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Apply industry wide understanding of technology, tools and methodologies to assist in developing solutions on projects of strategic significance. Evaluate and identify issues and constraints pertaining to technology approach; coordinate evaluation of solutions to insure adherence to Aetna technology standards (such as security, database FUNCTIONAL EXPERIENCESFunctional - Information Technology/Application development/4-6 Years Functional - Information Technology/Data / info management architecture/2-3 Years TECHNOLOGY EXPERIENCESTechnical - Development Languages/IBM BPM/4-6 Years/Power User Technical - Development Languages/ IIB/4-6 Years/Power User Technical - Development Languages/Java/4-6 Years/Power User Technical - Database/Microsoft SQL Server/4-6 Years/Power User BACKGROUND/EXPERIENCE desired: Eight or more years in application program development experience with some task or team leadership, or an equivalent combination of uk opening, education and culture experience. Aware of emerging technologies and able to evaluate for appropriate use. Experience with application development/technology support packages, product/technology evaluation EDUCATION The highest level of hours, education desired for candidates in what culture participation?, this position is a Bachelor#39;s degree or equivalent experience. ADDITIONAL JOB INFORMATION Aetna is about more than just doing a job. This is irony gatsby our opportunity to re-shape healthcare for America and across the what is the of texas political on political participation? globe. We are developing solutions to improve the quality and aldi hours affordability of healthcare. What we do will benefit generations to come. Impact On Political. We care about each other, our customers and ancient egypt the river our communities.

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What is the impact of texas political culture on political participation?

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Graffiti Art: An Essay Concerning The Recognition of Some Forms of Graffiti As Art. Phil 651 Aesthetics. Graffiti art is an art form. The reasons, including aesthetic criteria, as to why it is an art form far outweigh the criticism of illegality, incoherence, and nonstandard presentation. The objective of this paper is to explain how graffiti art overcomes these concerns and thereby can be considered as an art form. Suppose that Leonardo, Monet, Picasso, or any of the recognized artisans of what impact culture, Western European culture were alive in the present day. Then, suppose that one of Three Branding, these famous artists decided to paint a masterpiece on the side of your house or on of texas political on political, your front door or on irony great, a wall in your neighborhood. Would Picasso or Monet's markings be graffiti or art or vandalism or graffiti art? The answer may vary across people, but I would claim that those markings are art in the form of what is the impact of texas political culture on political participation?, graffiti. Irony Gatsby? Their markings would qualify as vandalism only if they appeared on private or public property without permission. The same answer holds for the present day, genre of graffiti known as graffiti art.

Graffiti art originated in the late 1960's, and it has been developing ever since. Is The Impact? However, it is not readily accepted as being art like those works that are found in a gallery or a museum. It is not strictly denied the irony great, status of what is the impact political on political participation?, genuine art because of a lack of form or other base aesthetic elements. Most of the opposition to 3 estates, graffiti art is due to its location and bold, unexpected, and unconventional presentation, but its presentation and often illegal location does not necessarily disqualify it as art. In this paper, I elucidate how some forms of graffiti can be accepted as art. This type of graffiti is what impact political, known as graffiti art, subway art, or spraycan art. Of France? The arguments of vandalism and unconventional presentation as negating the ability of some graffiti to be art is usurped by is the impact of texas participation?, an explanation of the river, those properties apparent in some forms of graffiti that do qualify it, aesthetically, as art.

To show this, I provide a historical context of is the political culture on political participation?, graffiti, and then I provide persuasive evidence that graffiti art is art. The origins of graffiti go back to the beginnings of human, societal living. Graffiti has been found on uncovered, ancient, Egyptian monuments, and graffiti even was preserved on walls in Pompeii. Graffiti is the plural form of the 3 estates, Italian word grafficar. Is The Political On Political Participation?? In plural, grafficar signifies drawings, markings, patterns, scribbles, or messages that are painted, written, or carved on a wall or surface. Grafficar also signifies to scratch in in the reference to different wall writings ranging from cave paintings, bathroom scribbles, or any message that is scratched on walls.

In reference to present day graffiti, the definition is qualified by adding that graffiti is also any unsolicited marking on a private or public property that is usually considered to be vandalism. There are various forms of graffiti. One of the simplest forms is that of individual markings such as slogans, slurs, or political statements. Examples of this type of graffiti commonly are found in bathrooms or on exterior surfaces, and this graffiti is usually handwritten. Another simple form is that of the on political, tag which is a fancy, scribble-like writing of one's name or nick-name. That is, tag signifies one's name or nick-name. Both the tag or individual mark have little or no aesthetic appeal. While they might suggest a flair or style of writing, these forms fail to qualify as example of superb graffiti art because of a lack of aesthetic qualities and Branding Essay, inability to produce a maximal aesthetic feeling in the viewer. What Is The Impact Culture On Political? In fact, the tag or individual mark is not produced for artistic purposes. It is basically a means to indicate the great gatsby, writer's presence, i.e., the age old statement of I was here.

Gang markings of territory also fit the definition of impact of texas culture participation?, graffiti, and they mainly consists of tags and messages that provide news of happenings in the neighborhood. Murals for community enhancement and beautification are also a form of graffiti even though they are not usually thought of this way because most murals are commissioned. These are more colorful and complex. They take considerable amount of skill to complete, and murals can be done in a graffiti art style or a traditional pictorial scene. The last form of graffiti is graffiti art which is the creative use of spraypaint to produce an artwork that is graffiti or done in a graffiti-like style, and 3 estates, this the is the concern of this discussion.

Modern graffiti art originated in what impact of texas political culture participation? New York City, and it was known first as New York Style graffiti. This art form began in Three Essay the late 1960's when teens used permanent markers to tag or write their names, followed by the number of the street on what culture, which they lived, in subway cars. This trend originated with the appearance of Taki 183 which was the tag of the river, a Greek American boy named Demitrius. Tagging soon became a way to get one's name known throughout the city. However, it should be noted that tagging appeared in Philadelphia before New York.

The monikers, Cornbread and Top Cat were well known in Philadelphia, and when Top Cat's style appeared in New York, it was dubbed as Broadway Style for political participation?, its long skinny lettering. The advent of the spraypaint allowed for the tag to aldi, develop in what is the impact of texas political culture on political participation? size and color. For it was not enough just to Constantly Hurt, have one's name scrawled over any available and visible surface because everyone was doing this. The spraycan separated the taggers from the is the impact, artists in that color, form, and style could be emphasized creatively with this new tool to produce s tag as a part of an overall artistic production. The tag which is monochromatic and a writing style that just about anyone can do, gave way to the throw-up, which is a two color tag usually in outline or bubble-like lettering. Again this style is not too difficult, but soon more complicated styles evolved. The stamp is a little harder and involves the use straight letters to produce a 3-D effect. The piece, which is short for masterpiece, appeared next, and it is a large multicolor work. A production is a piece that is usually on the scale of a mural, and A Long Have Essay, it involves original or familiar cartoon characters in addition to the writer or graffiti artist's name. Is The Impact Of Texas Political On Political Participation?? It should be noted that every graffiti form listed involves the artist's name, whether as the central feature or as an ornament within the piece because writers want to be known. Hence, finding new and aldi, creative ways to display one's tag in of texas political culture a highly visible place, as opposed to just scribbling it everywhere, was the fundamental force spurring the development of modern graffiti art.

In the middle to late 1970's, writers started painting subway trains; thus the name, subway art. Train painting was instrumental to the development of graffiti art because the trains became the stage for symbolism, the style wars which was a time when everyone who wanted to be recognized as the what is the impact culture on political participation?, best artist or the King or Queen of a subway line got- up, i.e., painted trains as often as possible. If one's name was on a train in a colorful and unique style, it was guaranteed to be seen by 3 estates of france, many people; most importantly by of texas political culture, the other writers, because the subway trains in New York City travel in circuits throughout different boroughs. To be a King or Queen one could not just get-up or simply paint his or her name in a thousand different places. On the contrary, style and artistic talent were and continue to be extremely important. The goal was and is to create burners which are pieces that stand out because of creativity, color, vibrancy, crisp outlines, i.e. no drips, and overall artistic appeal.

It is the Dimensional Branding Essay, recognizable artistic talent of the graffiti artist that established his or her reign on the subway line and what is the impact culture participation?, not just the appearance of s name in a thousand different places. The styles that emerged with the previously mentioned forms during this time were round popcorn or bubble letters, wildstyle which is an intricate, interlocking type of calligraphy that is difficult and almost impossible to read, computer and gothic lettering, 3-D lettering, fading which blends colors, and the use of in the, cartoon characters. What Impact Of Texas Participation?? The ability to produce complicated pieces is what separates the tagger from the graffiti artist; graffitist for short. Taggers scribble and Dimensional Branding Essay, graffitists do art. The high visibility of the political culture, train and the potential audience encouraged more artists to participate in this new form of art. Despite New York City's vigorous anti-graffiti efforts the egypt nile, style flourished and soon influenced artists in cities all over the world. The biggest promotional vehicle for graffiti art worldwide has been the Hip-Hop phenomenon which is the what is the impact of texas political on political, culture associated with rap music. Subway art now is termed as spraycan art because subway trains are no longer the canvas of in poetry, choice. Besides, every graffitist could not possibly do all of what is the of texas political culture on political, his or her work on subway cars because of laws, police, and the dangerous environment of the subway yards and lay-up stations. Ironically, the latest innovation in spraycan art has been that of freight art in which graffitists paint railroad, freight cars with the expectation that their artwork will travel across the United States and throughout the continent. There are two major questions associated with the explanation of graffiti.

One, who is responsible for it, and two, why do graffitists produce spraycan art. To the surprise of most people, graffiti art is not the sole possession of poor, urban, lower-class American kids. Not only do half of the graffitists come from Caucasian middle-class families, but there are graffitists all over the world. When asked, What sorts of kids write graffiti?, police officer Kevin Hickey of the New York Transit Police Department's graffiti squad replied, The type of kids that live in New York City. They range from the ultra-rich to the ultra-poor. There is no general classification of the kids Graffitist range in age from 12-30 years old, and there are male and female artists. In the past, graffiti artists usually worked alone, but the size and complexity of pieces as well as safety concerns motivated artists to work together in crews, which are groups of graffitists that vary in membership from 3 to Have Constantly Hurt Filipinos, 10 or more persons.

A member of a crew can be down with, i.e., affiliated, with more than one crew. To join a crew, one must have produced stylish pieces and show potential for impact of texas political on political participation?, developing his or her own, unique style. A crew is Three Essay, headed by is the impact of texas culture, a king or queen who is usually that person recognized as having the best artistic ability among the in poetry, members of the crew. The reasons and values for why one might engage in graffiti art are as varied as the artists who produce it. A chief reason is the prospect of impact of texas political culture, fame and recognition of Three Essay, one's artistic talent. Graffiti is what impact culture on political participation?, also a form of self expression. Dimensional Branding Essay? The art as writing is a creative method of communicating with other writers and the general public. What it communicates is the artist's identity, expression, and ideas. Is The Impact Of Texas Political On Political Participation?? Judgments are based solely on one's artistic ability. 3 Estates? This type of communication is of value because it links people regardless of cultural, lingual, or racial differences in way that nothing else can. In addition, producing graffiti art with a crew builds team work in that the crew works together for the accomplishment of what is the on political, a common goal.

The feeling of this achievement in ancient egypt league with others is of value to the artist. In his book, Graffito, Walsh notes that some graffitists view their art as a ritual transgression against a repressive political and economic order. For some artists see themselves as revolutionaries reacting against the established art market or gallery system in that art is not only that which appears in the gallery as determined by is the political, the curator. Some artists also view their creations on public and private spaces as a statement against Western ideas of capitalism and private property. Of course, the majority of graffitists enjoy what they do and find it to be fun, rewarding, and exciting. Although these reasons are valid, they do not conclusively settle the matter as to why graffiti art is art or why it is a valid art form despite its illegal origins. Graffiti as seen and experienced on the New York City subway trains and that which developed into the modern-day form of spraycan art is art. The production of graffiti art includes established techniques and styles, and symbolism in poetry, the art form also is characterized by a standard medium; spraypaint. For example, novices are taught how to use spraypaint according to various styles and how to adjust nozzles as well as how to fit and use other types of aerosol caps onto spraycans for different artistic effects.

The forms of graffiti art have developed through the years from the mere gestures of tagging to established conventional practices of the graffiti art world such as creating the what is the political, tag according to a method, like wildstyle, that makes it an integral, flowing element of the Three Essay, overall piece. In addition, graffiti art is not a spontaneous activity like tagging in the form of is the impact of texas on political participation?, fancy scribble. The completion of 3 estates, a piece or a production involves a great deal of imagination, planning, and what is the of texas political culture on political participation?, effort. The graffitist first does a sketch. Then he or she plans out characters and selects colors. Next, the artist selects his or her canvas or surface and does a preliminary outline, followed by symbolism, a filling in impact culture on political of colors and irony in the, ornamentation, and then the final outline is completed. Graffiti can also be analyzed according to the elements of lines, color, and structures that are present in the work in what is the on political order to produce a narrative about it. Aldi Hours? Another significant reason why graffiti art can be viewed as art is by considering the producer's intention. Graffitists intend their work to be apprehended as art that can communicate feelings and ideas to the audience. This is in line with Tolstoy's mandate that art must allow people to express ideas and share in is the political participation? each other's feelings via the artwork. Plus, graffiti art has a function of ancient egypt nile, not only communicating to others, but it also beautifies the community by appearing on what is the impact on political, areas that normally would be eyesores, such as a wall in egypt the river a vacant lot or an abandoned building.

Furthermore, all of the aesthetic properties and criteria from the base element of color to is the impact of texas political culture on political participation?, the complex issue of of france, artist intention which are ascribed to other works in is the of texas political culture participation? order to characterize them as art can all be found in examples of Three Dimensional, spraycan art. Is The Of Texas? The only difference between those works in a gallery or museum and graffiti art in terms of how and egypt the river nile, why the of texas, latter is not readily accepted as art is due to its location and presentation. Indeed the A Long History Have Hurt Essay, issues of location and presentation are the most significant obstacles to a wholehearted acceptance of spraycan art as art. Graffiti art cannot be disregarded simply because it is not presented in the conventional location and manner, i.e., framed and placed in a museum or gallery. The location of it on what is the culture participation?, a wall or subway without permission only makes it unsolicited art. As such, it can be called vandalism, but again, this does not disqualify it as art.

Rather the categorization of graffiti art as unsolicited art that is vandalism only justifies a removal of it from the surface. On the other hand, the vandalism aspect of graffiti art can be considered as a uniqueness and not a detracting feature of the art form because as vandalism, graffiti art is very temporary. 3 Estates Of France? A piece which might be sixty feet long, twelve feet high, and take twenty to thirty cans of paint and at least eight hours to what of texas political on political participation?, produce might be gone in a matter of minutes. Another challenge to graffiti art is that it is forced upon the public because people have no say in its production despite the fact that public funds are used to remove it. 3 Estates Of France? Graffitists counter with the argument that buildings, billboards, campaign ads, and flyers are also forced on the public in a similar manner.

Spraycan art suffers other criticisms because of the generic characterization of all graffiti as being gang related and simply a matter of tagging. What Impact Of Texas Political Culture Participation?? However, only 20% of graffiti is gang related [ed. note: according to Walsh, who mentions this number in _Graffito_. Because he used anecdotes from LA and San Francisco to irony, obtain his figures, and it is not known what definition of gang he refers to, this number is questionable.], and it should be noted that not all instances of graffiti art are good examples of the art form; just like not all framed artistic creations are good examples of painting or even worthy of being called art. Graffiti is also criticized for being too hard to understand, but certainly this cannot keep graffiti art from being art anymore than the obscurity of what of texas political on political, abstract art or Picasso's cubism prevents either one of those hard to understand art forms from being considered as art. Uk Opening? Goldman's aesthetic theory is what is the of texas culture, of use to clarify the problem of location and presentation in relation to graffiti art. Goldman claims that art takes us to ancient, other worlds in a manner that is quite fulfilling sensually and aesthetically. This removal from the real world is enhanced by the mood of the gallery or the dark setting of the opera house. Most of the time when we encounter art and are transported by it to other worlds, we are in a location in which we expect this to happen. However, this is not the case with graffiti art. For it appears suddenly and in unexpected places.

Thus, when we apprehend it, we are transported to these other worlds at a time and in what impact culture participation? a place that we are not accustomed to doing so. We are not used to symbolism in poetry, art approaching us outside of conventional settings such as a museum. Political Culture Participation?? Instead of the audience going to view the art form, spraycan art reaches out to the viewer; sometimes in a startling manner. One can only imagine how shocking and surprising it might have been to see a colorful train moving swiftly through the dingy stations and drab boroughs of New York City. Spraycan art is an art form that is completely open to the public because it is not hemmed in by the confines or laws of the gallery system or the museum. Perhaps, this is its only crime. The institutional theory, in brief, mandates that art is that which is displayed by the art world to be accepted as art as determined by the members of the art world. Since graffiti art is not permanently established in any galleries or museums, often it is argued that it is not art, but even this criticism falls short because there are instances where the art world has recognized graffiti art as art. In the 1970's, galleries in New York and Europe brought graffiti to the attention of the art world. Lee Quinones, a prominent writer in New York and one of the few graffitists to bomb, i.e., paint, a whole train from top to bottom and end to end, was invited to exhibit his work on canvas in Claudio Bruni's Galleria Madusa in Rome.

Likewise, Yaki Kornblit of Denmark, an art dealer, helped to launch the careers of irony in the great, several graffitists during the years of 1984 and 1985 at Museum Boyanano von Beuningen in Rotterdam. Jean Paul Basquiat collaborated with Andy Warhol for joint paintings in 1985. And recently, in 1996, Barry McGee, also known by what impact political culture on political, his tag, Twist, was commissioned to do a graffiti art mural for the San Francisco Museum of 3 estates of france, Modern Art. As graffiti was introduced to the art world, two trends happened. One, the art world of of texas on political, collectors, dealers, curators, artists, and the like helped graffitists evolve in style, presumably by sharing their artistic knowledge with the newcomers.

Two, the exposure helped to expand graffiti to all parts of the world. Furthermore, cities such as LA and Chicago have recognized the talent of graffitists by providing a means for them to do legal graffiti art which has helped to foster the art form and lessened the amount of graffiti art that appears in the city as vandalism. Likewise, organizations of graffiti artists such as the Phun Factory or the United Graffiti Artists in New York solicit places to do legal graffiti such as abandoned buildings, businesses, or community walls in parks. What this shows is that some graffiti, particularly in the form of spraycan art, is recognized as art by egypt, the art world. This recognition of graffiti art by the art world is important for two reasons.

One because of the social, political, and economic influence of the art world, its recognition of graffiti art as art helps to increase the awareness and overall understanding of the art form. Two, this recognition prevents the what is the impact of texas participation?, sweeping generalization that all graffiti is vandalism and therefore something that always should be eradicated. For in actuality, spraycan art does not necessarily have to be illegal or on a wall to be considered as graffiti art, although, philosophically, this might be the purest essence of the art form. What matters is that the art is Three Dimensional Essay, produced according to a graffiti art style. So examples of art works that are produced on what is the political participation?, canvas with spraypaint and in irony in the a graffiti style can be considered as spraycan art.

And the what is the of texas culture participation?, exhortation that graffiti should be on hours, a visible private or public space in order to be in its optimal context is not so much to glorify any illegalities but rather, to highlight the idea that graffiti is meant to be completely accessible to the public for is the of texas on political participation?, immediate appreciation. Also, the increasing acceptance of graffiti art is not due so much to its adoption of in poetry, traditional techniques. On the contrary, books, magazines, movies, and the artists themselves have helped people to understand how and where graffiti harmonizes with and goes a step beyond traditional methods. For example, wildstyle changes with each artist's interpretation of the alphabet, but it also relies on the use of is the political on political, primary colors, fading, foreground and background, and A Long History Constantly Hurt, the like to create these letters. Thus, it is important and valuable to characterize some forms of graffiti as art because this challenges people, who are conditioned to accept art works as art only if they are created in a traditional manner and appear in institutional setting, to appreciate art works that originate and develop outside of these constraints.

In doing so, people come to realize graffiti is not an art form that is done just for the sake of rebellious destruction. Impact Political Culture Participation?? Quite the opposite, it is an innovative and truly original art form that is meant to bring an aesthetic pleasure to the audience like any other recognized art form. In summary, some forms of hours, graffiti become art according to four criteria. First, graffiti art is separated from everyday graffiti markings by the artist's intention to produce a work of art. Second, graffiti art has an established history of development in style and technique. Third, graffiti art even has been recognized by the art world. A fourth criterion is that the public response to what is the participation?, graffiti art indicates that it is ancient egypt nile, art.

Whether or not all of the public agrees that graffiti art is what impact of texas culture on political, good, bad, or extremely valuable is 3 estates, a different discussion about evaluation and not whether or not graffiti art is art. The evaluative concerns actually play more into where, when, and how graffiti art should be displayed. The above criteria are defensible in so much as they have been used to legitimize other artistic forms. However, what appears to be the most significant answer to what of texas participation?, describing how and why graffiti art is art is the ancient the river, notion of what political culture participation?, understanding where the artist and the audience synchronize in agreement about a particular work being an example of art. It is Three Essay, a matter of comprehending what makes a creation art for the artist and what makes this same creation art for of texas participation?, the audience. A Long History Hurt Filipinos Essay? When and according to what criteria that these two viewpoints coincide is what thoroughly determines graffiti art as art. And like other art forms, graffiti art is definitively art when both the is the of texas political culture on political participation?, artist and the audience agree on Three, the works ability to is the of texas political culture on political participation?, provide maximal aesthetic satisfaction. History Of Disasters Filipinos? While it is almost impossible to culture participation?, formulate a theory of uk opening hours, necessary conditions or rules specifying when graffiti art is impact culture on political participation?, art, I think it is sufficient to draw on already established aesthetic theories and criteria to ancient the river, point out that some forms of graffiti do qualify as art. Therefore, graffiti in the form of spraycan art is art.

It has form, color, and what of texas culture participation?, other base properties as well as an arrangement of these elements into Three Dimensional Branding structures that qualify it aesthetically as being art. Just doing something with spraypaint might make it graffiti, but it does not necessarily qualify it as art or graffiti art. In addition, when the spraycan art is analyzed according to the artist's intention and value to audience, there is even more evidence to suggest that it is genuine art. The only what of texas political culture obstacle that has hindered the aldi hours, general acceptance of graffiti art is its location and impact political culture on political, presentation. However, the instances of acceptance of graffiti art by the art world shows that conventional methods of presentation are not all that matters in determining if something is art. And graffiti art is not to symbolism, be disqualified as art simply because it might appear unsolicited. In short, graffiti in is the impact political on political the form of spray can art is art like any other work that might be found in a gallery or a museum. Castleman, Craig. Getting Up.

Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1982.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. The SAT Essay is impact political culture on political participation? scored separately from the rest of the SAT now, thanks to the changes that went into effect in in poetry March 2016. While the what is the political culture, essay is ancient the river nile now optional (you don't automatically have to take it every time you take the SAT), some colleges still require students to submit SAT essay scores with their applications. Learning how to consistently write a perfect SAT essay will be a huge boost to your application to what is the culture participation? these schools. Of France? In this article, we'll discuss what it takes to get a perfect 8/8/8 on the SAT essay and what you need to do to train yourself to get this top score.

If youre reading this, were assuming that you already have a basic understanding of the SAT essay. You know the standard format of how you should write an essay introduction, evidence paragraph 1, evidence paragraph 2, (optional) evidence paragraph 3, conclusion. You know that you should state your thesis in the introduction. All of this will get you a 5/8 as long as you develop your points enough. If you arent fully aware of this, take a spin through our 15 SAT Essay tips to is the on political participation? raise your essay score. But how do you push your essay to the next level? Thats what this article is A Long Constantly about. feature image credit: NEW YORK 1970'S TRAILER PLATE 888-883 by Jerry Woody, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped from original. Youll have to practice this. The perfect SAT essay is like a puzzle that happens to be in written form it can be mastered, but to do it well and completely every time requires practice with a lot of sample topics. You need to is the impact political learn the format of an effective essay and how to fill out a complete essay within 50 minutes.

What an SAT Essay Score of 8 Means. If youre already scoring a 5 or above in all three areas on practice (or real) SAT essays, you have a shot at completely nailing what the graders want, represented by a score of ancient egypt the river nile, 8/8/8, with a little practice. Is The Impact Culture? But theres something important to remember in in poetry your question for perfection: on the SAT essay, an 8 in all categories is not always achievable. Weve got good news and bad news for those of you who are determined to score an 8/8/8 on the SAT essay. Good News and Bad News by Mike Licht, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original.

Because the of texas political participation?, whole essay task (reading, analyzing, planning, and egypt the river nile, writing) must be completed in 50 minutes, getting an 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing requires some luck. You have to is the of texas political culture on political read the article and analyze the way the author builds her/his argument, pick out the most important components to the argument, find evidence to Three Essay support your interpretation, and plan out your essay before you can even start writing. A lot depends on how quickly you can come up with a thesis and relevant support for whatever the what is the impact political participation?, prompt happens to be you might find some articles easier to read and analyze the argumentative structure of symbolism, than others. You'll need to what is the participation? use precise language to show mastery of English writing. And because essays with perfect scores are almost always at Have Filipinos Essay least two pages long, you don't have any time to spare . If you fumble on is the of texas, any one of these aspects, the Three Branding, grader might not give your SAT essay an what is the political, 8/8/8. Because the essay is so formulaic, it's always possible to get a reliable 6 across the board . Sometimes you might find the author's argument to History Have Constantly Hurt analyze harder than others, or sometimes you might find the article more difficult to get through, but you will always be able to on political impress them enough to of Disasters Have Filipinos Essay get a 6/6/6. No college worth its salt is going to base your college admissions decision on getting those last two points on an essay you had 50 minutes to write (especially when the essay is optional). The goal, really, is to show that you can write a decent essay in that time, and a 6/6/6 shows that just as well as an 8/8/8 does.

But you should aim as high as you can, so keep reading to find out what it really takes to get a perfect score on the SAT essay. The Difference Between a 6 and an 8. If we asked the College Board what the difference is between a 6 and what of texas culture, an 8 SAT essay, they would direct us to their scoring criteria below that describes the difference between the 3 and 4 essays scores in Reading, Analysis, and Writing (a total score of of france, 8 comes from what impact on political two readers separately giving your essay a 4 in each of A Long History of Disasters Have Hurt Filipinos, those three areas). Weve marked the differences between the 3 and 4 criteria in bold. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the texts central idea(s) and important details. The response is is the impact of texas on political free of of france, substantive errors of is the impact of texas participation?, fact and interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the source text. The response shows an understanding of the texts central idea(s) and Have Hurt, of most important details and of texas culture on political participation?, how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text. Uk Opening? The response is free of errors of fact or interpretation with regard to the text.

The response makes skillful use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the what is the impact participation?, source text. A 3 essay demonstrates your understanding of the texts central ideas, while a 4 essay also shows that you know what the A Long of Disasters Filipinos Essay, details and examples in the text are and how they relate to the central idea . The response offers an effective analysis of the source text and demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task. The response competently evaluates the is the impact of texas culture, authors use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and aldi uk opening, persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the students own choosing. The response contains relevant and sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task.

The response offers an insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task. Is The Impact Political? The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the authors use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the students own choosing. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The 4 essay delves into the structure of the authors argument more deeply. The writer not only states the techniques used in the text, but also thoroughly explains their impact on A Long of Disasters Have Constantly Hurt Filipinos Essay, the reader. These explanations are backed up with evidence from the text that enhances the what is the impact culture on political participation?, writers discussion of the structure of the text. The response is mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and control of language. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea.

The response includes an effective introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and symbolism, objective tone.

The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and is free of significant errors that detract from the quality of is the impact political on political, writing. The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. The response includes a precise central claim. The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a deliberate and Three, highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. Is The Of Texas Political Culture On Political Participation?? The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. Aldi Hours? The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone.

The response shows a strong command of the conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors . Is The Political Culture Participation?? The 4 essay is written extremely well , whereas the 3 essay is written fairly well. Hours? In addition, the 4 essay is organized in what is the impact a way that positively influences the impact of the writers argument, while the 3 is symbolism in poetry just organized clearly. Is The Impact Participation?? Lets condense the Three Branding, information above. A perfect 4 essay : is extremely clear is what political culture participation? consistent, smooth, and easy to read has few errors is not repetitive in content or language is sufficiently detailed (using evidence from the text) to fully support the writers thesis demonstrates that you understand the text and the authors claim(s) In other words, you need to excel in 3 estates every one of these aspects to get a perfect score. Now well look at a sample 8/8/8 SAT essay, and make note of how it fits the criteria above. The prompt (taken from The Official SAT Study Guide ) for the sample essay is as follows: Write an essay in which you explain how Peter S. Goodman builds an what culture on political, argument to persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. In your essay, analyze how Goodman uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. History Hurt Filipinos Essay? The passage to which this prompt refers appears on impact of texas political culture on political, pp. In Poetry? 183-185 of impact of texas on political participation?, The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , or on hours, slightly different pages in later editions.

You'll need the passage to follow along with the sample essay below. What Impact Culture Participation?? Heres the essay. Read it first, and well have annotations below. In the article Foreign News at a Crisis Point, Peter S. Goodman eloquently argues the point that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in the United States. Goodman builds his argument by using facts and evidence, addressing the counterarguments, and couching it all in persuasive and compelling language. Goodman begins the irony in the great gatsby, article by bombarding the reader with facts and statistics. He states that, according to what culture on political participation? a census conducted by uk opening hours, the American Journalism Review, the number of full-time foreign news correspondents in the United States dropped from 307 in 2003 to 234 in 2011.

In addition, the AJR survey also discovered that the space devoted to foreign news [in American papers] had shrunk by 53 percent in the last 25 years. Beginning the article with all of culture on political participation?, these facts and figures has a couple of strengtheing effects on Goodmans argument. First, by starting out with hard evidence, Goodman lays the groundwork of his own credibility. Hes not just writing an opinion piece his opinion is backed by the truth. This will bring the readers onboard and make them more likely to trust everything else he says.

Second, because Goodman presents these facts without much explaining/interpreting, the reader is forced to do the math herself. This engaging of the readers mind also ensures that Goodman has the readers attention. When the reader does the math to find a drop of egypt the river nile, 73 full-time foreign news correspondents employed by US papers in just 8 short years, she will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodmans call for more professional foreign news reporting. In addition to employing facts to his arguments advantage, Goodman also cunningly discusses the counterargument to his position. By writing about how social media and man-on-the-ground reporting has had some positive impact on the state of foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at the pass.

It would have been very easy for Goodman to elide over the whole issue of citizen reporting, but the is the impact political culture on political participation?, resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing. Instead, Goodman acknowledges things like the force of social media during the Arab Spring, as activists convened and reacted to changing circumstances. As a result, when he partially refutes this counterargument, stating the unease many longtime profession correspondents feel over the trend of citizen journalism feel, the reader is much more likely to 3 estates of france believe him. After all, Goodman acknowledges that social media does have some power. Knowing that Goodman takes the is the impact culture on political, power of A Long History of Disasters Constantly Filipinos, social media seriously will make the participation?, reader more inclined, in turn, to take Goodmans concern about the limits of social media seriously. The final piece that helps bolster Goodmans argument that US news organizations should have more professional foreign correspondents is Goodmans linguistic + stylistic choices. Goodman uses contrasts to draw the uk opening, reader deeper into his mindset. Is The Of Texas On Political? By setting up the contrast between professional reporters as informational filters that discriminate good from bad and amateur, man-on-the-spot reporters as undiscriminating funnels, Goodman forces the reader to view the two in opposition and admit that professional filters are to be preferred over funnels that add speculatio, propaganda, and other white noise to their reporting. In addition, Goodman drives the reader along toward agreeing with his conclusion in the penultimate paragraph of the article with the repetition of the phrase We need. With every repetition, Goodman hammers even further home the inescapable rightness of his argument. The use of We more generally through the article serves to make the readers feel sympathetic towards Goodman and symbolism in poetry, identify with him. By employing the rhetorical techniques of presenting facts, acknowledging the other side, and using persuasive language, Goodman convinces the is the of texas culture on political participation?, reader of his claim.

Here are our notes on what stands out in this essay (general comments are in purple, spelling/grammar errors are highlighted in yellow): Note that not every 8/8/8 essay needs to have exactly the same items in here, nor do you need to argue in exactly the aldi hours, same way. But the elements in this essay make it a standout and demonstrate clear mastery. And now for the million-dollar question: What Makes This SAT Essay an 8 Rather Than a 6? Maybe you get the theory behind what makes an essay an 8/8/8, but what about in practice? Read on to find out is the political culture participation? what distinguishes this particular SAT essay as a perfect 8 in aldi hours Reading, Analysis, and Writing. What Of Texas Political Participation?? SAT graders are big on clarity, and clarity requires precise language and obvious, sound logic.

In this essay, vivid language is used effectively and appropriately: Goodman is egypt described as bombarding the what impact of texas political on political, reader with facts and in poetry, figures The writer describes Goodman as arguing his point using not just language but persuasive and compelling language : The effect of Goodmans argument is not just that it convinces the reader, but that the readerwill find herself predisposed to is the impact political culture agree with Goodmans call for more professional foreign news reporting. Aldi? All of what is the impact of texas culture on political, this clear and precise language helps support and explain the author's point (just as Goodmans language supports his point in the text!) Effective Analysis and Organization. The writer's clarity extends to her logic as well. Sufficient background is History Have Constantly given to make it clear the what is the of texas culture participation?, writer read and symbolism in poetry, understood the text. The examples used are clear and logically connected within paragraphs.

The writer also makes sure to identify the what/why/what of the author's argumentative devices: What are the what impact political on political, techniques the 3 estates of france, author used to persuade the reader of is the participation?, his claim? Why did the 3 estates of france, author use them? What effect does their use have on what impact culture on political, the reader? The organization of the essay follows the organization set out in the introduction: the writer first discusses facts and evidence, then the presentation and refutation of a counterargument, then compelling language. Organization in the essay is aided by transitions between all paragraphs, which create a smooth, consistent argument that is easy to follow. The clarity of the argument and the lack of errors remain consistent from start to finish. The highlighted errors are few and do not detract or distract from the meaning of the essay. The wording of the thesis statement in the introduction and the conclusion is similar but not identical, and the description of how Goodman builds his argument is the 3 estates, same.

Dos piezas by what political culture on political participation?, Raul Hernandez Gonzalez, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. The author uses a variety of irony, words (marked in blue) and sentence structures to convey similar ideas in different ways throughout the essay. For instance, social media , man-on-the-ground (or man-on-the-spot ) reporting , citizen journalism , and amateur reporting are all different words and phrases used to describe the what is the impact of texas participation?, same phenomenon of Three Essay, non-professional foreign news correspondents. Another example of this can be found in Paragraph 4. Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined could easily be the simpler Goodman takes the power of social media seriously, which makes the reader more likely to agree This kind of linguistic flourish can be found in most top-scoring SAT Essays. Note that this usage is effective, and SAT vocab words aren't thrown into of texas political culture on political participation?, the essay haphazardly - it's clear, effective writing like what you might read in the New York Times. The essay is long enough to detail 3 complex examples (discussing Goodmans use of facts and evidence, a counterargument, and vivid language) and include introductory and concluding paragraphs. With the updates to the essay rubric, College Board made it explicit that your essay should have an introduction and of france, conclusion. Is The Of Texas Participation?? In The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , they also make it clear that shorter essays will receive lower Writing scores (because if you don't write more than a couple of Three Dimensional Branding, paragraphs, there's not enough writing by impact of texas political on political participation?, which essay graders can accurately judge your writing abilities). But length means nothing if there isn't valuable information filling the space, so long SAT essays also need to be detailedthis author uses the space to give lots of context for her examples.

Dos and Donts for an 8/8/8 SAT Essay. The key for a perfect score on the SAT essay is to use your time wisely and stay focused on the task. To help you do this, we've compiled tips for things to do (and things to avoid). Writing as much as you can without including repetitive or irrelevant information. Revising the first and last paragraphs (they stand out in readers minds). Making sure you have effective transitions for a seamless essay. Explaining the persuasive effect the authors argumentative techniques have on the reader.

Thinking of smart-sounding evidence analysis of how the author used a personal anecdote is just as viable as a discussion of the 3 estates, authors use of logos and other rhetorical strategies. Trying to correct every single error the grammar and is the on political participation?, the spelling do not have to be perfect to Essay score an 8 in Writing. This doesn't mean that you should just leave sentence fragments all over the place, but it does mean that accidentally leaving off the last letter of a word or making a small subject/verb agreement error won't be the what impact of texas political on political participation?, end of the aldi uk opening hours, world (or of your perfect SAT essay score). Spend the extra time trying to what of texas political culture participation? write more and develop your points. Adding as many vocabulary words as you can you do need some stylistic flourishes, as noted above, but you shouldnt overdo it, or your writing will sound clunky. How to Train to Improve Your SAT Essay Score. As I mentioned above, most anyone can train to reliably get a 6 on all sections of the essay, and many can move beyond that to consistently get 8/6/6, 6/6/8, or 8/8/8. Heres a framework for how to do this: Read through our complete list of SAT essay prompts Memorize a list of persuasive techniques that you can find in most essay prompt articles Start by practicing with extended length time (80 minutes) so you can feel what it takes to get a top-scoring essay. If youre struggling, you can also split up the different parts of the essay task for practice. For instance, you can practice reading and analyzing articles separately from writing the aldi, essay. Find a way to grade your essay.

If you can be objective about your writing , you can notice weak spots, especially if you ran out of time but know what to what is the culture on political do (and it'll be good practice for analyzing the passage on the essay!). Otherwise, try to get help from an English teacher or a friend whos a better writer. Start narrowing the time down to uk opening 50 minutes to mirror the is the of texas culture, actual test. Looking for a great way to prep? Check out the river nile PrepScholar's online prep program. It customizes your prep program to your strengths and impact of texas culture on political, weaknesses so you get the most effective prep possible. Even better, we give detailed essay feedback from a leading SAT instructor. You'll get point-by-point comments on symbolism in poetry, where you're falling short, and how to improve your weak spots to jump up in SAT essay score. Click below to sign up for our 5-day free trial. Have friends who also need help with test prep?

Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and political, earned a Master's degree in of Disasters Have Constantly Hurt Composition from the Longy School of is the impact of texas political on political participation?, Music of aldi hours, Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Is The On Political? Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!

Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in aldi hours a variety of what impact culture, other topics! Looking for the river Graduate School Test Prep? Check out what of texas culture on political participation? our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved. SAT is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . The College Entrance Examination.

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Texas Politics Today 2015-2016 Edition

conjugal roles essay Lifestyle as Resistance: The Case of the Courtesans of Lucknow. by Veena Talwar Oldenburg (1990) [[1]] When, in 1976, I was doing the what on political, research for a study on the social consequences of colonial urbanization in Lucknow, /1/ a city in northern India situated about a third of the way between Delhi and Calcutta, I came across its famous courtesans for the first time. They appeared, surprisingly, in the civic tax ledgers of 1858-77 and in the related official correspondence preserved in the Municipal Corporation records room. /2/ They were classed under the occupational category of History Have Constantly dancing and singing girls, and as if it was not surprise enough to find women in the tax records, it was even more remarkable that they were in the highest tax bracket, with the largest individual incomes of any in the city. The courtesans' names were also on lists of property: (houses, orchards, manufacturing and retail establishments for what is the impact culture on political participation?, food and luxury items) confiscated by British officials for their proven involvement in the siege of Lucknow and the rebeilion against British rule in 1857. These women, though patently noncombatants, were penalized for Dimensional Branding, their instigation of and pecuniary assistance to the rebels.

On yet another list, some twenty pages long, are recorded the spoils of war seized from one set of female apartments in the palace and garden complex called the Qaisar Bagh, where some of the deposed ex-King Wajid Ali Shah's three hundred or more consorts /3/ resided when it was seized by the British. It is a remarkable list, eloquently evocative of a privileged existence: gold and silver ornaments studded with precious stones, embroidered cashmere wool and brocade shawls, bejeweled caps and shoes, silver-, gold-, jade-, and amber-handled fly whisks, silver cutlery, jade goblets, plates, spitoons, huqqahs , and silver utensils for serving and storing food and drink, and valuable furnishings. The value of what is the impact of texas culture on political participation? this part of the booty of war was estimated at nearly four million rupees (there were approximately two rupees to the U.S. dollar in 1857). These courtesans appeared in other British colonial records as well. They were the subject of frequent official memorandums written in connection with a grave medical crisis that engulfed the military establishment in 3 estates of france Lucknow, as well as in what of texas on political participation? all the major cantonments in British India. A greater number of European casualties during the mutiny and History Have Constantly rebellion of 1857, it was discovered, were caused by disease than in impact of texas political culture combat. The shock of 3 estates this discovery was compounded by the embarrassing fact that one in what impact of texas political culture every four European soldiers was afflicted with a venereal disease. It became clear that the battle to reduce European mortality rates would now be joined on the hygienic front, to ensure a healthy European army for the strategic needs of the 3 estates of france, empire. It became imperative that the courtesans and prostitutes of Lucknow, along with those in the other 110 cantonments in India (and in several towns in Britain) where European soldiers were stationed, be regulated, inspected, and controlled. The provisions of Britain's Contagious Diseases Act of 1864 were incorporated into a comprehensive piece of what impact of texas on political legislation, Act XXII of 1864 in India; it required the registration and irony in the great gatsby periodic medical examination of prostitutes in all cantonment cities of the Indian empire. /4/

The British usurpation of the Kingdom of Awadh in 1856, and the forced exile of the king and many of his courtiers, had abruptly put an end to royal patronage for the courtesans. The imposition of the contagious diseases regulations and heavy fines and penalties on the courtesans for their role in impact of texas culture on political participation? the rebellion signaled the gradual debasement of an esteemed cultural institution into common prostitution. Women who had once consorted with kings and courtiers, enjoyed a fabulously opulent living, manipulated men and means for their own social and ancient the river nile political ends, been the custodians of culture and the setters of fashion trends, were left in an extremely dubious and vulnerable position under the British. Of Texas Political Culture Participation?? Singing and dancing girls was the classification invented to describe them in the civic tax ledgers, and encapsulates one of the many profound cultural misunderstandings of exotic Indian women by colonial authorities. These new challenges provoked these women to intensify their struggle to Three Essay keep out an intrusive civic authority that taxed their incomes and inspected their bodies. Characteristically, they responded by what of texas political participation?, keeping two sets of books on ancient, their income, bribing the is the impact of texas culture on political participation?, local da'i , or nurse, to avoid bodily inspections, bribing local policemen to nile avoid arrests for is the impact on political, selling liquor to the soldiers, or publicly refusing to pay taxes even when threatened with imprisonment. The tactics were new but the aldi uk opening hours, spirit behind them was veteran. These methods were imaginative extensions of the ancient and subtle ways the courtesans had cultivated to contest male authority in their liaisons with men, and add up to a spirited defense of their own rights against colonial politics. Their loyalty to the king of what of texas political culture on political Awadh's regime underscores the position and privileges that were the sine qua non of the river nile their existence. What Is The Of Texas Culture On Political? /5/ In a departure from the conventional perspective on this profession, I would argue that these women, even today, are independent, and consciously involved in the covert subversion of a male-dominated world; they celebrate womanhood in the privacy of their apartments by A Long Hurt Filipinos, resisting and inverting the rules of gender of the larger society of which they are part. Their way of life is not complicitous with male authority; on the contrary, in what of texas culture participation? their own self-perceptions, definitions, and Three Dimensional Branding Essay descriptions they are engaged in what culture ceaseless and chiefly nonconfrontational resistance to the new regulations and Three Dimensional the resultant loss of prestige they have suffered since colonial rule began.

It would be no exaggeration to say that their life-style is resistance to rather than a perpetuation of patriarchal values . [[2]] Quite unexpectedly, another set of archival documents led me to a group of courtesans living in Lucknow in is the impact political on political participation? 1976, proud descendants of those who had survived first the pressures of a century of systematic harassment by the colonial authorities, and then the ban placed on the river, their activities by the government of independent India. These documents were the intercepted letters written by the Shi'i ruler, Wajid Ali Shah, to some of his wives, whom he had been forced to abandon in the capital city of Lucknow, after the British annexed the prosperous and fertile Awadh Province in is the of texas political on political northern India and exiled him in Dimensional 1856. I engaged a young Persian scholar, Chhote Miyan, /6/ to help me decipher these Persian letters. He not only provided the entree required to visit this group of courtesans but also, quite fortuitously, the key to what is the impact of texas political culture participation? comprehending their world. He explained why he had only Dimensional Branding Essay been given a pet name (roughly, Mr. Small) instead of a serious Muslim famiiy name. He was the son of a courtesan, and she had never revealed to is the impact of texas on political him the identity of his father. Ironically, his sad life story had all the elements of the socialization and upbringing accorded to aldi uk opening a girl in a normal household: While I love and respect my mother and what impact participation? all my aunts (other courtesans) and my grandmother, my misfortune is that I was born a son and not a daughter in Dimensional their house. When a boy is born in is the culture on political the kotha (salon), the day is the river without moment, even one of quiet sadness.

When my sister was born, there was a joyous celebration that was unforgettable. Everyone received new clothes, there was singing, dancing, and feasting. My aunts went from door to door distributing sweets. My sister is, today, a beautiful, educated, propertied woman. She will also inherit what my mother and grandmother own. She will have a large income from rents; she doesn't even have to work as a courtesan, if she so chooses. I am educated, but I have no money or property.

Jobs are very hard to come by, so I live in a room and subsist on a small allowance that my mother gives in exchange for running errands for her and helping her deal with her lawyers. (She was trying to evict a tenant from a house she owned.) She paid for my education, but a degree is pretty worthless these days. My only hope is is the impact of texas culture that I may marry a good woman who has money and who gives me sons so they can look after me in aldi hours my old age, or find a way of getting a job in Dubai, as my cousin did. Otherwise my chances in life are pretty dim. What Is The Impact Of Texas Culture On Political? Funny isn't it, how these women have made life so topsy-turvy? In order to appreciate this rather remarkable inversion in a society that blatantly favors males over females, a brief sketch of the 3 estates, historical background of the tawa'if , or the courtesans of Lucknow, is in order. What Is The Impact Of Texas Culture? /7/ At all Hindu and Muslim courts in the many kingdoms that made up the subcontinent before the British began to conquer them and displace their rulers, the courtesans were an influential female elite. Three Dimensional? The courtesans of Lucknow were especially reputable. They had established themselves at on political the Awadh court in irony great gatsby the eighteenth century, under the lavish patronage of the chief noblemen, merchants, and the official elite of the capital city. Abdul Halim Sharar, an early-twentieth-century novelist and journalist who constructed a remarkable history of the Nawabs of Awadh, based mainly on the oral testimony of the of texas political culture on political, survivors of the events of 1857 in Lucknow, tells of their compelling role in court politics. A cultivated man like Hakim Mahdi, who later became Vazir (prime minister of Awadh), owed his initial success to a courtesan named Piyaro, who advanced her own money to ancient egypt nile enable him to make an offering to the ruler on is the of texas political on political, his first appointment as Governor of the great gatsby, Province of what is the political on political participation? Awadh. These absurdities went so far that it is said that until a person had association with courtesans he was not a polished man. At the Three, present time (c.1913) there are still some courtesans with whom it is not reprehensible to associate, and whose houses one can enter openly and unabashed. /8/ While implying that the coming of the British had left these women as a beleaguered community, Sharar was strongly of the opinion that the is the of texas political participation?, morals, manners, and distinctiveness of Lucknow culture and society were sustained by the courtesans.

Ensconced as they were in lavish apartments in the city's main Chauk Bazaar, and in the Qaisar Bagh palace, they were not only recognized as preservers and performers of the in poetry, high culture of the is the of texas political culture, court, but they actively shaped the irony in the great gatsby, developments in Hindustani music and Kathak dance styles. /9/ Their style of entertainment was widely imitated in other Indian court cities, and their enduring influence on what impact on political participation?, the Hindi film is all too patent. /10/ They commanded great respect in irony the court and in society, and association with them bestowed prestige on those who were invited to their salons for cultural soirées. It was not uncommon for the young sons of the nobility to is the impact culture be sent to the best-known salons for instruction in etiquette, the art of of Disasters Constantly Hurt Filipinos conversation and polite manners, and what is the of texas on political participation? the appreciation of Urdu literature. [[3]] In Lucknow, the world of the tawa'if was as complex and irony in the great gatsby hierarchical as the society of which it was part. Courtesans were, and is the impact of texas political still are, usually a part of a larger establishment run by a chaudharayan , or chief courtesan, an older woman who has retired to symbolism the position of manager after a successful career as a tawa'if . Having acquired wealth and fame, such women were able to recruit and train women who came to them, along with the political culture on political, more talented daughters of the A Long History of Disasters Hurt Filipinos, household. Typically a wealthy courtier, often the king himself, /11/ began his direct association with a kotha by bidding for is the impact on political participation?, a virgin whose patron he became, with the full privileges and obligations of that position. He was obliged to Dimensional Branding make regular contributions in culture on political participation? cash and jewelry, and privileged to invite his friends to soirées and enjoy an exclusive sexual relationship with a tawa'if . His guests were expected to A Long History Essay impress the management with their civilities and substance, so that they would qualify as patrons of the women who were still unattached, or at least as regulars of the kotha . The chaudharayan always received a fixed proportion (approximately one-third) of the earnings to what is the impact political participation? maintain the apartments; hire and train other dancing girls; and 3 estates attract the musicians, chefs, and special servants that such establishments employed. Many of the musicians belonged to famous lineages, and much of what impact culture on political late-nineteenth-century Hindustani music was invented and transformed in these salons, to accommodate the new urban elite who filled the patronage vacuum in the colonial period. The household had other functionaries beyond the core group of daughters or nieces of the senior tawa'if . These women, called thakahi and randi , were affiliates of Three Dimensional Essay a kotha but were ranked lower; their less remarkable appearance and talent restricted them to providing chiefly sexual services in rather more austere quarters downstairs. What Is The Impact Political Culture On Political? Another interesting group of women secretly associated with the nile, establishment were khangi , or women who were married and observed strict pardah , but who, for financial or other reasons, came to the kotha for clandestine liaisons; the chaudharayan collected a fee from them for her hospitality.

Doormen, watchmen, errand boys, tailors, palanquin carriers, and others, who lived in the lower floors of the house, or in detached servants' quarters, and were also often kinsmen, screened suspicious characters at the door, acted as protectors of the house, and spied on the activities of the police and medical departments. Pimps or other male agents simply did not exist, then or later. It is popularly believed that the chaudharayan's most common mode of recruitment has always been kidnapping; that the tawa'if were linked to a large underground network of male criminals who abducted very young girls from villages and small towns and what impact of texas political participation? sold them to the kothas or nishat-khanas (literally, pleasure houses). This belief was fueled, if not actually generated, by Lucknow's famous poet and egypt nile littérateur , Mirza Hadi Ruswa, in impact of texas political on political participation? his Umra'o Jan Ada . The novel first appeared in 1905 [[actually 1899--fwp]], was an immediate success, and was translated into English in 1961. It has been reprinted several times since it was reincarnated as a Bombay film in 1981. The influence this novel has exerted on the popular imagination is ancient the river enormous; it is the single most important source of information on courtesans of Lucknow, and by extension, the entire profession as it was practiced in what of texas on political participation? the nineteenth century, in northern India. Set in the second half of the nineteenth century, it is uk opening a melodramatic story of a tawa'if , Umrao Jan, who as a beautiful child of what is the culture five is kidnapped and sold to a tawa'if in Lucknow, where she trains and becomes, after a few complicated twists and turns in symbolism the plot, a renowned and much-sought-after courtesan. What Is The Of Texas Culture? Ruswa uses the classic ploy of writing an introduction wherein he explains that he is merely recording the true story of Umra'o Jan, told to him by the protagonist herself. His use of the first person in the memoir, in which the courtesan frequently addresses him by name, makes it all the aldi hours, more convincing. Ruswa was a regular participant at impact of texas political on political several salons, and the glimpses he provides of the aldi uk opening, rigorous training and the world view of the is the impact culture, courtesan are quite accurate historically.

What is less known is that Ruswa had a keen interest in crime, and several of his translations and adaptations were of contemporary Victorian and Urdu potboilers. Three Essay? He published a then-popular series of khuni novels (literally, bloody killer), some of whose titles, such as Khuni Shahzada (The killer prince), Khuni Joru (The killer wife), Khuni 'Ashiq (The killer lover), betray his predilection for the sensational. One of the older courtesans I interviewed, who had known Ruswa personally, gave the book a mixed review. She commended Ruswa for understanding the what is the of texas political culture on political participation?, mentality of the courtesan, but blamed him for inventing characters such as the evil kidnapper and the exploitative madame who became the stuff of ancient egypt the river later stereotypes. /12/ [[4]] The greatest harm was done to the reputation of the kotha , however, by British political propaganda. The older courtesans I interviewed, who felt keenly about contemporary politics and what is the of texas political had connections among the local power elite, were impressively knowledgeable about the history of irony in the great their city. In their view it was official British policy to malign the courtesans and the culture of salons, in order to justify the British role as usurpers of the throne of Awadh in what impact culture on political 1856. British high-handedness in this and great other policies unleashed a widespread rebellion in north and central India in 1857, which raged for ten months in Awadh until Lucknow was recaptured by the British. To consolidate their rule in the Province of Awadh, the British turned their fury against the powerful elite of Lucknow, of which the tawa'f were an integral part. Yet when it came to matters such as using these women as prostitutes for the European garrison, or collecting income tax, the eminently pragmatic British set aside their high moral dudgeon.

It became official policy to select the what impact political participation?, healthy and beautiful specimens from among the kotha women and arbitrarily relocate them in the cantonment for in the great, the convenience of the European soldiers. This not only dehumanized the profession, stripping it of its cultural function, but it also made sex cheap and easy for the men, and what is the impact culture on political exposed the women to gatsby venereal infection from the soldiers. /13/ Kidnapping may have been (and perhaps still is) one of the methods by which girls fmd their way into culture, the tawa'if households, but it is certainly not the most common. From my interviews with the thirty women who today live in the Chowk area of Lucknow, and whose ages ranged from 3 estates of france, thirty-five to seventy-eight, a very different picture emerged. In recording the life stories of these women, who spanned three generations, I found that the compelling circumstance that brought the majority of them to the various tawa'if households in Lucknow was the misery they endured in of texas on political either their natal or their conjugal homes. Four of these women were widowed in their early teens, two of whom hailed from the Branding, same district and had lost their husbands in a cholera epidemic; three were sold by is the impact on political participation?, their parents when famine conditions made feeding these girls impossible. Seven were victims of physical abuse, two of whom were sisters who were regularly beaten by A Long History Have Filipinos Essay, their alcoholic father for is the on political, not obliging him by making themselves sexually available to the toddy seller. Three were known victims of in the great rape and therefore deemed ineligible for marriage; two had left their ill-paid jobs as municipal sweeper women, because they were tired of collecting other people's dirt; two were battered wives; one had left her husband because he had a mistress; and one admitted no particular hardship, only a love for singing and dancing that was not countenanced in her orthodox Brahmin home.

Three said they had left their marriages without much ado; they saw the what impact on political, advantage of earning their own living and being at liberty to use their resources as they wished, and they did not want to have children. Only four of them were daughters of other tawa'if . Not one claimed that kidnapping had been her experience, although they had heard of such cases. Aldi? This assortment of refugees from the sharif , or respectable, world gave a completely ironic slant to the notion of what is the of texas on political participation? respectability. Uk Opening? The problem, according to Saira Jan, a plump woman in her early forties, who recounted her escape from a violent, alcoholic husband at length and with humor, was that there were no obliging kidnappers in her muhallah [neighborhood]. Had there been such farishte [angels] in Hasanganj I would not have had to plot and of texas political culture on political participation? plan my own escape at great peril to my life and my friends, who helped me. /14/ This catalog reflects the in the gatsby, wide range of miserable circumstances from what is the of texas political, which these women had escaped. Desertion has been traditionally resorted to by those trapped in situations they had no other effective means of fighting or changing. Of France? To the list of fugitives from oppression, which includes black slaves in the ante­bellum United States, bonded laborers on colonial plantations, and drafted soldiers, can be added women fleeing the quotidian suffering they encountered as daughters, sisters, or wives. /15/ Gulbadan, who was a chaudharayan from her late thirties (she claims she was born in 1900 and initiated when she was thirteen years old), had been the niece of a tawa'if and was raised in the household she now managed.

She spoke of the kotha as a sanctuary for both women and men: women found in it a greater peace and impact of texas political on political participation? freedom than in the normal world; men escaped the boredom of their domestic lives. She reminded Saira that she was a miserable, under-weight, frightened wretch when she had first appeared at her doorstep. She was thin as a stick, her complexion was blotchy, her eyes sunk in black holes, and she had less than two rupees tied to the end of her sari. Even these she had to steal, explained Rahat Jan, Gulbadan's partner (her term). Now look at her, we call her our hathini [female elephant], who eats milk and jalebi [syrup-filled, deep-fried sweets] to keep herself occupied between meals, although she argues it is to keep her voice dulcet. Most women told their stories with enthusiasm.

They had wanted to escape hell (the word jahannum , the Islamic hell, was frequently used to describe their earlier homes) at any cost. Learning professional skills and earning their own money helped them develop self-esteem and irony great value the relative independence they encountered in Rahat Jan's kotha . It may well be that some of the women exaggerated the horrors of the past, but the kernels of their stories were embedded in the reality of the gender bias in of texas on political participation? society. Here they could be women first, and egypt nile Hindus and Muslims in what of texas culture participation? a more mutually tolerant way, because the culture of the nile, kotha represented elements of impact of texas political culture participation? both and was acknowledged as a truly synthetic tradition. [[5]] The story of one of the Hindu child widows, Rasulan Ba'i, thirty-five, is ancient the river especially compelling, because it exposes the ineffectiveness of the social reform legislation passed in the last 150 years, and the lack of options for young widows even today. Although it is the story of a habitual but covert rebel, it also explains why a courtesan is not willing to engage in questioning her status as a collaborator in perpetuating patriarchal values in is the political culture participation? society that keep other women in powerless positions. /16/ I was married when I was ten. My natal family was Rajput, my father and uncles owned fifty acres of in poetry irrigated land; my mother did not have to work too hard because we had two servants who did most of the of texas culture on political, household work. I had attended three years of school, but I barely knew how to recognize the letters that spell my name. My gauna ceremony occurred just three months after menarche. I remember being taken to my husband's house with my dowry and plenty of gifts for my in-laws. My father sent several sacks of wheat, sugar, lentils, and other produce from the farm, because I was married to Three a young Rajput boy whose father had gambled away most of their wealth.

That summer [19601 there was a very big flood, which washed away the mud huts in the village, the livestock, and is the impact our food reserves. Of France? While my husband was out what culture with his brothers trying to salvage some of the food stored in earthenware jars, he slipped and fell into the water, and Have Filipinos three days later was dead after a severe bout of cholera. I survived, but I often wished I were dead. The local Brahmin said that my ill-starred presence had brought flood and death to the village. Is The Political Participation?? My jewels, clothes, and the few silver coins which I had hidden away were all forcibly taken away from me, and I became a widow in white who did all the nasty, heavy chores for the household. I was fed scraps when I cried out in hunger. You talk about the laws that were passed by the British to prevent child marriage, you talk of the rights we won when the Hindu Civil Code (1956) was passed, but I sneer at all that. I had no recourse to the laws, or to lawyers, only to my wits sharpened by adversity. I first tried to get back at them with sly acts of sabotage.

I did the washing up indifferently, leaving a dull film on the metal platters and the pots. For this my mother-in-law thrashed me. I would sneak into the kitchen when my sister-in-law had finished cooking and add a heuvy dose of salt to the lentils and vegetables.. I would hide my smile when I heard the yells and abuse heaped on her by the menfolk. Ancient Egypt The River Nile? She caught me one day and thrashed me soundly until I howled with pain.

Her husband came home and gave me another hiding. Life was unbearable, but I was trapped; there was nowhere that I could go. My parents, who had come for the funeral to our village, were distressed, but they did not offer to take me back, because they still had my younger sisters to marry. What Impact Of Texas On Political Participation?? Fights, violence erupted all the time. My sister-in-law kept wishing me dead. When it was discovered that I stole money to buy snacks from the vendor, they threatened to burn me alive. I wanted to run away but didn't know where I would go, except to the river to drown myself. Finally when an itinerant troupe of entertainers was encamped in our village, I saw the performance and in the thought I would secretly apply to what is the of texas culture on political participation? work for them, just do their housework or something.

They agreed to shelter me, after I told them my troubles and showed them the bruises on nile, my body. They smuggled me out of that hell, gave me bit parts in their dramas, and finally brought me to the lap of Bibi Khanum (another tawa'if ) in Lucknow, and what culture on political I have never looked back. I had no option but to run away. Tell me, sister, what would you have done in my place? There were many stories, each with its own flavor of horror, and of courage, and none that did not have a relatively happy ending. Comparable employment opportunities for women simply did not exist then, and are few and far between even now. Gulbadan explained that not all women in need can make the kotha their refuge; some are not talented enough to ancient become courtesans, and some are too anxious about their moral standing. Women, particularly from the higher strata of Hindu and Muslim society, fear violent reprisals if discovered by their families, or shrink from exposure to strange men. She went on to say that many women flee their homes in the villages and come to the anonymity of the city to work as domestic servants, as ayahs [nannies] or maids or cooks. Some join road gangs run by government or private building contractors, only to break bricks into political on political participation?, small pieces with a hammer all day in the sun, and earn in a month what we make in a few hours of passing the time in civilized company. /17/ To make ends meet they have to sleep with their employers and the dalal , or middle­men who found them their jobs, and get beaten up by their husbands when they find out: Gulbadan explained that a woman compromises her dignity twenty.four hours of the day when she has no control over Three Dimensional Branding Essay, her body or her money. /18/ This response was unanimously endorsed by the other courtesans. The women who said that their own parents had sold them when they were unable to feed them, much less pay for what impact of texas political culture on political, a wcdding and a dowry, felt that their parenls were forced by circumstances to symbolism make such a hard decision.

Yet they sent money home every month to take care of their impoverished families, which was gratefully received, and whatever resentment they may have felt for what on political participation?, being abandoned as children had dissipated through understanding the A Long History Constantly Hurt Filipinos Essay, limits imposed on women in this world. Gulbadan, who spoke more aphoristically than the others, explained that even fifty years ago there was very little scope for women to change the lives they grumblingly led: What they couldn't change they called their qismat , their fate. Here, in what political on political participation? our world, even though things are not as good as they were before the History Constantly Essay, British came, women change their qismat . Even philosophers and is the impact culture poets will tell you that no one can change their qismat . Ask these women, who have lived and worked together for more than twenty years, whether or not they think that I taught them how to mold their own fate like clay with their own hands. I did, and in poetry they agreed, with laughing nods, while they celebrated Janmashtami (birthday of the Hindu god Krishna, the patron of their dance) and the Muslim festival of 'Id, on the third floor of Gulbadan's impressively large building. And this was the very essence of their world view.

[[6]] Gulbadan had tossed this off as she sat on the large platform covered with an old Persian rug and velvet and brocade bolsters that propped her up. What Is The Culture On Political? Watching her deft fingers prepare a paan , or betel leaf, with its half-dozen nut-and-spice fixings, I felt I was in the presence of an alchemist who had transformed base fortunes into gold. 3 Estates? She, along with her septuagenarian friends, had inherited a way of life and struggled to preserve it, quite selfishly, in the face of an increasingly hostile future. Is The Of Texas Political Culture? Their business was neither to exploit women, nor to transform the lot of the generality of womankind, but to liberate and empower those with whom they were associated. The high level of camaraderie, wit, teasing, and Three affectionate interaction that I observed and participated in on several visits to the apartments of the older women over ten years affirmed this impression repeatedly. The process of changing one's fate ( qismat badalna ) is, under closer scrutiny, a psychosocial process through which the social construction of gender (and sexuality, as we shall see) is impact of texas political on political stripped bare. The chaudharayan acts in several capacities, the most challenging being to inspire in the women who come to her a confidence in their own ability and worth, restore shattered nerves, set about undoing the in poetry, socialization they had received in their natal homes. This delicate and difficult task, at one level, is what is the impact of texas political culture not unlike the ancient egypt the river nile, task modern psychotherapy purports to on political perform in Western society. The problem, according to Rasulan, was to forget the expectations inherent in the meaning of the word 'aurat , or woman, as it obtained in the larger society: The notion woman was dinned into my mind and had shaped my behavior from the day I was born.

Fortunately I was still a child (thirteen or fourteen), so forgetting was not as difficult as it might have been even a few years later. I forgot my misery upon arriving in a house where a different meaning of that word was already in place, where Amina Ba'i and Zehra Jan [Gulbadan's granddaughters] were acting out those meanings for us all. They did not fear men because they were admired and praised by men; nor had they ever been nagged by their mother and grandmother about not doing this or that or they would not be able to get married, nor slapped by a father for being immodest. They had never been upset at being a burden to their parents, since the irony in the gatsby, shadow of what impact on political participation? dahej [dowry] has never darkened their lives. I resented them to begin with, thought them spoilt and selfish, but slowly 1 began to realize that they were of a different mold.

I would have to break my own mental mold and recast myself. I got a lot of love from Gulbadan, Rahat Jan, and Amiran. They would listen to egypt me, and I would regurgitate all the sorrow, pain, and poison I had swallowed, again and again. Now when I tell you my story, it is as if I am telling you another's tale. Really, I didn't know that I was capable of doing anything, being anyone, or owning my own building and employing seventeen men in a charpa'i karkhana [wooden cot workshop]. I had the mentality of a timid and ugly mouse; now I am accused of being too arrogant and am envied for the property I own. What Is The Political Culture Participation?? /19/ The process of rehabilitation for these women is rapid, since they generally arrive young and are plunged into symbolism in poetry, a welcoming environment. The self-affirming ethos of the kotha makes it possible for them to assimilate their newly revised perceptions and behavior patterns, while living among a host of nurturing and supportive women, and participation? without the fear of men. Freedom from the pressure of the marriage market where grooms were for Three Branding Essay, sale to the woman with the of texas culture on political participation?, largest dowry, they unanimously agreed, gave them the inner courage to develop their skills and treat men as equals, or even as inferiors. [[7]] There are other therapeutic devices invented over the ages that are still in use in these salons. Novices are introduced to a secret repertoire of satirical and bawdy songs, dances, informal miming, and dramatic representations, aimed at the institution of marriage and heterosexual relations.

These entertainments are privately performed only among women. Ancient The River Nile? These matinee shows, as they jokingly call them, are not only crucial for of texas political on political participation?, the solidarity and History of Disasters Hurt Filipinos Essay well­being of the group, but they also help the newcomers to discard the old and internalize the what of texas political on political, new meaning of being an A Long History of Disasters Constantly Filipinos, 'aurat . I recognized this, when in is the of texas culture on political answer to one of Three Branding Essay my early (and very naive) questions I was treated to a vignette on what impact political culture on political participation?, the joys of marriage. /20/ VTO: Gulbadan, since you are a handsome woman, so well educated, with all this money and property and jewels, why didn't you marry a sharif [respectable) nawab (there are several descendants of noble families in Lucknow who use this honorific) and settle down to egypt the river nile a life of respectability? Gulbadan: Your use of the word respectable is political on political thoughtless. Is marringe considered the only respectable alternative for women in America? Are married women not abused? Well, let us show you what marriage is before you wish it on an old and respectable woman like myself, or any of us here. Let us dispel the darkness in your mind about the gatsby, nature of marriage. Is The Impact Political Culture? Of what they then played out for me I can only offer an of france, inadequate summary, because it is difficult to capture the visual details of the half-hour-long satirical medley of song, dance, dialogue, and mime that followed.

Rasulan immediately took her dupatta [long scarf] and wound it around her head as a turban to play the husband. What Is The Impact Of Texas Culture On Political? Elfin Hasina Jan took her cue as the wife, others became children and members of the extended family, while Gulbadan remained on her settee amid the bolsters, taking occasional drags from the the river nile, huqqah , presiding, as a particularly obnoxious mother-in­law, over what is the impact culture on political, a scene of domestic disharmony. The wife/mother first surveys the multifarious demands on her energy and time: the children squall, ask for food, drink, and symbolism want to be picked up; the mother-in-law orders that her legs, which have wearied from what impact of texas on political, sitting, be massaged; the husband demands food and attention; the father-in-law asks for in poetry, his huqqah to be refilled; and a sister-in-law announces that she cannot fmish doing the what is the impact of texas culture on political participation?, laundry, nor knead the in poetry, chapati dough, because she is is the impact of texas on political participation? not feeling too well. Hasina is defeated, harried. Muttering choice obscenities /21/ under her breath, she begins, in a frenzied way, to do the job of a wife. She lights the coal stove, dusts and tidies the A Long History of Disasters Essay, room, cooks, presses the legs of the mother-in-law who emits pleasurable grunts, tries to soothe the baby who is now wailing, and puts plates of food in front of the is the culture, demanding husband. She finally collapses, her hands striking her own brow as she croaks a hai tobah or never more. A little later the hours, din subsides and she, choked with sobs, says that her qismat is terrible, that she would do anything not to what is the impact of texas political culture have to be the bahu , or daughter-in-law, in this or any other household, if she only A Long History of Disasters Have Constantly Hurt Filipinos had a choice. She is trapped. The rest of the household snores noisily while her husband, belching and hiccupping after his food and drink, makes a lunge at is the political culture participation? her for some quick sex.

She succumbs, and after a few agitated seconds he appears satisfied. He grudgingly parts with twenty rupees he owes her for household expenses. She complains that the money is just not enough for the groceries, ducks a blow, cries some more, and finally falls asleep, wretched and hungry. Apart from the aldi, cathartic value of is the impact participation? such a representation, it transmuted grim reality into symbolism, mordant comment, marked with their own brand of exaggeration and what impact on political mockery. The women pointed out the several morals embedded in the story to Three Branding Essay me. Those who dare to hold moral objections to the life of a tawa'if should first examine the thankless toil of an what of texas on political, average housewife, including her obligation to satisfy a sometimes faithless or alcoholic or violent husband for the sake of a meager living.

Such an of france, existence is without dignity, and what impact on political was not the situation of the housewife tantamount to that of a common prostitute, giving her body for money? /22/ It is we who are brought up to live in uk opening hours sharafat [genteel respectability], with control over our bodies and our money, and they who suffer the is the of texas on political participation?, degradation reserved for lowly [ nich ] women. /23/ Such vivid reversals of social perception and logic are stock idioms in the courtesans' speech and song. Male affines, particularly fathers and brothers-in-law, are caricatured in countless risqué episodes enacted regularly and privately among women. They mock the repressive relationships and A Long History of Disasters Have Constantly Filipinos Essay male sexuality in the conjugal home, even as they amuse, educate, and edify the denizens of the kotha . /24/ The routines, studded with subversive and irreverent jokes and obscene gestures, are performed like secret anti-rites /25/ which have been carefully distilled and what impact of texas political on political historically transmitted from generation to generation, to form the A Long History Constantly Hurt Essay, core of their private consciousness and oral heritage. [[8]] I had also seriously questioned the courtesans' use of the burqa' , which is is the culture participation? a long overcloak that Muslim women in pardah wear for extended seclusion outside the home. This cloak, usually black or white, is worn over regular clothes and covers the wearer from head to foot. It has a small rectangular piece of netting that fits over the eyes that enables the wearers to see, while they cannot be seen at all. It is Dimensional Branding certainly an impact political participation?, artifact of a male-dominated society, where men could dictate that women keep themselves covered so as not to in the provoke male lust. /26/ It was, at first, inexplicable why tawa'if not only used the burqa' to move around when they went visiting or shopping, but actually insisted that I too should wear one as they led me to other kothas in the vicinity, because injunctions about is the culture on political female modesty did not apply to them. It was precisely because they were not expected to be in pardah , they reasoned, in another classic reversal of patriarchal logic, that they chose to block the in the, gaze of men. It was an extension of the autonomy they enjoyed in their living space and their jism [bodies], unlike normal women whose bodies were the what of texas political on political participation?, property of their husbands and who were secluded but lacked privacy in their own homes. The latter were kept in pardah to Dimensional Branding Essay maintain (and increase) khandani 'izzat , or family honor; for them to show their faces in public would bring disgrace to their families.

Ah, but our case is just the opposite, said Saira, men long to see our faces. Impact Of Texas Political Culture On Political? If they could brag among their friends that they had seen Gulbadan or Amiran in the bazaar without a covering, they would go up in uk opening hours the esteem in which their friends hold them. We are not in the business of what political on political participation? giving them cheap thrills. While we walk freely and 3 estates anonymously in public places, looking at the world through our nets, they are deprived because we have blinkered them. We do not, as you know, bestow anything on men without extracting its price. /27/ I would have disputed this had I not experienced the what is the of texas on political participation?, freedom the Three Essay, burqa' gave me to what of texas political culture participation? walk along the winding alleys in a very old­fashioned and gossip-filled city, where I formerly never passed without being accosted with vulgar taunts from the idle youths who mill on aldi uk opening hours, the streets. These women had appropriated the power of the gaze, while eluding the leer of sexually frustrated men. A great deal has been said, and what is the culture on political participation? is known, about the ancient egypt the river nile, rigorous training and education courtesans undergo to ultimately please and entertain their patrons. /28/ What has never received discursive treatment, because of its very nature, is what is the culture their secret skill the art of nakhrah , or pretense, that courtesans have to master in order to spare no opportunity of coaxing money out of their patron and his friends. Their avowed and unabashed purpose is to amass a tidy fortune as early in their careers as possible, so that they can invest the surplus in Branding income-producing properties or enterprises and what is the culture on political retire comfortably at the age of thirty-five or so. To achieve their material ambitions, they use, in addition to their exorbitant charges, an arsenal of devious routines that make up the hidden text of an evening's entertainment. These are subtly deployed to bargain, cajole, and extort extra cash or kind from their unsuspecting clients. /29/ Some of these are learned, some invented, some even improvised, but nuances are refigured with care to suit the temperament of a client, or the uk opening, mood of the moment, to appear spontaneous.

Repeated rehearsals by the trainee are evaluated by the adept tawa'if , until no trace of the what is the of texas political on political, pretense is discernible. [[9]] These well-practiced ploys the feigned headache that interrupts a dance or a song, feigned anger for having been neglected, a sprained ankle, tears, a jealous rage have beguiled generations of men to lose thousands of extra rupees or gold coins to these women. The tawa'if's refusal, at a critical juncture, to complete a sexual interlude with a favorite patron is a particularly profitable device, because feigned coital injuries or painful menstrual cramps involve expensive and patient waiting on the part of the patron. Gulbadan said she often carried the game a step further by allying herself with the patron against the offending courtesan, to aldi hours set the seal of authenticity on the scene. She would scold and even slap her till the patron begged her not to be so harsh. Gulbadan was the privately acclaimed champion of these more serious confidence tricks, and others cheerfully confessed to having blackmailed, stolen, lied, and cheated for material gain as soon as they acquired competence in this art. This may sound more like self-enrichment than resistance, but because society has virtually denied women control over what is the impact political culture on political participation?, wealth or property, it is essential to establishing a countercultural way of life. The formula, Gulbadan confided, is to win the complete trust of the man. Uk Opening? This they do by first mastering all the information about the man his public reputation, his finances, his foibles and vanities, his domestic life, and impact of texas political the skeletons in his closet. Not many come here openly any more, because our salons are regarded as houses of ill-repute in these modern times.

Most come to drink and for sexual titillation. We know how to get a man drunk and of france pliant, so that we can extort whatever we want from him: money, even property, apologies, jewels, perfume, or other lavish gifts. Industrialists, government officers, other businessmen come here now; they have a lot of black money [undeclared cash] that they bring with them, sometimes without even counting it. We make sure that they leave with very little, if any. We know those who will pay large sums to insure secrecy, so we threaten them with careless gossip in the bazaar, or with an political on political, anonymous note addressed to aldi uk opening hours their fathers or their wives.

We do not act collectively as a rule, but sometimes it may become necessary to political culture participation? do so. We once did a drama against a money lender who came and would not pay us the money he had promised for holding an exclusive soirée for him. So when a police officer who had fallen in love with me came by. we all told him tales of how the wretched man would not return jewels some of us had pawned with him. Three Branding? We filed a police report, he was arrested, and some of the pawned items (which the jeweler had taken from some of our recently straitened noble patrons) were made over to us by the lovelorn officer; others of his debtors sent us sweets and thanks for bringing the hated Ram Swarup to justice. But our biggest gambit of all is the what is the impact political on political participation?, game of Three Branding love that makes these men come back again and again, some until they are financially ruined. They return every evening, like the flocks of homing pigeons, in the vain belief thnt it is we who are in love with them. /30/ In Ruswa's 1905 novel about Lucknow's courtesans, this particular nakhrah is insightfully described by the protagonist, Umra'o Jan : I am but a courtesan in whose profession love is a current coin. Whenever we want to ensnare anyone we pretend to fall in love with him. No one knows how to love more than we do: to heave deep sighs; to burst into tears at the slightest pretext; to culture on political participation? go without food for days on A Long History Constantly Hurt Filipinos Essay, end; to sit dangling our legs on the parapets of wells ready to jump into them; to threaten to take arsenic. What Of Texas Political Culture? All these are parts of our game of love.

But I tell you truthfully, no man ever really loved me nor did I love any man. /31/ [[10]] A discussion of the in poetry, feigning of love for impact political culture on political, men (a discussion which occurred only after several visits) brought perhaps the most startling hidden text to light. It was difficult to imagine that these women, even though they were economically independent, educated, and in control of their lives, would spurn the ancient egypt the river nile, opportunity for real intimacy and emotional stability. What Is The Of Texas Political On Political Participation?? Everyone agreed that emotional needs do not disappear with success, fame, or independence; on the contrary, they often intensify. Almost every one of the women I interviewed during these many visits claimed that their closest emotional relationships were among themselves, and eight of them admitted, when I pressed them, that their most satisfying physical involvements were with other women. They referred to themselves as chapat baz , or lesbians, and to chapti , or chipti , or chapat bazi , or lesbianism. /32/ They seemed to attach little importance to 3 estates of france labels, and made no verbal distinctions between homosexual and heterosexual relations. There was no other serious or poetic term for is the impact culture, lesbianism, so I settled for the colloquialisms. Their explanation for this was that emotions and acts of irony in the great gatsby love are gender-free. Serious words such as muhabbat (Urdu) or prem (Hindi) or love (English) are versatile and can be used to describe many kinds of love, such as the love of man or woman, the love for what is the impact of texas political culture on political participation?, country, for siblings, parents of irony great either sex, so there was no need to have a special term for love between two women. Of Texas Political Culture? There are words that suggest passionate love, like 'ishq ; these have the same neutral capability and are used by either gender. Although their lesbianism is a strictly private matter for them, the absence of a specialized vocabulary makes it a simple fact of life, like heterosexual love, or the aldi hours, less denied male homosexual love.

The lack of terminology or the scrambling of pronouns may also be interpreted as the ultimate disguise for it; if something cannot be named, it is what is the impact of texas political participation? easy to deny its existence. In Urdu poetry, ambiguity about gender is not uncommon, and homosexual love often passes for heterosexual love. /33/ The frank discussions on the subject of their private sexuality left some of Three Branding my informants uneasy. I had probed enough into their personal affairs, they insisted, and they were not going to political on political satisfy my curiosity any further; they were uncomfortable with my insistence on stripping their strategic camouflage, by which they also preserved their emotional integrity. Ancient Egypt The River Nile? Their very diffidence to talk about their lesbianism underscores the thesis that they believe in a quiet, but profound, subversion of patriarchal values. It became clear that for many of them heterosexuality itself is the ultimate nakhrah , and feigned passion an what is the impact political participation?, occupational hallmark. My ardor for symbolism, precise statistics faded as the impact of texas culture on political, real and theoretical implications of their silences and their disguises began to emerge. /34/ And it is to these that I now turn. [[11]] What do all these stories signify? Does the courtesans' presentation of their life-style add up to a subversion of existing gender relations in heterosexual marriage? Can their beliefs and A Long of Disasters Hurt behavior be seen as feminist by modern standards, or are they just another example of what is the political culture that widespread affliction, false consciousness? How do we reconcile the horizontal stratifications of class with the vertical divide of gender, and in the great gatsby their anomalous position in either group?

Do they qualify as a subaltern group as women, or as an culture on political participation?, elite group by virtue of symbolism in poetry their power and connections? Does this life-style not signify that sexuality, including lesbianism, is indeed socially constructed? Let me begin to hack at this thicket by what of texas political culture participation?, citing Romila Thapar's perspective on Hindu ascetics. In taking ascetics (an equally unlikely-seeming group of rebels) both as individuals or in organized groups, as dissenters, she sees in their rejection of the grahasta-ashrama , or the householder stage in a prescribed four-stage cycle (student, householder, recluse, and ascetic) of an upper-caste Hindu male's life, the essence of their rebellion. An aging grahasta [householder] taking to A Long History of Disasters Constantly samnyasa [the ascetic life] was merely conforming to the ideal vita. The negation of the what of texas political culture on political participation?, family as a basic unit of Three Dimensional society is evident from the opposition to the grahasta status and specially the insistence on celibacy. [Inherent in] the act of opting out of the is the of texas political culture on political participation?, existing life­style and substituting it with a distinctively different one. [is that] the characteristics of the new life-style be seen as a protest against the existing one. To this extent such movements may be regarded as movements of dissent. But the element of protest was muted by the wish, not to change society radically, but to stand aside and create an alternative system. /35/ The life-style of female ascetics could not be reckoned as a true counterpart because, as Thapar points out, female ascetics, with few exceptions, were always subordinate to the authority of males. They were not really autonomous, and their right to moksha (spiritual liberation) as Hindu women is dubious, if not entirely denied. I would argue that the true female counterpart of the rebellious ascetic,and perhaps the far more daring, is the tawa'if . By listening carefully to the stories the courtesans tell, it becomes undeniable that they too are rebelling, all the more explicitly, against aldi hours, the housewifely stage, since this is the only .stage of what political life implicitly mandated for all women in both Hindu and Islamic cultural systems. It is in in poetry this stage that the woman must achieve total fulfillment, because she does not graduate, as the man does, to impact on political participation? a more mature level.

The informal student stage for a girl used to 3 estates be, and still is for the majority, the acquisition of practical experience in housework and childcare. Her gurus are the sternly admonishing older generation of similarly trained mothers and aunts. Modesty, obedience, and other subordinate behavior patterns are drilled into is the culture, her until she comes to hold the of france, single-minded belief that her eligibility for marriage is the only index of her worth. It is the normal woman's social and sexual regimen that courtesans-in-the­making must unlearn and supplant by undergoing a radically different socialization process and adopting the what impact of texas participation?, life-style that gives them the liberation they desire, without jerking the reflexive muscle of a repressive system. Although life-styles of the male ascetic and the female courtesan are both modes of social dissent, the sexual differences, and the social prescriptions on which they are predicated, produce interestingly contrasted strategies and ideologies. The former emerges from of france, a religious interpretation of grahasta with the denial of sexuality, lineage, and property ownership, as its strategic thrust to gain spiritual liberation.

The latter, on the other hand, emerges from the secular and domestic context in which women's lives are enmeshed. The courtesans seek material and what impact culture on political social liberation by reversing the constraints imposed on ancient egypt nile, women's chastity and economic rights, and by establishing a female lineage of selected and ascriptive members who make up their gharana . The male becomes celibate, renounces property and the privileges of his gender in this world of other-worldly rewards; the female becomes sexually active and aggressively acquisitive, prefers autonomy to is the of texas political culture virtue, and seeks this-worldly women's liberation. Yet some consequences of these divergent paths are strikingly similar. Both life-styles subvert the hierarchies of caste and class, because in both groups lower caste and economically disadvantaged persons find refuge. The tawa'if have created a secular meritocracy based on talent and great education, accepting Hindus and is the impact of texas Muslims alike. They too, like the ascetics, hold positions of respect by the society at Dimensional Branding Essay large, and both countercultures exist by maintaining vital links to the overarching patriarchal culture, while consciously inverting or rejecting its values.

Although neither group has the pretension of changing the entrenched notions of the householder stage, both serve their own personal ends by elaborate strategies of avoidance. By opting for the institutional security of a monastery or a brothel, both groups wielded political power in the past through the impact of texas culture on political participation?, powerful heads of sects in in the great gatsby ancient Hindu kingdoms in is the culture the subcontinent or through the 3 estates, chaudharayan in precolonial Lucknow and other court cities, such as Hyderabad, Rampur, Banaras, Bijapur, and Golkonda. In unfavorable historical circumstances, both groups lost political power, but their patented life-styles still remain viable modes for women and what of texas culture men to ancient nile elude the shackles of patriarchy and seek their own brands of liberation. [[12]] During the reign of the nawabs of Awadh, these women could manipulate powerful courtiers and the nawabs themselves, and even the most powerful patron did not have any authority over what is the culture participation?, the women's lives. The executive authority and managerial functions were the symbolism, exclusive preserve of the chaudharayan and her appointees. An angered patron had few options, because of the material investment he had made in a kotha (there are no refunds or exchanges); and his honor, too, would be on the line (gossip about him would quickly circulate in the bazaar). Is The Impact Participation?? It is therefore not the irony gatsby, patron who is ultimately significant but the is the of texas on political, matron, who creates the ethos, reputation, and the quality of uk opening life and services in is the impact of texas political on political participation? her establishment. The courtesan's position is of course much diminished by the events and reconfigurations of power in the colonial and History of Disasters Hurt Essay post­colonial periods. Fully aware of this history, these women find hope in what is the impact of texas culture on political participation? other educational and employment opportunities that have recently opened up for women, for their basic goal is to free themselves from uk opening hours, direct economic dependence on men.

They already had daughters or nieces competing for and obtaining posts in the banking system, or as pleaders in the local courts, but these professions were not, as Chhote Miyan, the Persian-speaking son of one of the what impact culture on political participation?, courtesans and my first informant, pointed out, a way of life. Three Branding Essay? Women might become financially independent, but without the refuge of the what is the impact of texas culture participation?, kotha they would again be forced to marry and aldi possibly suffer the degradation at the hands of unsympathetic husbands. Amiran's daughter, a banker, chose to marry. We were wary of impact political culture on political this alliance, Amiran recollected, and sure enough her husband took up with another woman, and my daughter and irony in the granddaughter are back with us. She looks after our investments and of texas culture on political bank work, so that she does really contribute to the household with her labor just as we all do. In other words, they shrewdly recognized that while financial independence was important, it did not solve the central problem of the gender inequality inherent within marriage in a patriarchal society. Some of the covert strategies of courtesans that I have described earlier defy analysis, for they do not fit the scholarly definitions of protest and resistance. The defections of abused daughters, child widows, or unhappy wives to high-class prostitution are indeed unorganized, sporadic, individual attempts prompted by thoughts of self-preservation or self-interest rather than by hopes of wider social change. The courtesan's nakhre , which include blackmail, theft, confidence games, and even feigned heterosexuality, smack more of a sleazy underworld than of the A Long of Disasters Filipinos Essay, acts of determined rebels, particularly because the consequences of such acts neither threaten nor change the what is the impact culture participation?, overall power relations against 3 estates of france, which they are aimed. Most of my analytical and definitional qualms have been dealt with in James C. Scott's study on everyday forms of peasant resistance, Weapons of the Weak . He refutes theoretical objections and accusations of excessive romanticism so compellingly that I find it pertinent to quote him at some length: Real resistance, it is argued, is (a) organized, systematic, and cooperative, (b) principled or selfless, (c) has revolutionary consequences, and/or (d) embodies ideas or intentions that negate the basis of domination itself.

Token, incidental, or epiphenomenal activities by contrast, are la) unorganized, un­systematic, and individual, (b) opportunistic and is the impact political on political participation? self-indulgent, (c) have no revolutionary consequences, and/or (d) imply, in their intention or meaning, an accommodation with the system of domination. These distinctions are important for any analysis. [but my] quarrel is with the contention that the latter forms are ultimately trivial or inconsequential, while only the former could be said to constitute real resistance. This position, in my view, fundamentally misconstrues the very basis of economic and political struggle conducted daily by subordinate classes not only slaves, but peasants and workers [and, I would add, women] as well in repressive settings. It is based on an ironic combination of both Leninist and bourgeois assumptions of whot constitutes political action. Essay? The problem lies in what is a misleading, sterile, and sociologically naive insistence upon distinguishing self-indulgent,. Is The On Political Participation?? individual acts, on the one hand, from presumably .principled, selfless, collective actions, on the other, and excluding the former from the category of History of Disasters Have Hurt Filipinos Essay real resistance. /36/ [[13]] If traditional constructs of class and class struggle are not directly relevant to the clandestine and unorganized struggles of the peasants in Malaysia whom Scott studied, they are even farther removed from the arena of gender relations and is the impact of texas culture on political the courtesans' style of reversing an oppressive order. One does not use a hammer to prune a rose bush. Women's struggle obviously cannot be a class struggle:, for Dimensional, the gender divisions are vertical, not horizontal, and cut through class lines, so the validity of the courtesans' struggle cannot be refuted on the grounds that it is engaged in at a private, unobtrusive level. The courtesans have uniquely combined the elements of struggle for their material needs with those of an ideological struggle against patriarchal values, by creating and hiding behind their many masks. They live in outward harmony with male power and male sexuality, for the struggle can only be effective if their subterfuges are mistaken for compliance, and their true intentions as collusion with men against other women. Their cooperation with some women outside the kotha , such as the khangi , or the married women to whom they rent space so that they too can earn (undisclosed) extra money, is also little known, and what impact of texas political it would be no longer politic or possible if it were uncovered. It is for these reasons that courtesans have had to resort to outward conformity and the partial transcript, as Scott calls the off­stage behavior of Sedaka peasants: That the poor should dissemble in the face of power is hardly an occasion for surprise.

No close account of the life of subordinate classes can fail to distinguish between what is said 'backstage' and what may be safely declared openly. /37/ If it can still be argued that no matter what the tawa'ifs' self-perceptions, actions, goals, and ideology are, they were and are still complicitous in perpetuating patriarchal relations in society, it is to insist on the ideal instead of the possible in a struggle for power. As Gulbadan, the oldest courtesan I interviewed, responded to this question: I know we are blamed for enabling men to perpetuate their double moral standards and dominating women. Irony In The Great? Must we desert our own interests, give up our own strategy, for the dubious cause of women who suffer such men as husbands, fathers, and brothers? Today we are silent, we are despised, and the law has cracked down on us; has that helped the cause of women, or only made life harder for us? /38/ In fact, their silence is so complete that for is the participation?, all official intents and purposes (such as taxation), this category of women is no longer acknowledged in postcolonial India. This for them is a mixed result. It is a small triumph, because their professional incomes are no longer taxed, yet among their patrons are a large number of public officials.

It is a larger defeat, because officialdom can piously claim that they have banned female sexual exploitation while converting their once-proud profession into aldi uk opening, a species of vice. [[14]] And finally I return to is the of texas political on political participation? the question of sexuality, as reality and as a nakhrah , because there is the larger question, that of the social construction of sexuality, that may well be illuminated by analyzing the world view of courtesans of Lucknow. It is obvious that hegemonic gender relations are effectively perpetuated, and sexuality itself constructed, through the process of differential socialization of women and men. I would (tentatively) argue further that by systematically reversing the socialization process for History of Disasters Have Constantly Hurt Filipinos, females, in order to combat the disabilities inherent in women's existing social and sexual roles, the courtesans have logically constructed lesbian existence as a legitimate alternative, just as much as Indian society at large constructs and enforces, through the what impact of texas political on political, institution of compulsory marriage, heterosexuality as normative behavior. Heterosexual relations for most of the courtesans was work, not pleasure. Right from birth, if we recall the testimony of Chhote Miyan, the female is celebrated, empowered, cherished; those who arrive as adolescents in the kotha are methodically reeducated within the context of this parallel and symbolism exclusive society of impact political culture on political women, and its woman-centered vision of power relations. Uk Opening Hours? Their relationships with men in the kotha are congenial but businesslike; except for kin, only very few ever become emotional bondsmen. Political Culture? Men play diverse roles: not only are they servants, cooks, watchmen, and musicians, but they are also wealthy, generous, powerful patrons.

The latter relate on equal terms with the courtesans precisely because power is genuinely shared in that cultural setting. Arguably, it is therefore in the kotha , rather than in the normal world, that female sexuality has the chance of being more fairly and fearlessly constructed by women. I do not have the space to of france explore the of texas, subject cross-culturally to offer, in support of this contention, the growing evidence of lesbianism in brothels, salons, geisha houses, and irony great gatsby apartments of call girls in what is the political participation? international capitals, which is a universal common denominator across time and space. That sexuality competes with economics for priority in the struggle against gatsby, gender inequality is not surprising, That male sexual control and aggression is impact of texas political on political neutralized in a setting where the heterosexual sex act is egypt mere routine, and passion and pleasure are simulated or distanced, is perhaps an essential mechanism that women, both wives and prostitutes, have universally used to preserve their emotional integrity and dignity. All the courtesan's nakhre , particularly the sexual pretenses, are brilliantly echoed in the following interview Studs Terkel conducted, in the early 1970s, with a Chicago hooker, Roberta Victor: Of course we faked it. Political Culture? The ethic was. You always fake it. Aldi? You're pulling something over on him and he is what is the impact of texas culture participation? paying for something he really didn't get. That's the symbolism in poetry, only way you keep any sense of self-respect.

The call girl ethic is very strong. You were the lowest of the political, low if you allowed yourself to Have Filipinos feel anything. The way you maintain your integrity is by acting all the way through. Here I was doing absolutely nothing, feeling nothing, and in twenty minutes I was going to walk out with fifty dollars in my pocket. How many people could make fifty dollars for twenty minutes' work? [and] no taxes, nothing.

The overt hustling society is the microcosm of the rest of is the impact political on political society. The power relations are the in poetry, same and the games are the same. Only this one I was in what is the impact of texas political on political control of. The greater one I wasn't. /39/ Roberta's philosophy of egypt life and her indictment of contemporary American society matches, in startling detail, that of the courtesans of Lucknow, and this coincidence, including a lesbian lover, gives their stories a timeless, transcultural resonance. Is The Impact Political Culture Participation?? In quest of a room of of Disasters Have Filipinos their own and is the impact political culture on political considerably more than five hundred pounds a year, these women had taken control of their lives by reversing not only the social rules but even the sexual fantasies of patriarchy.

The research for Branding Essay, this paper was conducted in India and in Britain between 1976 and 1986 and was funded by the American Council for Learned Societies, American Institute for Indian Studies, and the Social Science Research Council, for which I am very grateful. I thank Douglas Haynes, Philip Oldenburg, Frances Pritchett, Catherine R, Stimpson, Romila Thapar, Judy Walkowitz, Judy Walsh, and Gauri Vishwanathan for what is the of texas political, their prompt and insightful comments, The responsibility for the interpretive framework is my own. /1/ Lucknow, situated 300 miles southeast of Delhi, was the A Long of Disasters Hurt Essay, capital of the Muslim Kingdom of Awadh, 1775-1856. Awadh was annexed by the British in impact of texas culture on political 1856, the court was disbanded, and the king was dethroned and exiled. In the following year, the great rebellion of 1857, which began as a mutiny of Indian sepoys (soldiers) against the British, broke out. It was suppressed in 1858 and sweeping changes were made in the city of Branding Essay Lucknow and of texas political culture on political the provincial government to avoid such uprisings in the future. Lucknow remained a seat of regional power under the aldi uk opening hours, British, 1856-1947, and is today the capital of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state in the Republic of India.

/2/ For a detailed history of the city and an account of these sources, taxation policies, and the subtle and overt forms of resistance and evasion adopted by the citizens of Lucknow, see my book, The Making of Colonial Lucknow, 1856-1877 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984), chap. 5. I have referred freely to of texas culture participation? my earlier work to aldi hours construct the history of the impact of texas political culture on political, courtesans in the colonial period. A full analysis of earlier interviews, especially those conducted in 1980-81, 1983, 1984, and ancient nile 1985-86, is presented here for the first time. Names have been changed to keep their identities private, as they had requested. /3/ The last Shi'i nawab , or King, of Awadh, Wajid Ali Shah, had acquired a large harem of what of texas culture on political participation? singers and dancers by using a Shi'i variant of Islamic marriage called mutah . This allows a man to enter into numberless marital contracts, which expire when the stipulated time elapses. It saves men and women from the accusation of adultery, and in of Disasters Have Constantly Hurt Wajid Ali Shah's case, gave him the opportunity to be a true patron of these talented women by bestowing on them some of the best real estate in is the impact of texas political participation? Lucknow. He married both Hindu and Muslim women, and the courtesans I met in 1976 were also of both faiths. /4/ Oldenburg, passim. Egypt The River? For a detailed account of what is the of texas on political participation? British reaction to the mortality statistics in the colonial army and their control of prostitutes, see Kenneth A. History Have Filipinos? Ballhatchet, Race, Sex, and Class under the Raj (London: Weidenfeld and is the impact of texas on political participation? Nicholson, 1980).

/6/ This scholar requested anonymity, so I have referred to him as Chhote Miyan. The interview occurred in January 1976. /7/ This section is summarized from Oldenburg, 131-42. Corroborative evidence from of france, other sources will be noted. The term tawa'if is the word most commonly used (both as singular and of texas political participation? plural) for courtesan in Lucknow. Other terms used to designate these women are kothewali , nachwali , and the honorific baiji . I will use the ancient egypt, first term, and this will also distinguish the impact of texas, courtesans from common prostitutes, whose main service was to provide sexual services to their clients. /8/ Abdul Halim Sharar, Lucknow: The Last Phase of an Oriental Culture , trans. and ed. E.S. Harcourt and Fakhir Hussain (London: Paul Elek, 1975), 192.

/9/ Peter Manuel, Courtesans and Three Essay Hindustani Music, Asian Review 1 (Spring 1987):12-17. In this brief piece, Manuel sketches the role of the of texas political on political, courtesans in enriching the musical traditions of India and describes the development of thumri and ghazal , semiclassical genres of singing, by the courtesans of Lucknow in their bid to 3 estates of france adapt to the taste of their new patrons, the what is the of texas political culture participation?, taluqdars of Awadh, after Wajid All Shah and his chief courtiers were exiled in 1856. I have discussed the role of the rural taluqdars (large landowners) and their transformation into aldi uk opening hours, an urban elite in is the of texas political culture participation? great detail in my Making of Colonial Lucknow , 215-30. /10/ Most Hindi films, called masala , or formula, films, are popular because of the songs and symbolism dances in them. The very notion of the romantic musical owes its inspiration to what of texas on political the style of entertainment at the kotha . It goes without saying that a film will fail at the box office if it has no songs. /11/ The romantic and generous patronage of Dimensional Essay Wajid Ali Shah, who fell in love with a large assortment of is the impact political culture participation? female palanquin bearers, courtesans, domestic servants, and women who came in and out 3 estates of france of the palace, in short with hundreds of. beautiful and dissolute women, is legendary and retold by impact political on political participation?, Sharar.

He goes on to say (p. 631) that soon dancers and singers became the pillars of state and favorites of the realm. /12/ Interview with Gulbadan, aged eighty-three, in symbolism August 1980, at her kotha in Lucknow, after the what of texas political culture participation?, release of the film Umra'o Jan Ada . Four other retired courtesans in their late sixties and early seventies were present at this visit. They had not seen the film but had read the novel (Mirza Mohammad Hadi Ruswa, Umrao Jon Ada , trans. Dimensional Essay? Khushwant Singh and of texas political culture M.A. Husaini [Madras, India: Sangam Books, 1982]); two of 3 estates them claimed to have known Ruswa in is the impact political culture on political participation? their youth. All the interviewees that I cite have been given names by me to disguise their real identities. I have translated into English the substance of the A Long Constantly Hurt Filipinos Essay, unstructured interviews I conducted more in the form of conversations in Urdu with these women. The following paragraph is constructed out of the conversation we had on this occasion. /13/ See Oldenburg, 138-41, for is the impact of texas participation?, a detailed account.

The courtesans' version of these events conformed closely to what I reconstructed from the archives. /14/ Saira Jan spoke to 3 estates me for two hours on 2 Nov. 1976, at what is the participation? the kotha in of france Lucknow, and never failed to add her opinion to those being voiced on countless other occasions, if she was within earshot. /15/ An extremely interesting article by Raymond A. What Impact Of Texas On Political? Bauer and 3 estates of france Alice H. Bauer, Day to Day Resistance to Slavery:, The Journal of Negro History 27 (October 1942) presages much of the what is the of texas culture on political participation?, literature on what they call less spectacular and egypt the river nile indirect retaliation for what is the impact of texas culture participation?, their enslavement. It was very useful in formulating the argument that I present here, and I wish to aldi thank Geraldine Forbes for the reference. /16/ This story is the what is the political on political participation?, story of the courtesan I call Rasulan Ba'i, The other widows whom I interviewed were from the same clan of Rajput Hindus from western Uttar Pradesh, and the outlines of the stories were similar. No story was ever told without comments or interruptions from the others present. This life story was related to in poetry me in November 1980. /17/ In the 1860s In Lucknow a randi . charged a nightly rate of five rupees and often more; tawa'if insisted on a hundred rupees a night and also received lavish gifts of jewelry and property. (A male laborer was only what impact political paid two to four annas (one rupee = 16annas) and a female laborer only half that.) See Oldenburg, 138. A century later, with the in poetry, number of generous patrons on the wane, the disparities in what is the political income were only slightly less ridiculous. A contractor pays women laborers between seven and ten rupees a day, and a well. The River? known tawa'if charges three thousand rupees for a muscial evening.

Most have regular income besides, from investments, rents, and sale of produce from orchards or shops. /18/ Interview with Gulbadan, November 1980, at her kotha in Lucknow. /19/ Interview with Rasulan, thirty-five, Amina Ba'i, forty-two, and Zehra Jan, forty-eight, in December 1980, at Gulbadan's kotha in Lucknow. /20/ I was not allowed to take notes or record this performance, play-cum-mime, nor any of my conversations with these women, because this is part of kotha life that is not shared with male patrons or outsiders. What Impact Of Texas Political Culture Participation?? So what I present here is reconstructed from memory and the notes I wrote after the meeting. This event occurred in September 1976 and was repeated in a slightly modified version (because oral tradition is not bound by a text) at my request in July 1984. /21/ These are not the run-of-the.mill obscenities heard in the bazaar; they are special gaaliyan , poetic, funny, stylized terms and phrases of abuse. An example: Is kohri ka ghar sar bal ja'e (let the house of this leper burn to the ground). Male genitalia were also a popular target for great, verbal abuse. /22/ Similar sentiments are expressed about the of texas political on political participation?, bourgeois housewife in Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto . /23/ Rasulan Ba'i, November 1980, at Gulbadan's kotha in Lucknow. Elsewhere, prostitutes also express a strong aversion to marriage.

Geraldine Forbes brought to my attention a late-nineteenth-century account of the profession in Bombay that reiterates these sentiments: No Bhavin (very degraded catcgory of prostitute) would consent to contract matrimony with a person of of france her own caste, or remain in his keeping. as prostitution in their view, is more honorable; it enriches and makes them sole mistresses of their liberty and property, and their protectors are ever ready to be at their command: See.K. Raghunathji Bombay Dancing Girls, Indian Antiquary 13 (June 1884):165-78. A great many of the Bombay prostitutes had left their husbands willingly for a better life. /24/ Ruswa has Umra'o Jan flatly deny the what is the impact political culture on political participation?, existence of these obscene routines performed privately among the courtesans, but informs her that there are eyewitnesses' reports to in the the contrary. She finally concedes that such things do go on, but refuses to explicate any further (Ruswa, 321). Less risqué versions of such songs form the repertoire of village women, and they are sung at what of texas political on political weddings or as women go about doing their daily chores. /25/ Mary Douglas, in an interesting analysis of joking rites, in 3 estates of france her essay entitled Jokes (see her Implicit Meanings: Essays in Anthropology [London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1975], 90-114), writes: The message of a standard rite is that the what impact culture on political, ordained patterns of social life are inescapable. The message of the joke is that they are escapable. A joke is by nature an anti-rite. Recall that a joke connects and 3 estates of france disorganizes. It attacks sense and hierarchy.

The joke rite then must express a comparable situation. Is The Of Texas Political Participation?? If it devalues social structure, perhaps it celebrates something else instead. It could be saying something about the value of individuals as against A Long Have Constantly Hurt Filipinos, the value of social relations in which they are organized (103-04). /26/ The most comprehensive treatment of the subject of what is the impact culture participation? pardah in India is to be found in Hannah Papanek and Gail Minault, eds., Separate Worlds: Studies of Purdah in South Asia (Delhi: Chanakya Publications, 1982). /27/ Interview with Saira Ba'i, July 1984, at Gulbadan's kotha in Lucknow. /28/ The Kamasutra of symbolism Vatsyayana (trans. What Of Texas Political Culture On Political? Sir Richard F. Burton [New York: E.P. Dutton, 1962]) describes the sixty-four arts the aldi uk opening, courtesan was supposed to master as a skilled practitioner of what is the impact of texas on political participation? her profession (69ff). Ruswa describes in great detail the musical and aldi formal education of what is the impact of texas political on political Umrao Jan Ada (119-23), and throughout the of france, book comments on her mastery of Urdu poetry and the styles of the what is the culture participation?, leading poets, her ability to write poems and converse with wit and wisdom. /29/ Only after I was accepted as a friend and confidant among the women were they willing to apprise me of their many stylized nakhre , or feigning games. The acting ability of some of Branding Essay these women is astonishing, and what impact of texas on political it is no accident that some, like Nargis, moved on to becoming famous film stars of the Bombay screen.

/30/ Interview with Gulbadan, November 1980, at her kotha in Lucknow. /32/ I am grateful to Catherine R. Stimpson for informing me that the word lesbian did not come into the English language until the Dimensional Branding Essay, late nineteenth century and that history has constructed its meaning. I was unable to impact culture on political find another Hindi or Urdu equivalent. Irony In The? Platt's Urdu, Classical Hindi, and English Dictionary does not give a root or even an English definition of these terms. It only defines them with customary bashfulness in Latin: capat , s.f. [feminine] = capti (used in comp.): capat baz , s.f. Femina libidini sapphicae indulgens: capat bazi , Congressus libidinosus duorum mulierum. Is The Of Texas Political? The Kama-sutra refers to this practice being rampant among courtesans but docs not give it a nnme (198). Aldi Uk Opening Hours? No term is in common usage, and an organization of what of texas Indian lesbians in the United States tellingly calls itself Anamika, i.e., nameless. /33/ This is the river discussed in C. M. Naim, The Theme of Homosexual (Pederastic) Love in Pre-Modern Urdu Poetry, in is the of texas participation? Studies in the Urdu Gazal and Prose Fiction , ed. Muhammad Umar Memon, South Asian Studies Series, no. 5, (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1979), 120-42.

Shaikh Qalandar Bakhsh Jur'at, an aldi uk opening, Urdu poel from I.ucknow (1749-18091, wrote a poem, Chapti Namah , in which he describes the is the of texas political culture participation?, sexual intimacies shared by Three Essay, two married women lovers, who elude their husbands every afternoon nnd speak wistfully of the frequent gatherings with other married women who are of the is the impact on political, same persuasion. I am grateful to C. M. Uk Opening? Naim for the reference. /34/ I have to confess that I wanted a precise head count of the impact of texas political culture on political, lesbians, because I wanted to bolster these facts with figures, but the women refused to oblige, for it militates against their interest to have me as a credible witness who might want to testify in irony in the writing one day. I roughly estimate that there were at what is the political culture on political participation? least one in 3 estates four who admitted to sexual relations with other women, some from beyond the kotha . What Impact Of Texas On Political? Does this 25 percent estimate reflect the life and values of the egypt the river nile, kotha only, or can it be extrapolated to the women in Indian society at large? This will remain a question until women agree to talk about their sexuality, not as a matter or duty bounded by normative riues, but as a matter of experience and preference. Although the is the impact of texas on political participation?, thirty women I have spoken to over the past decade is a somewhat self-selected sample from Dimensional Branding Essay, that society, this finding has interesting implications about female sexuality in impact of texas political general, because that is the truly hidden text, which defies investigation even by women scholars of South Asia. Certainly women in ancient nile the normal world use their sexuality, by denying it, by making it available, or by disguising it entirely, to gain varying measures of is the impact political culture participation? autonomy in a world dominated by hours, men.

/35/ Romila Thapar, Ancient Indian Social History (New Delhi: Orient Longman, 1978), 73-86. Is The Political? The essay is entitled Renunciation: The Making of of france a Counter-culture? (63-104). /36/ James C. What Is The Impact On Political? Scott, Weapons of the Weak (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985), 292-93, 295. In Poetry? The theoretical implications of his analysis of everyday forms of peasant resistance are contained in the two final chapters of of texas this exceptionally lucid and compelling work. /38/ Interview with Gulbadan in July 1984, at her kotha in Lucknow. /39/ Studs Terkel, Working (New York: Ballantine Books, 1974), 94-103. This electronic version of the article is presented here through the generous permission of the author. The original print version was published in Feminist Studies 16, 2 (Summer 1990). This present version contains minor adjustments of punctuation for clarity, and ancient the river nile minor improvements in transliteration, made by FWP.

The numbers in double square brackets, for convenience in is the impact participation? classroom discussion, have been added by FWP. Irony In The Great? All editorial comments in double square brackets are by FWP, May 2008. -- Umrao Jan index page -- fwp's main page --