistent with a data presentation, model, or piece of information in text. EMI 602. Determine whether presented information, or new information, supports or weakens a model, and why.

EMI 603. Use new information to make a prediction based on a model. EMI 701. Determine which complex hypothesis, prediction, or conclusion is, or is american, not, consistent with two or more data presentations, models, and/or pieces of information in text. EMI 702. Determine whether presented information, or new information, supports or contradicts a complex hypothesis or conclusion, and why. Score Range 1–12. Score Range 13–15.

Score Range 16–19. Essay On Social Marketing? Score Range 20–23. Score Range 24–27. Score Range 28–32. Scores below 3 do not permit useful generalizations about students’ writing abilities. Score Range 9-10. Score Range 11-12. Expressing Judgements (EXJ) EXJ 201.

Show a little understanding of the persuasive purpose of the american jeremiad task but neglect to take or to maintain a position on the issue in the prompt. EXJ 202. Generate reasons for what stands for, a position that are irrelevant or unclear. EXJ 301. American? Show a basic understanding of the imported persuasive purpose of the jeremiad task by taking a position on the issue in the prompt.

EXJ 302. Generate reasons for a position that are vague or simplistic; show a little recognition of the imported complexity of the issue in the prompt by. briefly noting implications and/or complications of the issue, and/or briefly or unclearly responding to counterarguments to the writer’s position. EXJ 401. Show clear understanding of the persuasive purpose of the task by taking a position on the issue in the prompt and offering some context for discussion. EXJ 402. Generate reasons for a position that are relevant and clear; show some recognition of the complexity of the issue in the prompt by. acknowledging implications and/or complications of the issue, and/or providing some response to counterarguments to the writer’s position. EXJ 501. Show strong understanding of the persuasive purpose of the task by jeremiad taking a position on the specific issue in epic example, the prompt and offering a broad context for discussion. EXJ 502.

Generate thoughtful reasons for american jeremiad, a position; show recognition of the complexity of the issue in the prompt by. partially evaluating implications and/or complications of the issue, and/or anticipating and responding to counterarguments to imported inflation, the writer’s position. EXJ 601. Show advanced understanding of the persuasive purpose of the jeremiad task by taking a position on the specific issue in the prompt and offering a critical context for discussion. EXJ 602. Generate insightful reasons for a position; show understanding of the complexity of the issue in the prompt by. examining different perspectives, and/or evaluating implications and/or complications of the is html for issue, and/or anticipating and fully responding to counterarguments to the writer’s position. Focusing on the Topic (FOC) FOC 201. Maintain a focus on the general topic in the prompt throughout most of the essay. FOC 301. Maintain a focus on the general topic in the prompt throughout the essay.

FOC 401. Maintain a focus on the specific issue in the prompt throughout most of the essay. FOC 402. Present a thesis that establishes focus on the topic. FOC 501. Maintain a focus on discussing the specific issue in the prompt throughout the essay. FOC 502. Present a thesis that establishes a focus on the writer’s position on the issue. FOC 601. Maintain a precise focus on discussing the specific issue in american jeremiad, the prompt throughout the essay.

FOC 602. Present a critical thesis that clearly establishes the focus on is html, the writer’s position on the issue. Jeremiad? Developing Ideas (DEV) DEV 201. Offer little development in support of ideas; attempt to clarify ideas by merely restating them or by using general examples that may not be clearly relevant. DEV 202. Show little or no movement between general and specific ideas and examples. Puritans Period? DEV 301. Offer limited development in support of ideas; clarify ideas somewhat with vague explanation and the use of general examples. DEV 302. Show little movement between general and specific ideas and american, examples. DEV 401.

Provide adequate development in support of ideas; clarify ideas by using some specific reasons, details, and examples. What? DEV 402. Show some movement between general and specific ideas and examples. DEV 501. Provide thorough development in support of ideas; extend ideas by using specific, logical reasons and illustrative examples.

DEV 502. Show clear movement between general and specific ideas and examples. DEV 601. Provide ample development in support of ideas; substantiate ideas with precise use of specific, logical reasons and illustrative examples. DEV 602.

Show effective movement between general and specific ideas and examples. Organizing Ideas (ORI) ORI 201. Provide a discernible organizational structure by grouping together a few ideas. ORI 202. Use transitional words and phrases that are simple and obvious, or occasionally misleading. ORI 203.

Present a minimal introduction and conclusion. ORI 301. Provide a simple organizational structure by logically grouping some ideas. ORI 302. Use simple and obvious transitional words and american, phrases. ORI 303. Example? Present an underdeveloped introduction and conclusion. ORI 401. Provide an adequate but simple organizational structure by logically grouping most ideas. ORI 402.

Use some appropriate transitional words and phrases. ORI 403. Present a somewhat developed introduction and conclusion. ORI 501. Provide a coherent organizational structure with some logical sequencing of ideas. ORI 502. Use accurate and clear transitional words and phrases to american, convey logical relationships between ideas. ORI 503. Present a generally well-developed introduction and conclusion.

ORI 601. What? Provide a unified, coherent organizational structure that presents a logical progression of ideas. American? ORI 602. Stands? Use precise transitional words, phrases, and jeremiad, sentences to what is html stands, convey logical relationships between ideas. ORI 603. Present a well-developed introduction that effectively frames the prompt’s issue and writer’s argument; present a well-developed conclusion that extends the american jeremiad essay’s ideas. Using Language (USL) USL 201. Show limited control of language by. correctly employing some of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, and mechanics, but with distracting errors that sometimes significantly impede understanding choosing words that are simplistic or vague using only simple sentence structure. USL 301. Show a basic control of language by. Imported? correctly employing some of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, and mechanics, but with distracting errors that sometimes impede understanding choosing words that are simple but generally appropriate using a little sentence variety.

USL 401. Show adequate use of language to communicate by. correctly employing many of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, and mechanics, but with some distracting errors that may occasionally impede understanding choosing words that are appropriate using some varied kinds of sentence structures to jeremiad, vary pace. Puritans Period? USL 501. Show competent use of language to communicate ideas by. correctly employing most conventions of standard English grammar, usage, and mechanics, with a few distracting errors but none that impede understanding generally choosing words that are precise and varied using several kinds of sentence structures to vary pace and to support meaning. USL 601.

Show effective use of language to communicate ideas clearly by. correctly employing most conventions of american jeremiad standard English grammar, usage, and mechanics, with just a few, if any, errors consistently choosing words that are precise and what for, varied using a variety of kinds of sentence structures to jeremiad, vary pace and to support meaning. Score Range 9–10. How ACT Assessments Align with State College and puritans period, Career Readiness Standards. This white paper looks at how college and american jeremiad, career readiness is measured. Among the findings: When state standards represent knowledge and skills that prepare students for college and career, then ACT Aspire® and the ACT® test can help measure them.

Ongoing Process of Validity Research at difference baroque and classical ACT. ACT is committed to validity research. The first type of validity research ACT conducts is content validity, designed to answer the following question: Does a test measure what it aims to measure? This essentially involves the validation of the ACT College and Career Readiness Standards, which are built on a foundation of years of empirical data. American Jeremiad? Tools used in the validation process include the ACT National Curriculum Survey ® . The Survey helps to epic poem example, inform the american test blueprint for the assessments (see figure). Results from the assessments are used to puritans period, validate the ACT College and Career Readiness Standards, as well as the ACT College Readiness Benchmarks. (The figure represents only the american validation cycle, not how the ACT Standards and Benchmarks were derived.) The second type of validity research ACT conducts is predictive validity. Inflation? This research uses data about actual course performance to answer a second question: Does a test predict performance in a reliable way?

Constant monitoring enables ACT to ensure that—for ACT assessments at least—the answer to the questions of content validity and jeremiad, predictive validity is “yes.” We continually use research and performance results to inform the changes we will make to test blueprints, the ACT College and Career Readiness Standards, and the ACT College Readiness Benchmarks. Examining educational practices and expectations. Conducted every three to five years by ACT, the ACT National Curriculum Survey collects data about what entering college students should know and be able to do to be ready for example, college-level coursework in English, math, reading, and science. ACT Aspire maps progress from grades 3 - 12 on a vertical scale, anchored to the scoring system of the ACT. Skills in four key areas, beyond academic abilities alone, are critical to college and american jeremiad, career success.

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Efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children: the jeremiad, healthy homework pilot study. Most physical activity and puritans period nutrition interventions in children focus on the school setting; however, evidence suggests that children are less active and jeremiad have greater access to unhealthy food at home. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the difference and classical, efficacy of american a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children. The six-week 'Healthy Homework' programme and complementary teaching resource was developed under the guidance of an intersectoral steering group. Eight senior classes (year levels 5-6) from two diverse Auckland primary schools were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. A total of 97 children (57 intervention, 40 control) aged 9-11 years participated in the evaluation of the intervention. Is Html For? Daily step counts were monitored immediately before and after the intervention using sealed multiday memory pedometers. American Jeremiad? Screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from imported inflation school, and the consumption of american jeremiad fruits, vegetables, unhealthy foods and drinks were recorded concurrently in a 4-day food and activity diary.

Healthy Homework resulted in a significant intervention effect of 2,830 steps.day -1 (95% CI: 560, 5,300, P = 0.013). This effect was consistent between sexes, schools, and salt pillars day types (weekdays and weekend days). In addition, significant intervention effects were observed for jeremiad, vegetable consumption (0.83 servings.day -1 , 95% CI: 0.24, 1.43, P = 0.007) and unhealthy food consumption (-0.56 servings.day -1 , 95% CI: -1.05, -0.07, P = 0.027) on weekends but not weekdays, with no interactions with sex or school. Effects for all other variables were not statistically significant regardless of day type. Compulsory health-related homework appears to be an effective approach for increasing physical activity and improving vegetable and unhealthy food consumption in children. Further research in a larger study is required to confirm these initial results.

Electronic supplementary material. The online version of imported this article (doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-127 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Insufficient physical activity is a leading risk factor for numerous health disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes [ 1 ]. Jeremiad? While methodological differences make it difficult to Essay, compare secular trends in children's free-living physical activity, there is evidence that organised physical activity is declining in many countries [ 2 ]. Jeremiad? Similarly, sedentary behaviours, such as television watching and computer use, have increased rapidly in children over the past five years [ 3 ]. It is generally believed that such trends have contributed to the widespread increases in childhood overweight and obesity [ 4 ]; however, physical activity is only one side of the Marketing, energy balance equation. Poor nutrition undoubtedly contributes to the onset of obesity in children, although the mechanisms responsible for this association remain indistinct. American Jeremiad? Some studies have demonstrated a link between under-consumption of fruit and vegetables and child obesity [ 5 , 6 ], while others show no relationship [ 7 ]. Likewise, the over-consumption of energy-dense foods and drinks has been associated with child obesity in some [ 8 , 9 , 10 ] but not all studies [ 11 , 12 , 13 ]. Regardless of the salt pillars, specific pathways to chronic disease, physical activity and dietary patterns tend to track across the jeremiad, lifespan [ 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ]; therefore, it makes sense to correct unhealthy habits before they have a lasting impact. The development of effective and sustainable programmes that encourage young people to lead healthy, active lives is imported inflation, a key priority in american jeremiad this regard. The majority of lifestyle interventions for children have focused on puritans period the promotion of healthy behaviours while children are at american, school; however, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that children are more likely to be inactive and consume unhealthy foods when at home. Our previous research showed that New Zealand children were considerably less active on weekends than on weekdays [ 20 ], and that active children achieve a significantly greater proportion of their activity outside of school than inactive children [ 21 ]. This is consistent with international data that support the promotion of physical activity in Essay Marketing the home environment [ 22 , 23 , 24 ]. Although we know that the majority of children's dietary intake is american, consumed at home [ 25 ], research investigating the differences in dietary intake between the puritans period, school and home environments has been equivocal. A recent study reported that New Zealand children are more likely to american, consume high cholesterol foods and soft drinks on non-school days than on school days [ 26 ]. Another study indicated that American children consume a relatively high amount of energy from salt pillars fat on american weekends [ 27 ]. Two other studies showed no difference in dietary intake between school and non-school days [ 28 , 29 ]. In any case, reviews of epic example interventions to jeremiad, promote physical activity [ 30 , 31 ] and correlates of dietary behaviour [ 32 ] in children and adolescents concluded that programmes that involve families are more likely to be effective than those that do not.

Nonetheless, exclusively home-based initiatives are logistically impractical and tend to be unsustainable. A more feasible approach is to use schools to access children for the purpose of encouraging healthy behaviour in the home environment. Several studies have endeavoured to is html stands, promote physical activity and/or healthy eating outside of jeremiad school by incorporating homework components into school-based interventions. Puritans Period? Results have been mixed, with some showing positive effects [ 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 ] and others showing no effect [ 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 ]. However, it is difficult to determine the contributions of homework given that all studies employed multiple approaches, and american many were limited by low statistical power [ 33 ], self- or proxy-reporting of physical activity [ 33 , 34 , 35 , 41 , 43 , 45 ], or relatively minor homework components [ 33 , 34 , 36 , 37 , 39 , 40 , 44 , 45 ]. In all cases, the homework element assumed secondary importance to the school-based components. We are unaware of any studies that have investigated the effects of a compulsory homework syllabus on health outcomes. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the efficacy of imported inflation a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and jeremiad healthy eating in children. Description of behaviour change techniques and epic strategies implemented in the Healthy Homework Pilot Study.

Behaviour Change Technique. Key behavioural determinant. Provide information about behaviour-health link. Children were provided with information about the positive health outcomes associated with various healthy behaviours throughout the programme. Provide information on american jeremiad consequences. TRA, TPB, ScogT, IMB. The beneficial consequences of specific physical activity and healthy eating patterns were reinforced throughout the imported, programme. Prompt intention formation. TRA, TPB, ScogT, IMB. At the completion of the programme, children were encouraged to american jeremiad, make long-term behavioural resolutions related to the tasks they had accomplished during the programme.

Prompt barrier identification. Several topics required the puritans period, children to identify common barriers to healthy behaviours and how those barriers might be overcome in american the context of is html stands for their lives. Set graded tasks. Children were required to jeremiad, complete at least one out of three homework tasks that promoted increased knowledge of a given topic. When one task was completed, children were encouraged to complete all of the salt pillars, remaining tasks to supplement their knowledge. Availability of information (environmental) Detailed instruction for each topic was provided in-class by the teacher and via the homework booklets. Prompt specific goal setting. Each homework task had a specific goal that children could achieve. Tasks provided guidance about where, when, how, and jeremiad with whom the task could be completed. Prompt review of behavioural goals.

Teacher regulation (environmental) Each week the teacher was required to review each child's homework tasks from the previous week (individually) and discuss any facilitators or barriers to what is html stands for, completion (as a group). Children were given advice about how to complete any unfinished tasks. Provide feedback on performance. At the completion of the programme, children and their parents received a feedback form that detailed all changes to physical activity and dietary behaviour taken during the evaluation. Provide contingent rewards. Children received rubber wristbands if they completed their homework requirements for a given week (at least one physical activity and one nutrition task).

A black-coloured band was reserved for children who completed all six tasks on a given week. The majority of homework tasks required multiple sessions or practice of a behaviour. Provide opportunities for social comparison. Subjective norms (social) Many in-class activities were based on american jeremiad practical group tasks that required children to what stands for, observe and compare their behaviour against others.

Children were encouraged to support each other to complete tasks. Plan social support or social change. Social support theories. Family support (social) A large number of homework tasks recommended participation as a family. Messages for the parents reinforcing the benefits of family support were embedded in homework tasks. IMB = information-motivation-behavioural skills model; TRA = theory of reasoned action; TPB = theory of planned behaviour; SCogT = social-cognitive theory; CT = control theory; OC = operant conditioning. The final programme consisted of a six-week homework schedule complemented by jeremiad, an in-class teaching resource, and between baroque and classical was designed to support the achievement objectives associated with Level 3 of the New Zealand Health and Physical Education Curriculum [ 48 ]. Each child received a homework booklet organised into five physical activity and american jeremiad five nutrition topics: Week 1, walking and on Social fruit/vegetables; Week 2, television and breakfast; Week 3, sports and american jeremiad drinks; Week 4, fun games and food shopping; Week 5, fitness and cooking. Week 6 consisted of the completion of the previous week's homework in addition to group presentations about key aspects of the programme. Epic Example? Three homework options were provided for each topic, and the children were required to complete at least one task per topic (i.e., at least two tasks per week).

Examples of the physical activity tasks include family walks around the neighbourhood, walking to and from school, limiting television time, coaching parents in jeremiad a particular sport, inventing a fun game (individual or team), testing the fitness of the family, and swimming at the local pool (subsidised entry was organised). Examples of the nutrition tasks include eating at Essay Marketing, least five servings of fruit or vegetables, preparing and eating a healthy breakfast, using a water bottle throughout the day, reducing consumption of unhealthy foods and drinks, comparing food labels when shopping, helping to prepare a healthy dinner, and preparing a healthy lunch box. Many of the tasks were designed to encourage parental participation and family involvement. Jeremiad? Each task was accompanied by a related question designed to encourage independent inquiry and knowledge formation. Colourful rubber wristbands were provided each week for puritans period, children who completed their homework obligations, with a special colour reserved for those who completed all six tasks on a given week. Other resources included soft throwing disks (fun games topic), a food advertising educational DVD (television topic), fitness test sheets (fitness topic), recipe cards (cooking topic), guides to reading food labels (shopping topic), and drink bottles (drinks topic). In addition, a password-protected Healthy Homework website was developed so that participating children from both schools could interact with each other through blogs, photos, and wikis. The Healthy Homework teaching resource was designed to american jeremiad, complement the salt pillars, homework activities by providing sufficient educational content and in-class exercises for three 1.5 hour sessions each week (including one session reviewing the previous week's homework).

Theoretical and practical approaches were combined to enhance the children's understanding of each topic. Teachers were free to use the in-class resource as much or as little as required. Two Auckland primary schools participated in the pilot study: School A had a socioeconomic status (SES) rating in jeremiad the lowest decile of New Zealand primary schools, whereas School B was in the highest SES decile. Eight classes of Year 5-6 children (aged 9-11 years) were randomised into four intervention and four control classes. All children in the intervention classes completed the Healthy Homework module as part of school policy; however, parental consent was required before children were able to inflation, participate in the evaluation of the intervention. Consent was obtained for 100 of the 216 children initially selected (46.3%). Three children were excluded due to incomplete data, resulting in american a final sample size of 97 (intervention: 22 boys, 35 girls; control: 13 boys, 27 girls).

The ethnic composition of the sample was 48.5% European, 32.0% Pacific Island, 8.2% Maori, 6.2% Asian, and 5.2% from on Social other ethnicities. The institutional ethics committee provided ethical approval for the study (07/177). Daily physical activity levels were measured with sealed pedometers over four consecutive days (two weekdays and two weekend days). American Jeremiad? This monitoring period was chosen as the ideal balance between practicality and reliability requirements [ 49 ]. Pedometers provide an objective, cost-effective assessment of salt pillars physical activity that can be easily compared among different time periods, demographic groups, and/or locations. The NL-2000 pedometer (New Lifestyles Inc, Lee's Summit, MO) has a multiday memory function that automatically stores step counts according to the day of the week for up to seven days, enabling the comparison of american weekday and weekend step counts [ 20 ]. Our previous research has established the validity of the NL-2000 for measuring steps in children [ 50 ]. Essay Marketing? Prior to use, all pedometers were checked for faults using five repetitions of the jeremiad, 100-step walking test described by what stands for, Vincent and jeremiad Sidman [ 51 ]. Instrumental error did not exceed 3% in any of the pedometers. Before receiving their sealed pedometers, children were given an explanation of the pedometer's function and a demonstration by a researcher. Participants were asked to attach the pedometer to their waistline all day except when swimming, showering, or sleeping.

To assess participant compliance outside of the salt pillars, school environment, children maintained a 4-day diary in which they were asked to note how many hours they did not wear the pedometer each day. Non-compliance during school hours was considered negligible due to jeremiad, active teacher assistance. Data were excluded if participants removed the pedometer for more than one hour on a given day. Daily step counts below 1,000 or above 30,000 were regarded as outliers and were removed [ 52 ]. The 4-day pedometer compliance diary also contained fields for children to record daily screen time (television, gaming consoles, and salt pillars personal computers), sports participation, and american active transport to and from school.

In addition, a food diary was issued for children to record the imported inflation, type and quantity of all foods and drinks consumed over the four-day period. A food diary is a daily record of all the food and fluid consumed over american, a specified time; a blank template for the required days is imported, provided. While food diaries have been validated for accuracy against measures of american energy expenditure, outcomes in the literature are varied, with underestimation of energy intake sometimes reported [ 53 , 54 ]. Despite this, we chose to use food diaries so that we could compare both the quality and quantity of puritans period food and fluid intake on weekdays and weekend days. American Jeremiad? Alternative instruments, such as food frequency questionnaires, generally do not represent a full day's food or fluid intake and therefore would fail to capture such a complete dataset. All participants were given a detailed explanation about how to correctly fill in the diaries, and parents were given written instructions to assist their child in completing the diaries accurately and to a sufficient level of detail.

Dietary information from the on Social Marketing, diaries was extracted and grouped into four categories: fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, unhealthy food consumption, and jeremiad unhealthy drink consumption. Food and drinks were defined as unhealthy in what for accordance with the 'occasional foods' tier of the three-tiered New Zealand Food and Beverage classification system. Food and drinks that fall into this category are those that are energy dense and nutrient poor, and include confectionery and chocolate, deep-fried food, full-sugar soft drinks, and american jeremiad high-fat pastry products. All measurements (diaries and pedometers) were taken once during the week preceding the intervention (baseline) and poem once during the american jeremiad, week following the completion of the difference, intervention (follow-up). Both schools were assessed over the same time period (May-June 2009). Medians and interquartile ranges for jeremiad, all variables were generated with weekday and weekend data presented separately along with an overall weighted mean (five weekdays to difference and classical, two weekend days). Differences between treatment groups were examined using independent samples Mann-Whitney's U tests, and initial pre- and post-intervention comparisons were made using Wilcoxon's matched pairs signed-rank tests (with the jeremiad, data split by intervention group).

A normal generalized estimating equation (GEE) model on epic poem example square-root transformed step counts was used to detect an intervention effect after accounting for day type, school year, school, class, sex, and ethnicity. American Jeremiad? The latter two variables were included given the identification of differences between groups in our previous work [ 20 ]. A binary GEE model was used to on Social, determine whether there was a differential pattern of jeremiad missing pedometer counts for participants between intervention groups. Treatment group effects for all other variables (screen time, sports participation, active transport, fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, unhealthy food consumption, and unhealthy drink consumption) were examined using analysis of covariance adjusted for regression to the mean. Salt Pillars? All analyses were performed using Stata version 11.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA), and jeremiad ? = 0.05 defined statistical significance for all tests. Median and interquartile range of the difference baroque, physical activity and american jeremiad dietary variables for what stands, the intervention and control groups.

Physical activity (steps.day -1 ) 10,700 (8,420, 12,150) 12,290 (9,990, 16,270) ‡ 11,460 (9,110, 13,660) 10,100 (7,670, 14,160) 7,940 (5,760, 11,770) 8,670 (6,460, 11,960) 8,160 (6,410, 11,470) 10,790 (8,200, 12,160) 11,790 (9,670, 15,680) † 11,240 (9,420, 12,860) 9,910 (7,500, 12,700) Screen time (h.day -1 ) Sports participation (h.day -1 ) Active transport to/from school (h.day -1 ) Fruit consumption (servings.day -1 ) Vegetable consumption (servings.day -1 ) Unhealthy food consumption (servings.day -1 ) Unhealthy drink consumption (servings.day -1 ) *Significantly different from intervention (P 0.05). † Significantly different from baseline (P 0.05); ‡ Significantly different from baseline (P 0.01).

Summary of the jeremiad, adjusted multivariable model coefficients for square root step counts . Binary GEE model analyses of participants with missing pedometer count values revealed that there was a significant increase in the proportion of missing step count values post-intervention compared with pre-intervention (P = 0.006); however, there were no significant differences in the proportion of missing values between intervention and control groups either pre-intervention (P = 0.905) or post-intervention (P = 0.481). This indicates that the what stands for, loss of american jeremiad data is not differentially related to the intervention group. Intervention effects (± 95% CI) for epic, selected physical activity and dietary behaviours . *Significant intervention effect for weekends and american overall (P 0.05). In this study, we developed, implemented, and evaluated the first compulsory homework syllabus for promoting children's physical activity outside of school. Difference Between Baroque And Classical? A key strength of the american, study was the use of an imported, objective measure (pedometer) to accurately monitor changes in physical activity. The results showed that the Healthy Homework pilot had positive effects on the daily step counts of both boys and girls. The intervention effect of 2,830 steps.day -1 corresponds to over 25% more activity each day (based on american jeremiad the sample mean pre-intervention).

This effect was driven by both an increase of 1,100 steps.day -1 in the intervention group and a decrease of 1,480 steps/day -1 in the control group. While the example, reasons for the decrease in the control group are unknown, it appears the programme had a protective effect that precluded a similar decrease in the intervention group. Furthermore, the proportion of american children achieving step count targets directly related to the prevention of salt pillars excess body fat (16,000 steps.day -1 for boys, 13,000 steps.day -1 for girls [ 55 ]) increased from 8.6% to 31.3% in the intervention group, whereas children in the control group increased from 14.3% to 16.7%. We also found that the effects of the intervention on physical activity were similar for both weekdays and weekends. This is jeremiad, a noteworthy finding given that children's activity levels tend to diminish during the imported inflation, weekend [ 20 , 22 , 23 , 24 ]. Applied homework that encourages home-based activity appears to be an effective way of targeting this problem area. The positive effect of the Healthy Homework programme on physical activity is relatively unusual given the outcomes of previous intervention research. In a comprehensive review of physical activity interventions in children, van Sluijs et al [ 30 ] found that only american, four of 19 education-based interventions reported significantly positive effects on imported inflation physical activity.

In a similar review, Salmon et al [ 31 ] noted that only jeremiad, one of five 'curriculum only' interventions successfully increased physical activity. However, the success rate was higher in studies that were implemented through the school but involved the family (seven out of 13). It appears that a focus on the home environment increases the probability of meaningful effects. Our promising results may have been due to imported inflation, the emphasis that was placed on american increasing physical activity outside of is html school, including on american jeremiad the weekends. Only two other behaviours showed significantly different pre-post changes between intervention and control participants. Essay Marketing? On weekends, vegetable consumption increased by 0.83 servings.day -1 and american jeremiad unhealthy food consumption decreased by 0.56 servings.day -1 as a result of programme participation. The increase in vegetable consumption is noteworthy as it is equivalent to approximately 28% of the poem example, daily vegetable recommendation of jeremiad three servings a day.

In addition, an increase of 0.83 servings.day -1 compares favourably with previous interventions that focus solely on epic fruit and vegetable intake. Two reviews of american successful fruit and puritans period vegetable interventions in children found that the majority of american increases were between 0.2 and 0.6 daily servings [ 56 , 57 ]. In contrast to our findings, increases in fruit intake were generally more frequent and substantial than increases in difference between baroque and classical vegetable intake. Jeremiad? The decrease in unhealthy food consumption we observed on weekends, while relatively small, is a step in the right direction. Changes in both vegetable and unhealthy food consumption were key priorities in the Healthy Homework programme, and may represent positive shifts in the home environment that could potentiate other healthy lifestyle patterns. Whether or not a longer or more intensive homework intervention augments these improvements remains to what stands, be seen. Non-significant effects in american the remaining variables targeted in the intervention (screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, fruit consumption, and unhealthy drink consumption) suggest that the materials or approaches for these topics may have been insufficient. The absence of improvements in screen time and unhealthy drink consumption were particularly disappointing given that both were dedicated topics. It is salt pillars, possible that more than one week of exposure to these topics is required to generate change. Perhaps not enough realistic alternatives were provided to american, prompt children to modify their screen time or fluid consumption.

On the other hand, the small sample size may have obscured real effects in salt pillars these behaviours. Clearly, a larger sample would allow these factors to be examined with greater precision. Another important discovery was that the american, intervention yielded benefits for boys and girls from a range of socioeconomic backgrounds. The two participating schools were deliberately chosen to represent opposite ends of the socioeconomic spectrum. The similarity of the intervention effects in epic example both schools suggests that it is likely to be beneficial for american jeremiad, other primary-level schools, regardless of the socioeconomic rating. The majority of previous studies that have implemented physical activity or nutrition interventions with home-based elements have not included SES in the analysis. Of those that did, two reported smaller effects in low SES compared with high SES groups [ 38 , 39 ], while two reported no noticeable differences [ 37 , 40 ]. Nonetheless, it is possible that in the latter studies (and the present one) the similar overall effects on physical activity and/or dietary patterns between SES groups were generated through different pathways.

Indeed, there is imported inflation, evidence that families from different socioeconomic backgrounds support their children to be active in different ways [ 58 ]. American? A qualitative comparison of the preferences of homework activities and resources among children and parents from diverse socioeconomic regions could be beneficial in this regard. The question remains whether the positive changes observed in this pilot study are maintained beyond the completion of the difference between and classical, programme. American? A potential criticism of the programme was the use of wristbands as rewards to increase compliance: a viewpoint common among educators is that the desired behaviour will cease once the reward is removed. Essay On Social? We contend that the rewards, in american jeremiad this instance, were used to engage children for the purpose of learning how to salt pillars, be active on american jeremiad their own. While this approach leans towards constructivism - the theory that individuals will generate their own knowledge and difference between baroque and classical understanding from experience - it maintains enough structure that children with little or no understanding of the selected topics are guided towards discovery. The programme aims to american jeremiad, create functional knowledge that is taken with the and classical, child beyond the completion of the american jeremiad, programme, resulting in greater opportunities to imported inflation, be active and promoting lifelong healthy behaviour. Clearly, we cannot comment on the success of american jeremiad this ambition in the present pilot study; however, future studies should consider taking long-term follow-up measures to assess the sustainability of any positive outcomes. Assessment of the effects on puritans period health knowledge would also contribute to a better understanding of the precursors to behaviour change in children. A key facet of the present study is its foundation in american jeremiad the education system. While the what, goals of the programme are clearly health-related, there are several advantages of operating within the education environment: (1) it is relatively cost-effective to introduce applied homework activities into jeremiad an existing curriculum, (2) the vast majority of the difference between, population can be accessed (all children are required to attend school), and (3) the expertise of trained teachers can be utilised to effectively deliver health-related educational material and instruction.

In this study, we developed a homework programme that contributed to all four strands of the Health and Physical Education achievement objectives stated in the New Zealand Curriculum [ 48 ]: (1) personal health and physical development, (2) movement concepts and jeremiad motor skills, (3) relationships with other people, and (4) healthy communities and environments. Salt Pillars? This strategy enabled teachers to implement the programme without sacrificing their formal teaching obligations. Aligning health promotion initiatives with national education guidelines is american, also likely to increase buy-in from senior school staff and parents. Another important element of the between, study was its compulsory nature. American Jeremiad? As with conventional homework, children were required to complete the minimum number of tasks each week, obtain approval from their parents, and report back to their teacher. This approach was chosen to maximise the level of engagement in the programme, which may explain why significant effects on physical activity and what stands for diet were observed in american jeremiad a relatively small sample. To our knowledge, no previous physical activity or nutrition interventions have adopted a compulsory approach to home-based components. The primary limitation of this study was the small sample size. While this is a pilot study, we were disappointed by inflation, the low consent rate for the evaluation (46.3%).

Clearly, the jeremiad, lower the consent rate the what is html, greater the jeremiad, chance of sample bias, whereby only the children most likely to engage in the programme are evaluated. In addition, there were 77% more girls than boys in salt pillars the final sample, and 43% more intervention than control participants. These atypical proportions make it more difficult to generalise the findings to the wider population. American? Nevertheless, the detection of epic example significant effects even in our restricted sample with relatively wide confidence intervals suggests that there may be other effects that could be detected in a larger sample with tighter intervals. Another limitation was the necessity to randomise at the class level. It is probable that a certain amount of class contamination occurred, such that the american jeremiad, behaviour of the control participants was affected by the experiences of the intervention participants as they progressed through the programme. Is Html? Indeed, certain behaviours showed significant improvements pre- and post-intervention in the control sample.

While the jeremiad, probability of class contamination does not negate the observed effects of the programme (true effects would be dampened rather than enhanced), it would be preferable for future studies to randomise at the school level. Also, we decided not to Essay on Social, request the return of the children's booklets at the completion of the study (in case they were used in future), and american jeremiad consequently we had no record of homework compliance. While all participating teachers assured us that almost all of the children completed their homework each week, it is not known if some children completed more tasks than others. Future studies should consider asking the and classical, teacher to maintain a log of completed homework tasks to enable compliance to be monitored more closely. Finally, the effects of the homework programme on family members of participating children were not assessed in this study. Many of the american jeremiad, tasks were designed to imported, foster family involvement, with the intended side effect of improving relationships and promoting healthier lifestyles throughout the family. Jeremiad? Further research is needed to elucidate these factors. Compared with the control group, the Healthy Homework pilot study resulted approximately 25% more physical activity each day in both boys and girls, and was effective at encouraging activity on salt pillars both weekdays and weekends. Promising improvements to other important behaviours, such as vegetable and unhealthy food consumption, suggest that compulsory health-related homework offers multiple benefits for children. Implementation in a larger sample over a longer assessment period would enable the short- and long-term effects of this approach to be determined.

This study was funded by the Health Research Council of New Zealand (08/384). The authors would like to thank the children, parents, and school staff who participated in the study. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. SD conceived and designed the study, developed the intervention, contributed to the statistical analysis, and american jeremiad drafted the manuscript. JCM collected and entered the data and helped to draft the manuscript. PJS participated in the design of the study and performed the statistical analysis. CZ assisted with the development of the intervention and the data preparation. RS participated in the development of the intervention. GS helped design the study and develop the intervention. All authors reviewed and puritans period approved the final manuscript.

This article is published under license to american, BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Essay Marketing, Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in american jeremiad any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Scott Duncan 1 Email author Julia C McPhee 1 Philip J Schluter 2 3 4 Caryn Zinn 1 Richard Smith 5 Grant Schofield 1 1. Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition AUT University New Zealand 2. Department of puritans period Public Health and General Practice University of Otago Christchurch New Zealand 3. School of Public Health and Psychosocial Studies AUT University New Zealand 4. School of Nursing and american Midwifery University of Queensland Australia 5. National Institute of Education Singapore. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG.

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