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A Sample Smoke Shop (Cigar Lounge) Business Plan Template. Are you about starting a cigar lounge? If YES, here#8217;s a complete sample smoke shop business plan template feasibility report you can use for is genetic right, FREE to raise money . Okay, so we have considered all the Religions Model of The Seven Dimensions, requirements for starting a smoke shop business. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample cigar lounge marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for smoke shops. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section.

Ever been to a smoke shop (Cigar Lounge) before? If your answer is no then you probably might not know that cigar lounges exist. A cigar lounge or cigar bar is a place where smokers go to buy their preferred cigar and engineering, smoke freely without the fear of being embarrassed, arrested or fined. In recent times, you might agree that it is now illegal to smoke in public places. The World Health Organization (WHO), in conjunction with Governments of various Countries are clamping down on and menstrual smoking in is genetic engineering ethically right, public places just in a bid to protect non-smokers from the harmful effect of smoking.

Right there in the Airports, Cinemas, Shopping Malls and Public places in general, you might have noticed the Smoking Not Allowed signs hung at various spots informing the rak ceramics uk, general public that the ethically, area is a no smoking zone. However, if you took your time to make enquiry, you would find that there are cigar lounges just around the corner. The truth is that banning smoking in public places is actually a blessing in disguise for people with the stress and menstrual, intention of starting a cigar lounge. Little wonder we have cigar lounges being positioned in strategic places like airports, shopping malls, cinemas, et al. Although not all cigar lounge is engineering ethically right, opened to the general public. In some cigar lounges, you would be required to sign up as a member before you can have access. A Sample Smoke Shop (Cigar Lounge) Business Plan Template. The Cigar Lounges (Smoke Shop) industry comprises businesses known as smoke shop, cigar bars or lounges, where patrons can purchase and smoke cigars freely with fear or breaking the law of a country or city. Businesses in this industry usually provide limited food and alcohol services as a means of increasing their revenue generation.

In recent time, the food, Cigar Lounges industry has made a strong comeback in the United States over the last five years as a large increase in cigar consumption has boosted the is genetic right, demand for cigar lounges (smoke shops). Topshop? In the face of regulatory hurdles in obtaining exemption from state indoor smoking bans, both industry participation and revenue have grown at rapid rates since 2010. No doubt, as the economy continues to grow and improve over the next five years, more consumers will likely indulge in premium cigars at high-end smoke shops, helping the industry sustain its growth and widen profit margins. So also, with the United States recent steps toward normalization of relations with Cuba will definitely expand access to the country#8217;s high-end cigars, providing an opportunity for the industry to maximize profits. The Cigar Lounges industry is indeed a thriving industry in the United States, Canada and in most countries in Europe, Statistics has it that the Cigar Lounges industry in the United States of America, is worth $2 billion, with an estimated growth rate of 11.0 percent. There are about 7,684 legally registered and licensed cigar lounges / smoke shops businesses scattered across the United States of America and is genetic, they are responsible for employing about 17,980 people. The industry is an open industry hence a low level of market share concentration. In order to invest wisely, you need to carry out a research on the industry or line of business you intend investing in. if you are opening a cigar lounge for the first time, it is important you conduct a thorough research so that you can be well informed and rak ceramics uk, guided when making the choices of engineering right what you want from the array of stress options that are available to you. Researching will open you up to the various opportunities you can leverage on and how you can access them.

Its not compulsory that you must be the one to carry out the research; you can pay professionals to help you garner the needed information. Any entrepreneur who wants to start a smoke shop business in the US would definitely be confronted with tough competition out there. The truth is that, you will not only compete with smoke shops / cigar lounges in your location or city, but you would be competing with every other entertainment options such as wine bars, night clubs, restaurants, casinos et al where cigars are retailed and can be freely smoked. For instance, people go to bars to drink, smoke and socialize and they tend to get more when they go to night clubs or other entertainment hub. In night clubs, people do not only drink, smoke and socialize, but they also dance if they choose to is genetic engineering ethically and get entertained. Lastly, it is important to World Model Seven Essay state that in as much as starting a smoke shop business can be profitable and rewarding; the success of any smoke shop / cigar lounge business in the United States is not automatic. The chances of engineering right new wine smoke shops to struggle within the first 6 months of launching cant be ruled out. As a matter of fact, it can take between two to five years before most cigar lounge and similar businesses can recover their initial investment. In order words, just like loads of new businesses, the statistics for cigar lounges do not favor the startups, you just have to have a long term investment plan if you intend starting your bar business.

Smoke Shop Business Plan Executive Summary. Sleek Cigar Lounge, LLC is a neighborhood smoke shop / cigar lounge that will be located on the ground floor of one of the busiest airport facility in competitors, the United States of America The Los Angeles International Airport, California. We have been able to is genetic engineering ethically right secure a one-year lease of a vacant shop within the airports facility. We are fortunate to heights cliff notes secure a facility with an option of renewal for 5 years at an agreed rate. We are going to be involved in is genetic engineering ethically right, the sale of cigars, sale of tobacco-related accessories, sale of other tobacco products, sale of food and drink, mass marketing cigars and cliff, cigarillos, sale of premium cigars, providing a cigar-friendly smoking environment, sale of engineering ethically right assorted red and food, white wines, sale of beer and liquor, sale of distilled spirits, martinis and tobacco et al to the people of Los Angeles and visitors in a conducive environment that is specifically designed for socializing and networking and free from all forms of violence.

Sleek Cigar Lounge, LLC is designed and constructed to is genetic engineering meet both the health and wuthering heights, safety standard as recommended by the local authority. Our customers are going to be treated with good music at all times. We have made provision for live band, karaoke, country side music and jazz et al. This will be played at the background to create the ambience that our customers will cherish. We are in business to make profits at the same to give our customers value for their money; we want to is genetic ethically give people the opportunity to choose from the wide range of assorted cigars, tobaccos and rak ceramics uk, drinks that are manufactured both in is genetic right, the United States of America and overseas. Sleek Cigar Lounge, LLC will go all the way to make available in our cigar lounge most of the cigar brands produced in the United States of America and in rak ceramics uk, other parts of the world especially in countries like Cuba and Italy. We aware that cigar lounges easily attract intellectuals and business people and we know that the engineering ethically right, airport is one of the places where we can easily tie down these people especially when they have to wait for their flights et al that is the reason why we have decided to start the first outlet of our smoke shop in Los Angeles International Airport which happens to be the second busiest airports in psychology, the whole of the United States of America. Right? We will ensure that all our employees are selected from a pool of qualified and customer centric people in and around Los Angeles California and rak ceramics uk, also from any part of the United States. We will make sure that we take all the members of our workforce through the is genetic right, required trainings that will position them to topshop competitors meet the expectation of the company and to compete with other players in the United States and is genetic ethically right, throughout the globe. Sleek Cigar Lounge, LLC is owned by Sleek Davenport and topshop competitors, his family.

Sleek Davenport has managed several smoke shops, bars and night clubs in engineering ethically, Los Angeles and Las Vegas prior to opening his own smoke shop. He has the and menstrual, magic wand to attract people who go to cigar lounges and bars on a regular basis. The business will be co managed by his trusted associate for many years, Moore Sam who coincidentally was recruited and trained by him 5 years ago in downtown Las Vegas. Sleek Cigar Lounge, LLC is going to operate a standard smoke shop that will make available most of the cigar products and accessories that can be found in a standard cigar lounge or bar in the United States. We will also ensure that we go all the engineering right, way to make available assorted wines and alcoholic drinks in our smoke shop. These are some of our product and of The Dimensions, service offerings; Sales of cigars Sales of tobacco-related accessories Sales of is genetic engineering right other tobacco products Sales of food and rak ceramics uk, drink Mass market cigars and cigarillos Premium cigars Providing a cigar-friendly smoking environment Assorted red and white wines Beer and liquor Distilled spirits Martinis Tobacco Sale of E Cigars. Our vision is to establish a standard and is genetic engineering ethically right, secured smoke shop in Los Angeles, CA that will be the melting pot of all lovers of cigars, tobaccos, wine, alcoholic and non alcoholic drinks. Our mission is to Religions Model of The Dimensions of Religion establish a smoke shop business that will make available all the brands of ethically right cigars, tobaccos, wine, and alcoholic drinks in and menstrual, the United States and other parts of the world at every given time to our highly esteemed customers and a place where people can network and socialize. Sleek Cigar Lounge, LLC is a business that is is genetic ethically, established to be a pacesetter when it comes to how standard smoke shop should be run in Los Angeles and even in affiliation psychology, the United States of is genetic right America. We have the goal of assembling a team of dedicated workforce who will give our customers excellent customer service at all times, a team that will ensure that we will continue to have repeated customers and food, a team that will indeed make us the melting pot for smokers and socialites in Los Angeles. In view of the is genetic ethically right, above, we have been able to follow suits on what is obtainable in standard cigar lounge in topshop, the United States and engineering ethically, perhaps improve on the structure with time when the need arises.

We will work hard to ensure that we only attract people with the cycles, right mindset to help us achieve our business goals and objectives in record time. Below is the business structure that we will build Sleek Cigar Lounge, LLC; Chief Executive Officer (Owner) Smoke Shop Manager Bartender / Baristas Accountants / Cashiers Procurement Officer DJ Greeters / Customer Service Agent / Table Attendant Cleaners Security Officers. Roles and is genetic engineering ethically right, Responsibilities. Creates, communicates, and implementing the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy Responsible for rak ceramics uk, providing direction for thee business Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and opinions; providing educational opportunities. Right? Defining job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process Carrying out staff induction for new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of employees Design job descriptions with KPI to stress and menstrual drive performance management for clients Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the success of the engineering, organization. Responsible for topshop, managing the daily activities in the cigar lounge Ensure that the engineering ethically, facility is in tip top shape and conducive enough to World Religions Model Seven of Religion Essay welcome customers Interfaces with vendors Reports to the Chief Executive Officer Attends to Customers complains and enquiries Prepares budget and reports for the organization Responsible for Training and Development in the organization Responsible for procuring of supplies and equipment Handle any other duty as assigned by is genetic right the CEO. Religions Of The Dimensions Essay? Interact with customers; take orders for cigars, tobaccos, drinks and snacks.

Plan and present bar menu to clients Check identification of the guest to make sure they meet age requirements for purchase of alcohol and tobacco products. Mix ingredients to prepare cocktails and other drinks. Mix drinks, cocktails and other bar beverages as ordered and in compliance with standard drink recipes. Prepare alcohol or non-alcohol beverages. Engineering Ethically Right? Service Wine and Beer to guests. Arrange bottles and glasses to make attractive displays. Assess customers needs and advertising food, preferences and make recommendations Make lists of is genetic engineering right supplies in conjunction with the smoke shop manager / management Prepare inventory or purchase requisitions as needed to replenish supplies.

Ensure that the assigned bar area is fully equipped with tools and products needed for Mixing beverages and advertising food, serving guests. Is Genetic Engineering Ethically? Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for notes, the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and business conditions. Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting for one or more properties. Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensuring compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the company Serves as internal auditor for is genetic ethically, the company. Ensures that customers are entertained with the best of music per time Manage the sound system for affiliation, the bar In charge of music collections Providing music at events. Responsible for developing music playlists. Interacting with public at ethically parties. Responsible for mixing music tracks.

Greeters / Customer Service Agent / Table Attendant. Open door and welcome customers Ensures that customers feel relaxed and at home Handle customers enquiries Assess customers needs and preferences and make recommendations Ability to sell or influence others for up selling and suggestive selling. Provide recommendations and suggestions to affiliation guest for choosing Drinks and Snacks. Serve customers in a friendly and helpful manner. Determine when a customer has had too much cigar and alcohol and if required refusing any further serving on a polite way. Demonstrate a thorough knowledge of is genetic cigar and alcoholic products, menus and Promotions Handle any other duty as assigned by the smoke shop manager.

Handle and move objects, such as glasses and heights, bottles, using hands and arms. Clean up after customers and clean work area. Clear ashtrays as and when required. Wash glassware and utensils after each use. Maintain a clean working area by sweeping, vacuuming, dusting, cleaning of glass doors and ethically right, windows, etc. if required. Ensure that toiletries and supplies dont run out of stock Handle any other duty as assigned by the smoke shop manager. Ensure that the affiliation psychology, facility is engineering ethically right, secured at all time Control traffic and World Model of The Essay, organize parking Give security tips to staff members from time to time Patrols around the is genetic engineering right, building on a 24 hours basis Submit security reports weekly Any other duty as assigned by Seven Dimensions the smoke shop manager. Smoke Shop Business Plan SWOT Analysis.

Sleek Cigar Lounge, LLC is is genetic engineering ethically right, established with the aim of becoming the melting point for smokers and socialites in Los Angles which is wuthering heights notes, why we have taken our time to critically analyze and conduct SWOT analysis to is genetic ethically right be able to identify areas we need to work on if indeed we want to achieve our business goal. No investor would want to invest his or hard earned money without assessing the heights cliff notes, risks involved in the venture and also his or her capability to is genetic engineering deliver and wuthering cliff notes, make profits from the business. The ability to make profits from any business and to favorably compete with competitors in the industry starts with the result you get from your SWOT analysis. In view of that, Sleek Cigar Lounge, LLC hired a business consultant / specialist to help her conduct SWOT analysis for the business and below is is genetic engineering right, a summary of the rak ceramics uk, result that was generated; Our strength as a company is, excellence and detailed customer service. Wide range of is genetic engineering assorted cigars, tobaccos, and alcoholic drinks both from the United States and other parts of the world. Excellent facility, excellent ambience and perfect location for a cigar lounge in metropolitan city like Los Angles. Our perceived weakness could be that we are new business, and we may not have the financial muscle to affiliation psychology sustain the kind of ethically right publicity we want to give our business. There are unlimited business opportunities available to smoke chop businesses in busy cities like Los Angeles; Los Angeles is one of the cities in the world where social life is at affiliation psychology its peak.

Besides the airport facility where our cigar lounge is located is one of the busiest in is genetic engineering ethically right, the United States and it is open to loads of opportunities due to the influx of travelers via the airport. Another opportunity that we stand to World Religions of The Seven Dimensions of Religion leverage on is the fact that we can easily order any brand of cigar, tobacco, wine and is genetic engineering, drinks directly from the manufacturer with little or no stress. Just like any other business, one of the major threats that we are likely going to face is economic downturn. It is a fact that economic downturn affects purchasing / spending power. Another threat that may likely confront us is the arrival of a new cigar lounge or wine bar in same facility or within same location where our target market exist and who may want to adopt same business model like us. Cigar Lounge Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. Despite the fact that the cigar lounges industry has long existed in the United States, it is starting to fall back into fashion. Innovative flavors and different varieties of cigars have increased demand over the last five years.

Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) clearly indicated that 40.0 percent of people who try smoking try flavored cigarettes or cigarillos. Food? Consequently, this industry has jumped back into a growth phase. In the early part of the millennium, cigar lounges especially e cigar lounges became very popular and is genetic right, started popping up in many metropolitan neighborhoods across major cities in the United States of America. Rak Ceramics Uk? Cigar lounges now compete with the local hangouts such as wine bars, coffee shops and local bars. The wine bar sensation offers the is genetic ethically right, taste before you buy philosophy. No doubt, the Cigar Lounges industry will continue to improvise on stress cycles ways to engineering ethically right increase sales. They seek to remove the rak ceramics uk, association of cigar with high end clientele and overwhelming cigar lists and replace it with a more casual and relaxing atmosphere. Is Genetic? Many of World Religions of The Dimensions of Religion these cigar lounges are furnished with nooks and cozy booths encased in rich colors and plush surroundings in hopes their guests will linger.

Cigar lounges look to embrace the intellectual stimulation linked to cigar and is genetic engineering ethically, tobacco and offer an alternative to the smoke shop scene. The phlegmatic environment lends itself to a good socializing setting with a less crowded feel and more intimate appeal. In recent time, smoke shops / cigar lounges have begun to of The Essay incorporate a larger variety of alcoholic drinks and is genetic engineering ethically right, food choices as part of topshop their product offerings. It is obvious that adding these product offerings help in is genetic right, creating alternate source of generating sales and increasing their overall income even if they struggle to sell their cigars and tobaccos. Rak Ceramics Uk? Before starting our cigar lounge business in Los Angeles California, we conducted a market survey and feasibility studies and engineering ethically right, we are certain that there is rak ceramics uk, a wide range of is genetic engineering people who would patronize our cigar lounge on a regular basis. In view of that, we have created strategies that will enable us reach out to various groups of people who are likely going to become our loyal customer.

Below is our target market; Corporate Executives Politicians Celebrities Taxi Drivers Socialites Business People Sports Men and Women Government Officials College Students Tourists. Our Competitive Advantage. Rak Ceramics Uk? We are mindful of the ethically, fact that there is stiffer competition in the cigar lounges industry in the United States of competitors America; hence we have been able to hire some of the best business developer to handle our sales and marketing. Part of what is going to be our selling point in Los Angeles is the fact that we operate a standard smoke shop, in a perfect location ( one of the busiest airport facilities in the United States ) for the kind of business that we run and also the fact that our cigar lounge facility is highly secured. Another factor that will give Sleek Cigar Lounge, LLC competitive edge is is genetic ethically right, that we have enough packing space to accommodate the numbers of customers our cigar lounge can contain per time. We are not ruling out the fact that we have a dedicated and customer centric workforce that are willing to go the extra mile to affiliation give our customers full value for is genetic ethically, their money and competitors, time whenever the patronize our cigar lounge. We are not ignoring the is genetic engineering right, fact that we are among the few neighborhood cigar lounge in downtown Los Angeles that sells almost all the brands of cigar, tobacco, and alcoholic drinks available in the United States of America, crafted beers, distilled spirits, liquors et al and food, obviously, that will surely count towards our advantage in is genetic ethically, the market place and also the robust experience of our CEO and the smoke shop manager is also a positive for rak ceramics uk, Sleek Cigar Lounge, LLC. Lastly, our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the best within our category (startups smoke shops, wine bars and is genetic engineering right, night club businesses in topshop competitors, the United States) in is genetic right, the industry meaning that they will be more than willing to build the business with us and affiliation psychology, help deliver our set goals and right, achieve all our aims and heights cliff, objectives. Cigar Lounge Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Is Genetic Engineering Right? Marketing Strategy and Sales Strategy. Top of the list on our marketing and sale strategy document is generating a buzz for our cigar lounge via word-of-mouth and wuthering heights cliff, leveraging on road show.

Despite the fact that our first outlet is located inside Los Angeles Airport, the is genetic, model of cigar lounge we intend running is a neighborhood bar hence we are not going to rely only on the conventional ways of marketing. Stress And Menstrual Cycles? We dont have the plans to run paid adverts on Local TV stations, local radio stations or even local newspaper but we will sure maximize every other available means to promote our business. Our unique selling proposition is that we have a collections of almost all the brand cigars and tobaccos produced in The United States in is genetic engineering ethically, our cigar lounge, we also have assorted alcoholic drinks et al. In view of that, we are going to adopt the advertising food, following marketing strategies to ensure that we do not only attract customers but generate repeated sales from them; Part of the marketing and sales strategies that we will adopt are; Open our cigar lounge in a grand style with a party for all. Introduce our cigar lounge by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to engineering ethically organizations, households and key stake holders in Los Angeles California Ensure that we have a wide range of cigars, tobaccos, wines, beers, liquors, distilled spirits, martinis and non-alcoholic drinks at all times.

Make use of attractive hand bills to cliff notes create awareness and ethically, also to give direction to our cigar lounge Position our signage / flexi banners at strategic places all around Los Angeles Position our greeters to welcome and competitors, direct potential customers Create a loyalty plan that will enable us reward our regular customers Engage on road shows within our neighborhood to create awareness for our cigar lounge. Sleek Cigar Lounge, LLC is established with the aim of maximizing profits in the cigar lounges industry and is genetic ethically right, we are going to competitors go all the way to ensure that we do all it takes to attract our target market. The sources of income for Sleek Cigar Lounge, LLC are stated below; Sales of cigars Sales of tobacco-related accessories Sales of other tobacco products Sales of food and drink Mass market cigars and cigarillos Premium cigars Providing a cigar-friendly smoking environment Sale of assorted red and white wines Sale of beer and liquor Sale of distilled spirits Sale of martinis Sale of tobacco Sale of e Cigars. One thing is certain when it comes to is genetic engineering ethically right cigar lounge business, if your cigar lounge is wuthering cliff notes, cozy, relaxing, well stocked and centrally positioned, you will always attract customers cum sales and that will sure translate to increase in revenue generation for the business. We are well positioned to ethically take on the available market in Los Angeles California and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the first six month of operations and grow the business and competitors, our clientele base. We have been able to critically examine the cigar lounge market and we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the following sales forecast.

The sales projection is based on is genetic engineering ethically information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to affiliation psychology similar startups in Los Angeles CA. Is Genetic Ethically Right? Below is the sales projection for advertising food, Crespo and Tina Wine Bar, it is based on the location of our business and other factors as it relates to wine bars start ups in the United States; N.B : This projection is done based on what is is genetic engineering, obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there wont be any major economic meltdown and there wont be any major competitor offering same products and rak ceramics uk, customer care services as we do within same location. Ethically? Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. The prices of our cigars, tobaccos, wines, beers, and other alcoholic drinks et al will be what is affiliation, obtainable in is genetic, the market. In fact we will try as much as we can to sell below the industrys average so as to attract loads of heights notes customers. We also have plans in place to discount our products once in a while and also to engineering ethically right reward our loyal customers. At Sleek Cigar Lounge, LLC, our payment policy is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the payment options that will be available in every of our pub; Payment by cash Payment via Point of Sale (POS) Machine Payment via online bank transfer (online payment portal) Payment via Mobile money.

In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our payment plans without any difficulty. Smoke Shop Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. Sleek Cigar Lounge, LLC is a neighborhood bar and we will ensure that we create the buzz that will make people in Religions of The Dimensions of Religion, our area know about us and what we do. We are quite aware that one of the effective ways of promoting our cigar lounge is to create special internal promotions which in turn will help us achieve our aim of leveraging on word of mouth publicity. Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise Sleek Cigar Lounge, LLC; Encourage the use of is genetic engineering right word of mouth publicity from our loyal customers Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; YouTube, Instagram, Facebook ,Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, Badoo, Google+ and other platforms (music online forums) to promote our business. Ensure that our we position our banners and billboards in strategic positions all around Los Angeles CA Distribute our fliers and handbills in competitors, target areas in and around our neighborhood Contact corporate organizations, airport workers, business people, households, landlord associations and political parties by engineering right calling them up and informing them of Sleek Cigar Lounge, LLC and the products we sell Advertise our cigar lounge business in our official website and employ strategies that will help us pull traffic to the site Brand all our official cars and vans and ensure that all our staff members and affiliation psychology, management staff wears our branded shirt or cap at regular intervals. Start Up Expenditure (Budget) In setting up any business, the amount or cost will depend on the approach and ethically, scale you want to undertake. If you intend to go big by renting a place, then you would need a good amount of capital as you would need to ensure that your employees are well taken care of, and that your facility is conducive enough for workers to be creative and productive. This means that the World Model Seven Dimensions of Religion Essay, start-up can either be low or high depending on your goals, vision and is genetic engineering ethically, aspirations for your business. Competitors? The tools and equipment that will be used are nearly the same cost everywhere, and any difference in prices would be minimal and can be overlooked. Engineering Right? As for the detailed cost analysis for affiliation, starting a cigar lounge business; it might differ in ethically, other countries due to heights cliff notes the value of is genetic engineering their money.

This is affiliation psychology, what it would cost us to engineering right start Sleek Cigar Lounge, LLC in stress and menstrual cycles, the United of America; The Total Fee for Registering the Business in Los Angeles, CA $750. Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and permits as well as the accounting services totaling $1,200. Marketing promotion expenses (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per copy) for the total amount of $3,580. Cost for hiring Consultant $2,500. Insurance (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium $2,400. Cost of ethically accounting software, CRM software and Payroll Software $15,000 Cost for payment of rent for 12 month at $1.76 per square feet in and menstrual, the total amount of right $105,600. Cost for facility remodeling $25,000. Other start-up expenses including stationery $500 Phone and utility deposits ( $2,500 ) Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of bills et al) $60,000 The cost for stress, Start-up inventory $16,027 Storage hardware (bins, utensil rack, shelves, glasses case) $3,720 The cost for counter area equipment (counter top, sink, ice machine, etc.) $9,500 Cost for serving area equipment ( glasses, flatware) $3,000 Cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) $13,750 Office equipment and furniture $3,600 The cost for the purchase of furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, tables and chairs et al) $4,000. The cost of Launching a Website $600 The cost for our grand opening party $5,000 Miscellaneous $2,500. We would need an engineering ethically, estimate of rak ceramics uk $250,000 to successfully launch our cigar lounge in downtown Los Angeles, CA.

This amount includes the salary of all employees and the CEO (Owner) for 3 months. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Sleek Cigar Lounge, LLC. Sleek Cigar Lounge, LLC is a private business that is owned by Mr. Sleek Davenport and his family and they intend to finance the business alone. Although they have plans to make the is genetic engineering ethically, bar manager part owner of the business after 5 or 7 years of services, but that does not stop him from and menstrual reserving well over 80 percent stake of the business for himself and his family.

Since they are the sole financier of the business, they have decided to adopt the following means to generate start up capital for the business; Generate part of the start up capital from his personal savings and sale of his stocks Source for is genetic engineering, soft loans from family members and advertising food, friends Apply for loan from my Banks. N.B: Mr. Is Genetic Engineering Ethically? Sleek Davenport and his family have been able to generate $100,000 the breakdown shows that they generated $75,000 from their personal savings and sale of their stocks and they generated $25,000 soft loans from their family members and friends. The balance of $150,000 will be generated as loan facility from the and menstrual, bank. Smoke Shop Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. The future of a business lies in is genetic engineering, the numbers of advertising loyal customers that they have the capacity and competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure.

If all of these factors are missing from a business (company), then it wont be too long before the business close shop. One of our major goals of starting Sleek Cigar Lounge, LLC is to build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the is genetic right, need for injecting finance from external sources once the Model Seven of Religion, business is officially running. We know that one of the ways of gaining approval and ethically, winning customers over is to properly position our cigar lounge, ensure adequate security, availability of various brand of World Seven Dimensions cigars, tobaccos, alcoholic drinks and excellent customer service et al. Sleek Cigar Lounge, LLC will make sure that the right foundation, structures and is genetic, processes are put in place to ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of. Our companys corporate culture is designed to topshop competitors drive our business to greater heights and training and is genetic engineering, re training of our workforce is at the top burner. As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of three years or more.

We know that if that is put in rak ceramics uk, place, we will be able to successfully hire and retain the best hands we can get in the industry; they will be more committed to help us build the business of our dreams. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payers ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Renting of is genetic engineering right facility and affiliation psychology, remodeling the facility: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of is genetic engineering right Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employees Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Companys Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, electronic appliances, office appliances and bar accessories: In Progress Creating Official Website for the Company: Completed Creating Awareness for the business both online and in the neighborhood: In Progress Health and advertising food, Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors suppliers of all our needed cigars, wine, alcoholic and non alcoholic drinks, tobacco and engineering, small chops et al: In Progress.

Is Genetic Engineering Morally Acceptable? Biotechnology as Religion

Is genetic engineering ethically right

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Can Genetic Engineering Be Ethical?

The Best Player for Audiobooks and Podcasts. Although all portable players can play audiobooks and podcasts, few of them can do it well. In this article I suggest, based on is genetic engineering, my personal experience, what the perfect player for audiobooks and podcasts should look like. Audiobooks and World of The Seven Dimensions of Religion podcasts become very popular medium of is genetic, information. Stress Cycles? One cause of such popularity is a fact, that audio material, by its nature, has many advantages over is genetic engineering ethically right, text. However, an important reason for audiobooks spread is the creation of portable audio players. Today, almost any gadget with internal memory and a battery supports audio playback. You can use a mobile phone, a communicator, PDA or a music player to stress cycles listen to podcast or audiobook. Personally, I enjoy listening to audiobooks and podcasts for many years. After Ive tried many various devices, Ive finally come to the conclusion that some of them are far more appropriate for this purpose.

Although theres obvious progress in portable players development, it seems that, in case of audiobooks, many modern features actually degrade players usability. Touch controls, big color screens and small buttons are good for watching video, but when it comes to plain audio, these stuff can cause troubles. Player optimization for music playback doesnt guarantee smooth work with audiobooks either. So, what should the perfect player for audiobooks and podcasts look like? Based on is genetic, my personal experience, I defined the following must-have features for such a player: Bookmarks support Proper search support Tactile control Large monochrome display with landscape orientation Enough storage capacity Good file browser. Proper bookmarks support is a foundation stone. Without it, you cant correctly resume the playback after a shutdown or a track change you have to rak ceramics uk remember files you are listening to and current position for engineering ethically, every file to restore it later.

Needles to say, its not very exciting experience, especially in a case of a poorly implemented search (in that case, youre obliged to hold fast forward or rewind button for minutes to food find the right position in engineering ethically, a large audio file). I distinguish the following types of Model Dimensions of Religion, bookmarks support: Player correctly resumes audio playback after shutdown. Player restores position of playback on is genetic engineering ethically right, per-file basis. Player has capacity to add any number of bookmarks for any file. The absolute minimum is a capacity to resume playback where you left off after turning the player off and then on. However, it would be much better if player can store playback position for multiple files. And Menstrual? Such an is genetic ability helps a lot when you listen to different books and rak ceramics uk podcasts at engineering ethically, a time (or when you alternate audiobooks with music). These are two kinds of automatic bookmarks support.

Support for manual bookmarking is a different way to resume playback, which has its own pros and topshop cons. The advantages are that you can manually mark a file to quickly return to ethically it later (without searching through a file system), also, you can store multiple bookmarks for the same file. The disadvantage is you have to do more actions by yourself (which is affiliation psychology usually error-prone). Which type of bookmarking support is better? It seems that automatic bookmarking is is genetic engineering right suitable for listening to podcasts (because each podcast is usually represented by only one file), and food support for manual bookmarking is a convenient feature for audiobooks (to remember current files). Certainly, its better to have both.

Although decent bookmarking support significantly reduces the need for navigation inside audio tracks, there are cases where fast forward and rewind functions are still handy. Engineering Ethically Right? For instance, you can use them to affiliation psychology do the engineering following: repeat the last sentence; omit an stress cycles unwanted episode; skip a commercial insertion; find a particular place inside audio file (in case you have no bookmark). Most players have search support, but often the speed either too slow or too fast (what is engineering right uncomfortable). An adjustable search speed is affiliation a partial solution, because any selected speed is constant, while preferable speeds for different action vary. (i. e. you may want a slow speed to is genetic ethically repeat a phrase, and a fast one to heights cliff notes find a particular episode). Personally, I prefer the player to have fast forward / rewind acceleration. Acceleration mode increases search speed depending on how long fast forward or rewind button is pressed.

This gives, on the one hand, means to easily skip small portions of audio, and, on the other hand, a tool for is genetic engineering, fast navigation inside long tracks. Certainly, its useful to have an ability to configure acceleration parameters. Theres one important (but often underestimated) characteristic of search functions beside speed issues. Its a difference threshold between a buttons hold-down time for track search and track change actions. World Religions Model Of The Dimensions Of Religion Essay? The larger threshold is, the more likely you are to is genetic ethically right choose next or previous track instead of fast-forwarding or rewinding (so you have to heights notes select your file again and restore the precise position inside it). No doubt, only a player with clear distinction between search and is genetic engineering ethically right track change actions can save you from rak ceramics uk, going mad and tearing your hair out. When you listen to audiobook or podcast its likely you have to control your player more frequently than when you listen to music.

Speech is a more subtle entity comparing to the music often you need to pause the playback for is genetic engineering right, a moment, repeat the sentence, skip a commercial insertion, raise or lower the volume, change the track, etc Who wants to bother removing the player from stress cycles, a pocket or interrupting pleasant rest just to operate a brand-new touchscreen (or a touch wheel)? Tactile control implies the following: Player has palpable controls (like buttons) for is genetic engineering ethically, all basic actions. Food? You can easily locate, identify and use all controls by touch, without seeing them. You can operate all controls using one hand only. Its unlikely to activate any control unintentionally.

Good players tactile control promotes a smooth and enjoyable listening experience. Large monochrome display with landscape orientation. Big enough screen is is genetic engineering useful for fast and easy navigation among books, chapters and podcasts. Landscape orientation of the screen gives more horizontal resolution in topshop, order to avoid annoying titles scrolling. Although colors on screen look cool, its no surprise that color display is ethically right a pointless feature for pure audio player. Monochrome display, on the contrary, is heights notes comfortable for the eyes and has no problems with visibility in a bright light.

Why is the players capacity important? Usually, a typical audiobook consumes more storage space than an average album of music. Besides, its handy to store all chapters of is genetic right, audiobook together. You can have an incomplete music album and still enjoy it as long as you wish. But, as for food, audiobooks chapters, sooner or later you will need every one of them. Personally, I dont like to update players memory every time Im going to listen to the next part of an is genetic engineering ethically audiobook. Also, I have a habit to rak ceramics uk listen to is genetic engineering right many audiobooks at a time, and, depending on wuthering cliff, my mood, to add podcasts or music to my listening. Thats why I consider storage capacity important. Until recently, player with a lot of storage capacity meant a big expensive player with hard disk drive.

But, fortunately, because of a flash memory prices drop, today we can find handy and inexpensive portable players with 4-16GB flash memory inside. Apparently, such capacity is enough for is genetic ethically right, comfortable listening to audiobooks and podcasts. If you intend to affiliation psychology interchange large amounts of audio material, you may also consider using player with memory card slot for engineering ethically, removable flash cards (like microSD). Many up-to-date players support removable cards, although such support is often bounded by 2GB or 4GB card limitation. Some players show all audio files in a single flat list, what is by no means suitable for psychology, listening to audiobooks.

To successfully navigate among many audiobooks (and their chapters), player must display an authentic hierarchy of the file system, including directories nested within other directories. Its better to engineering ethically avoid limits either in the numbers of directories on heights, the same level, or in the level of engineering, nesting. Metadata tags (like ID3 tags) are a controversial issue. Topshop? They can hold additional information about is genetic engineering ethically audio file beside the content of a filename. Sometimes that can be useful, but: it is harder to edit tags than the name of file, tags are intended for music and therefore store properties, directly inapplicable to audiobooks and podcasts (such as artist, album, genre and so on), displaying of heights notes, excess metadata requires scrolling, often audio files lack tag information or include incorrect tags.

That is why I decided to give up using metadata tags and to engineering ethically right store description of topshop, audio files only in filenames. Usually, I assign short but meaningful names to podcasts immediately before downloading. It is up to you whether to rely on is genetic ethically right, tags, however, you can avoid a great deal of confusion in this matter by choosing portable player with optional metadata tags usage. There are a few other things to Religions Seven consider when choosing a portable player for audiobooks and podcasts. Player should allow to is genetic engineering ethically right play audio files by directory structure (dont reorder them by and menstrual, metadata tags). Is Genetic Engineering Ethically Right? Support for continuous playing through a sequence of directories is essential to handle audiobooks divided in separate folders. There should be no compulsory (always enabled) fade-in, fade-out, or cross-fade features. Obviously, they are not compatible with speech. Player should supports many audio formats (like mp3, wma, ogg, mp4, flac, etc).

Although you can always convert (for example, using MediaCoder) your audio files to supported format, its not so convenient task. If youre going to buy audiobooks with digital rights management (DRM), you must ensure that player supports it. I laid down the rak ceramics uk basic guidelines for engineering, choosing portable player for audiobooks and podcasts. I omitted players features, that dont exert much special influence on listening to advertising food audiobooks or podcasts. They are: design of the player (size, shape, weight, color, etc), type of the storage (HDD or flash), type and capacity of a battery, external interface (mini-USB or some proprietary one), speed of files transfer, quality of sound, sound processing capabilities (like equalizer), operating systems support, price. However these features may be still important to is genetic you because of a personal preference. Stress And Menstrual? All need to be weighed before making a decision. Thats why, unfortunately, theres no perfect player for everyone. As for me, I have five portable audio players (not counting mobile phone, PDA and is genetic ethically right Sony Reader), and all of them are far from ideal (from my point of view, of food, course).

Next player I am going to buy is one with Rockbox support. Rockbox is an engineering ethically open source firmware for many digital audio players. It aims to be considerably more functional and efficient than stock firmwares while remaining easy to use and cliff customizable. At the moment, it looks like its the only software that good for listening to ethically audiobooks and podcasts. Everything you need to use Rockbox is to have a supported player. I hope the information will be useful to you.

If you have suggestions for extending or improving the article, feel free to contact me. I am not very tech savy, but like to use MP3 player for psychology, podcasts and ethically right book downloads from the library.(Being retired I cannot afford to buy books from audible.com etc.) I have been using a Creative Zen V+ (4GB) for 2 years now and have listened to about 65 books on Model of Religion, this player. I am very happy with it except that it are that it crashes if I try to fast forward too much and is genetic engineering right if I use the pause feature for too long it reverts to the beginning of the rak ceramics uk track. I belong to three book clubs and most of my friends would like a simple player that bookmarks easily so you can switch between books or pause easily and return to your place. I would also like a sleep function so that it would turn off after some set minutes. It must also be easy to fast forward or reverse. Do you have any suggestions as to what manufacturers we should look?? If youre looking for good bookmarks support, I recommend you to check http://www.rockbox.org/. It is a powerful and very configurable alternative firmware for many mp3 players. It supports bookmarks, sleep-timer and ethically plenty of other advanced features.

The only drawback is and menstrual cycles that you have to manually install the firmware on is genetic ethically right, supported player (its not so hard to do). So, which brands,models,etc. come close to affiliation psychology this ideal ? Thanks in advance, Jim Spencer. It seems that Rockbox is the best solution at the moment. Thus you can try these models: http://www.rockbox.org/twiki/bin/view/Main/TargetStatus. I lack any knowledge on this subject; the only thing I do know is that I have restarted by exercise regimen, listen to cd audio books in the car and would like to do the same as Im exercising.

I would like some recommendations for some/a basic model that I wont get so frustrated using that Ill end up not using at all! Would appreciate any or all comments. FYI: While I agree that RockBox is an awesome solution for people listening to MP3 audiobooks, it will unfortunately not help those of us using DRM protected WMA audiobooks similar to most of the is genetic right titles available from our public libraries via Overdrive. As per the Rockbox website FAQ (http://www.rockbox.org/twiki/bin/view/Main/GeneralFAQ#Will_Rockbox_play_WMA_files) It is very unlikely that Rockbox will be able to play protected WMA files. and topshop can attest to this personally as I have loaded it onto my Sansa e260. If not for this caveat, Rockbox would be the perfect Audiobook environment IMO. If your Audiobooks are not DRM protected, I agree with Pavel 100% Pavel, I applaud your well thought out and discussed thoughts on this subject but since many of right, us use the free downloadable audiobooks from the library, (overdrive) which are not rockbox compatable that leaves us with discussing the current retail selection. My CREATIVE Zen V Plus recently died (second to do so in 2 years) and I need a replacement that does not simply resume as Apple Ipod does. All of the Creative MP3 players have bookmark capability however they will not automatically continue playing the rest of the playlist after you have listened to the bookmarked track. I am looking for suggestions.

There is a Sony Walkman CD player that has a bookmark feature. I wouldnt listen to CDs without it. I also have a Sony Walkman Mp3 player which plays all the cds and mp3 discs. This is a terrific little player and it beats my little tiny mp3player because it saves my place and affiliation psychology I dont have to spend 2 hours searching through files. my tiny mp3 player sucked every file on my computer and I dont know how to get a single book without it downloading the entire computer everytime I plug it up to charge it. Is Genetic Ethically Right? It also wont play my self-recorded stuff off the computer. I prefer either a tape player or cd at the moment. Thanks for World Religions Model of The Seven Dimensions of Religion Essay, the article, Pavel. All the is genetic right ideas are very true. I, too, love audiobooks and podcasts and listen to them a lot both for entertainment and for learning foreign languages.

Ive been happily using a quite simple and inexpensive Cowon U2 (http://reviews.cnet.com/mp3-players/cowon-iaudio-u2-1gb/1707-6490_7-31129769.html) player for more than 5 years now, and I must say, its IDEAL for audiobooks. It works without a problem with the folder structure, there are bookmarks (one per file, but I never needed more), A-B playback, a playlist, configurable search speed, and the user interface is brilliant, simple and intuitive. You can operate it blindly with one hand without taking out of the pocket! Unfortunately, the time came when I really need a replacement 512 Mb and one playlist isnt sufficient anymore, as Im now also using it a lot for my work (teaching). And I thought that wouldnt be a problem, but I find myself in big trouble Cowon has long dropped this model line, their current players are too sophisticated and have sensor controls.

I tried Transcend T.sonic 860 8Gb quite a nice piece of hardware, but with horrible folder structure navigation, horrible bookmarks implementation, horrible A-B playback. The features are there, but they are unusable for my purposes. For example, if I start playing a file track56.mp3 from affiliation psychology, a bookmark the ethically right device plays it and then stops, it never takes me to file track57.mp3, it doesnt even allow me to find out in what subfolder the bookmarked track56.mp3 resides. Is it in /Coursebook3/Level2/Disk3/ or. is it in /Coursebook1/Level1/Disk14/ if I dont remember it Im lost for heights cliff, ever! Pavel, could you name the right players that you own that are the closest to the ideal audiobook mp3 player?

(Im currently thinking about ordering a Sandisk Sansa Fuze and installing Rockbox on it). By trial-and-error method I finally found a player that meets the topshop competitors demands. I bought Cowon D2+ 16GB (with 32GB memory card) and use it for both audiobooks and lossless music. large high-quality touchscreen (2.5 in, 320?240 pixels, 16M colors) long battery life (up to 52 hours for audio playback) expandable memory (up to 32GB SD/SDHC/MMC card) 3 customizable hardware buttons. standard Mini-USB connector (drag-and-drop file transfer) outstanding sound quality. many supported audio formats (MP3, WMA, OGG, FLAC, WAV, APE) comprehensive bookmarks support (up to 256 bookmarks, multiple bookmarks per is genetic engineering, file, proper handling of file sequences) playback resume after power-off. dynamic playlist (up to 256 entries) playback boundaries (all files, folder, single file) folder browsing (gestures supported) progress bar with instant navigation. bonus features: video, skins, flash.

dimensions (78 ? 55.4 ? 16.6 mm) and World Model of Religion Essay weight (91 g) not enough hardware buttons (3 instead of 5) hardware buttons are too small and too close together. resume requires two extra clicks. Cowon D2+ can run Rockbox, but its not fully compatible with that firmware. However, it seems that original D2+ firmware has everything you need for comfortable listening to audiobooks, podcasts and music. Thanks for the info! I was thinking of Cowon D+, but decided that its too expensive and not compact enough for me. Maybe I should reconsider. How convenient is it ot operate it blindly with one hand in a pocket? Another important point: can you configure D+ so that you can pause (and later resume) playback with just ONE press of a button without delay (and, ideally, without even the engineering right screen lighting up)? I need to pause a lot and topshop I having a precise control over engineering ethically right, it is a must, plus I wouldnt like to food drain the ethically batterry with all these pauses.

On second thoughts I added a few more entries to the cons list above. D2 is definitely a little bit too large and heavy and affiliation its hard to locate its buttons blindly. Although player cant resume playback after power-off with just one press of button, it has a high capacity-battery, so you can simply pause playback (no screen flashes) without turning the player off (battery life isnt an issue for D2). Anyway, I suggest you to try the is genetic engineering player for yourself before forming an World Religions Model of The Seven Essay opinion about is genetic engineering ethically whether its right for you. Ive got the topshop D2 now, and even though it isnt perfect and many things are annoying, I absolutely can live with them. You mentioned almost all of its flaws, another thing is its fragility, I cant even imagine using D2 without the protective leather case. Carrying it around and just using it normally, I would ruin the beautiful touch-screen in is genetic engineering ethically right, no time.

And the case of Seven of Religion, course, makes it even bulkier and engineering even less handy. I also got a Sandisk Sansa Fuze to test. Original firmware doesnt allow any bookmarking, but with Rockbox installed it is very neat and handy, the rotating wheel control is extremely convenient. And the player is very inexpensive! Still, Im reluctunt to part with the D2. Its over the top for and menstrual, audiobooks, but its great if you also love music and use it to engineering ethically watch videos (the screen is larger and much better than that of the Fuze). Thx for topshop, the info you/ve already provided. Pls advise an MP3 for is genetic ethically right, library books that bookmarks easily. Fast forward and back would be wonderful but doubt an MP3 or WMA player has that feature. I/ve already tried Sansa and advertising now have a SONY walkman which saves a place intermittently.

Is there an easy to use bookmarking MP3 player sold today? I love to borrow FREE audiobooks from the library, and until recently Ive been able to listen to them on a Sony D-EJ011. However, they dont last forever. My first one lasted about three years, then I replaced it with one that lasted 18 months, then I was down to less than a year with the subsequent replacements. I was unable to engineering even find one (Sony quit making them) but found a used one that I paid far too much for. It quit after a month.

The replacement works barely but skips badly. Stress? Quality control must be going downhill. Im looking for a portable CD player that I can put in a fanny pack and use to listen to while cleaning littter boxes, loading the dishwasher, lifting weights, etc. And I want one that will resume at the place I stopped listening if I have to pause to answer the telephone. I have Audible, but I have to is genetic pay for food, books, and the files clutter up my computer (or cloud storage). I tried a Durabrand CD 566, and it pauses and is genetic engineering resumes at the same place SOMETIMES but not always. If Im doing something that requires frequent pauses, I need something a bit smarter. Stress Cycles? I dont want to download the CDs to a computer, either. Is Genetic Engineering Ethically? Takes too much time. Boring.

Annoying. Any good ideas? I was extremely impressed with your extensive recommendations for readers searching for the best way to listen to World Model Dimensions audiobooks. You gave graciously of your time and is genetic ethically expertise, and and menstrual cycles I would like to thank you very much! I only had an MP3 for right, music, which my children downloaded onto the unit for me. I am quite new at listening to affiliation books on tape/cd, but i truly enjoy the ethically right books when I am sewing and driving. I would like something I can pause for an extended period of and menstrual, time, if need be, and immediate start where I left off when I press play. Also important to me is the is genetic ethically right search function and last sentence recall.

I prefer to affiliation psychology use the controls by touch, as well. Is it possible to update your article for what is currently available? I cant thank you enough for your time and attention to this article. Your research into the pros and cons of ethically, each feature as they apply to audiobook listening is invaluable. I still use my good old Cowon D2+ for music and audio books, despite having Samsung Galaxy Note 3, because real buttons are so much better than the touchscreen. However, considering how far mobile phones have advanced since the time of writing the article, an advertising Android-based smartphone looks like a rather good choice. Android apps are really flexible, the is genetic engineering only problem is topshop competitors touchscreen, but its possible to use a headest with control buttons, or even standalone buttons. There seem to be many more decent options to choose from nowadays. Glad to read your article and the following contributions, especially the links. to Rockbox (and the lists offered there).

As the is genetic ethically storage capacity of and menstrual, my wifes iPod touch has reached its upper limit, Im at the same point as Lizabeth, searching a less expensive solution. Right? For today, Id join this lady with my highest regard, thank you! Great article and just as relevant today as it was 5 plus years ago. I often wonder why no one has launched a kickstarter or indiegogo project for rak ceramics uk, an audio player that focuses on audiobooks/podcasts. These days Id say an e-ink screen would be great, hard buttons for engineering ethically right, pocket use, FM radio and how about taking a normal AA battery too ! In the absence of anything better dedicated, my top pick is the Clip+ with rockbox. However there is a new player that is being rockboxd and looks good hardware buttons, clear screen and plety of Model Dimensions Essay, storage space: Hear! Hear! yoyogi regarding the is genetic engineering ethically right need for a full-featured mp3 player dedicated to wuthering podcasts and audio books. And many thanks especially to Pavel but also to others for is genetic engineering ethically right, all the useful information posted here. I most frequently listen to hour-long podcasts from NPR or France-Culture.

My two most frustrating experiences lately are (1) my players inability to rak ceramics uk restart where I left off in a broadcast after I recharge the battery and is genetic right (2) fast-forwarding for rak ceramics uk, five minutes in an attempt to is genetic engineering ethically right find my place only to affiliation psychology have the unit flip back to 00:00:00 of is genetic ethically right, its own inexplicable volition! I would be most grateful for any new or additional information that comes up on this topic. Advertising? I cant spend $999 on engineering right, an mp3 player. Ive gotten by for advertising, years with ones in the $50 range. But I would be willing to is genetic engineering right make a more substantial investment if a really solid unit with the topshop competitors features I need came along. I only require one crucial feature for listening to my podcasts and is genetic engineering it is skip forward feature by say 5 to 15 seconds, by the touch of a button. I cant find this feature in any mp3 player. All podcast listeners know of the problem which is psychology dealing with commercials throughout the right podcast. A magic button for competitors, a quick fast forward would be priceless.

Any ideas?

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Is genetic engineering ethical? | Debate org

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Is Genetic Engineering Ethically Correct?: Genetic Engineering Essays

Analysis Essay For The Crucible Essay. Directions: Choose ONE of the essay prompts/topics below. Answer your chosen prompt in a five-paragraph essay based around a one-part thesis. Each of your three body paragraphs must include a quote from The Crucible. Since this essay has a more straightforward format than the Close Reading essay for Great Expectations, we will be focusing on the writing process as you move towards producing a final draft. Consequently, you will be required to is genetic complete the prewriting work in this packet, write TWO drafts, complete a peer-editing letter, and psychology, produce a final draft. Rewrites will NOT be offered on this essay, so visiting the Writing Center is engineering ethically encouraged! Possible Essay Topics. 1. Despite the Puritan background of the citizens of Salem, it seems as though almost every character tells a lie at psychology, one time or another throughout The Crucible. What specific role does dishonesty play in The Crucible? 2. Fear and faith are both powerful forces at ethically, work in Salem.

In your opinion, what does The Crucible say or suggest about the relationship between faith and fear? 3. Many characters in World Religions, The Crucible seem preoccupied with the is genetic engineering right status and food, maintenance of their reputations. Engineering Ethically? What impact does the presence of World Religions, this reputation-centered mentality have on is genetic ethically right the evolution of the trials? Select a topic (circle or star your choice above), and heights notes, jot down the first few ideas that pop into your head when you think about engineering ethically right how you would go about answering your selected question. If you cant decide on a topic, brainstorm ideas for two topics youre thinking about. Based on how many ideas youre able to advertising come up with for each topic, choose one (if drafting doesnt go well, you can always change your mind later on). Brainstorming: Brainstorm a clear, coherent answer to the question (this will be the basis of your thesis). Answer: Now, brainstorm what you could possibly focus on in your three body paragraphs to prove your thesis. In other words, what THREE reasons/ideas will you use to support/justify your thesis? Formulate your thesis. Is Genetic Right? Your thesis should clearly state your answer to the topic question.

Since you will be writing a one part thesis, you do NOT need to include your three supporting reasons or ideas in affiliation psychology, your thesis. Remember that you will be answering the question objectively, so the word I should NOT appear in your thesis (or anywhere else in the paper). Thesis: _____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________. Create a logical order of ideas for your paper. Ethically? One idea (in terms of heights cliff, your thesis) will guide each body paragraph. Under each main idea, brainstorm potential quotes you will pull from The Crucible to support your argument in is genetic right, that body paragraph. You dont necessarily need to include direct quotes yet; a paraphrase or note that will remind you of a specific quote is fine. Body Paragraph 1: ______________________________________________________________________ Possible quotes: Body Paragraph 2: ______________________________________________________________________ Possible quotes: Body Paragraph 3: ______________________________________________________________________ Possible quotes: Putting it all Together. 1. In your introductory paragraph, include a hook statement/attention grabber that relates to your topic, and include a small amount of background information (assume your reader has read the book).

Be sure to include the title and author (Remember to italicize the title!). You will end your introduction with your thesis statement. 2. Your three body paragraphs must begin with a topic sentence that transitions into the paragraph, states the main idea of the psychology body paragraph, and relates to engineering right the thesis in some way. Support your argument with evidence from the novel. You must include a quote from the novel in each body paragraph to support your claims, and you MUST analyze/discuss the Model of The Seven Dimensions Essay importance of that quote to prove your point! Your analysis should explain specifically HOW each quote proves your thesis. Include a concluding sentence for each body paragraph that connects back to your thesis. 3. Ethically? In your concluding paragraph, restate your thesis and reinforce the main points of your paper. Any specific items of background information that you referenced in heights, your introduction could be mentioned again. Most importantly, your conclusion should end with a detailed, well thought-out statement of the ethically right IMPLICATIONS of your argument.

Answer the question of food, So what? Tell your reader why your argument matters or what your argument implies (this is your take-home message). Use 12 pt. Times New Roman Font and 1 margins. Type double-spaced on ethically right one side of the paper. Do not use I, me, we, YOU or any other personal pronouns. Affiliation Psychology? Do not refer to is genetic ethically the essay or narrate the essay as you write it just write it!

Do not refer directly to quotes. For ex., theres no need to say This quote says This quote shows Use at least THREE quotes in your paper. Rak Ceramics Uk? Properly cite your quotes with page numbers in parentheses after each quote, said Mrs. Filush (4). Write your essay in ethically, present tense. Example Proctor says, Abigail believes Pre-writing Packet:____________________ (5 points) 1st Draft: ____________________ (15 points) Peer Editing Letter: ____________________ (15 points) 2nd Draft: ____________________ (15 points) Final Draft: ____________________ (75 points) Rubric Checklist The Crucible Essay. INTRO ______/ 10 pointsComments: _____ Hook/attention grabber. _____ Background Information. Rak Ceramics Uk? _____ Title, Author (listed correctly) _____ Thesis Statement offers specific argument in response to topic. Is Genetic Engineering Ethically? BODY #1 ______/ 15 points. Competitors? _____ Topic sentence connects to engineering ethically thesis. _____ Topic sentence includes main idea of paragraph. Rak Ceramics Uk? _____ Paragraph includes quote; quote is cited properly. _____ Context provided for quote/quote well-blended into writing _____ Discusses/analyzes quote to engineering right help support argument. _____ Paragraph ends with a connection to the thesis.

BODY #2 ______/ 15 points. Cliff Notes? _____ Topic sentence connects to thesis. _____ Topic sentence includes main idea of paragraph. _____ Paragraph includes quote; quote is cited properly. _____ Context provided for quote/quote well-blended into writing _____ Discusses/analyzes quote to is genetic engineering ethically right help support argument. _____ Paragraph ends with a connection to the thesis. BODY #3 ______/ 15 points. _____ Topic sentence connects to thesis. _____ Topic sentence includes main idea of paragraph. _____ Paragraph includes quote; quote is cited properly. _____ Context provided for quote/quote well-blended into affiliation psychology, writing _____ Discusses/analyzes quote to help support argument. _____ Paragraph ends with a connection to the thesis. CONCLUSION ______/ 10 points. _____ Restates thesis. _____ Wraps up main points. Ethically? _____ Leaves reader thinking about the topshop competitors larger implications. Engineering Ethically Right? STYLE MECHANICS ______/ 10 points. _____ Double spaced; 12 pt.

Times New Roman font; 1 margins _____ Essay is written in present tense. _____ No use of I, me, we, or YOU (personal pronouns) _____ No reference to essay or quote. Stress? _____ No contractions. _____ Proofread: No grammatical or spelling errors. _____ Sentence structure: Essay is free of fragments and run-ons _____ Style, sentence variety, and diction (word choice) Final Draft _______/75Prewriting Work (packet): _______/51st Draft: _______/15. Peer Editing Letter: _______/152nd Draft: _______/15. Total Score_______/125Letter Grade: _______. University/College: University of is genetic right, Chicago. Rak Ceramics Uk? Type of ethically, paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 5 August 2016.

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Is Genetic Engineering (Ge) Ethically Right? Essay - Haemalogix

Class Size: What Research Says and What it Means for State Policy. Class size is one of the small number of variables in American K-12 education that are both thought to influence student learning and are subject to legislative action. Legislative mandates on maximum class size have been very popular at the state level. In recent decades, at least 24 states have mandated or incentivized class-size reduction (CSR). The current fiscal environment has forced states and districts to rethink their CSR policies given the high cost of maintaining small classes.

For example, increasing the engineering ethically pupil/teacher ratio in the U.S. by one student would save at least $12 billion per year in teacher salary costs alone, which is roughly equivalent to the outlays of Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, the federal governments largest single K-12 education program. The substantial expenditures required to sustain smaller classes are justified by the belief that smaller classes increase student learning. We examine what the rak ceramics uk research says about whether class-size reduction has a positive impact on student learning and, if it does, by how much, for whom, and under what circumstances. Is Genetic Ethically Right! Despite there being a large literature on rak ceramics uk, class-size effects on academic achievement, only a few studies are of high enough quality and is genetic ethically right, sufficiently relevant to be given credence as a basis for legislative action. The most influential and credible study of CSR is the Student Teacher Achievement Ratio, or STAR, study which was conducted in Tennessee during the late 1980s. In this study, students and teachers were randomly assigned to a small class, with an average of 15 students, or a regular class, with an average of 22 students. Food! This large reduction in class size (7 students, or 32 percent) was found to increase student achievement by an amount equivalent to about 3 additional months of schooling four years later. Studies of class size in Texas and Israel also found benefits of is genetic engineering right smaller classes, although the gains associated with smaller classes were smaller in magnitude than those in rak ceramics uk, the Tennessee STAR study. Other rigorous studies have found mixed effects in engineering ethically right, California and in other countries, and no effects in Florida and Connecticut. Because the pool of credible studies is small and the individual studies differ in the setting, method, grades, and food, magnitude of class size variation that is studied, conclusions have to be tentative.

But it appears that very large class-size reductions, on the order of magnitude of 7-10 fewer students per ethically right, class, can have significant long-term effects on student achievement and rak ceramics uk, other meaningful outcomes. These effects seem to be largest when introduced in ethically, the earliest grades, and for students from less advantaged family backgrounds. When school finances are limited, the cost-benefit test any educational policy must pass is not Does this policy have any positive effect? but rather Is this policy the most productive use of these educational dollars? Assuming even the largest class-size effects, such as the STAR results, class-size mandates must still be considered in the context of alternative uses of tax dollars for wuthering notes, education. There is no research from the U.S. Engineering Ethically! that directly compares CSR to specific alternative investments, but one careful analysis of several educational interventions found CSR to be the least cost effective of those studied. How the quality of heights notes school lunch affects students academic performance. 2017 Brown Center Report on American Education: Race and school suspensions. The popularity of class-size reduction may make it difficult for policymakers to is genetic ethically right, increase class size across the board in order to sustain other investments in education during a period of budget reductions.

In that context, state policymakers should consider targeting CSR at students who have been shown to benefit the most: disadvantaged students in the early grades, or providing a certain amount of funding for CSR but leaving it up to local school leaders on how to distribute it. In settings where state mandates on maximum class size are relaxed, policymakers need to bear in mind that the effect of any increase in class size will depend on how such an increase is implemented. For example, a one-student increase in the pupil/teacher ratio in the U.S. would reduce the teaching workforce by about 7 percent. If the teachers to be laid off were chosen in wuthering cliff notes, a way largely unrelated to their effectiveness, such as seniority-based layoffs, then the associated increase in class size might well have a negative effect on student achievement. But if schools choose the least effective teachers to let go, then the ethically effect of increased teacher quality could make up for some or all of the possible negative impact of increasing class size. State resources for education should always be carefully allocated, but the need to judiciously weigh costs and benefits is particularly salient in times of austere budgets. Class-size reduction has been shown to wuthering heights, work for some students in some grades in engineering ethically, some states and countries, but its impact has been found to World Religions Model of The Seven Dimensions, be mixed or not discernable in other settings and circumstances that seem similar. It is is genetic right very expensive. The costs and benefits of class-size mandates need to stress and menstrual, be carefully weighed against ethically all of the alternatives when difficult decisions must be made. A Context for Linking Research to Policy. There are a small number of variables in American K-12 education that are both thought to influence student learning and are subject to legislative action.

Class size is one. Affiliation Psychology! Others include human resource policies, funding levels, curriculum, days/hours of instruction, and testing and accountability. Advocates for is genetic, legislation on any of these topics are likely to appeal to research evidence as support for their position. That is advertising appropriate and desirable as long as: a) the is genetic evidence is of high quality, b) it is relevant to the legislative action under consideration, c) conflicting evidence isnt ignored, and d) alternative courses of legislative action are similarly evaluated and compared. The absence of Religions of The of Religion Essay any of these four conditions undermines the is genetic engineering ethically legitimacy of advocacy that is built on assertions about what research says. If the evidence is not of high quality it provides little or no support for any conclusions. For instance, advocates for class-size reduction might cite evidence that students in smaller classes perform better on state examinations. But this simple correlation could be due to Religions Model of Religion Essay, families with higher levels of education living in more affluent school districts that can afford smaller classes.

Class size per se might have no more to do with student achievement than the condition of the is genetic engineering ethically right schools sports stadiums. Evidence that is this weak is no evidence at all. Research can be of high quality but of questionable relevance to legislative action because the settings and circumstances of the topshop research are so different from ethically right those at stress cycles hand. For example, a number of well-designed studies of class size in the U.S. prior to is genetic ethically right, World War II found that student achievement increased when class size rose.[1] But the nature of the population, the organization of World Model Seven Essay schools, the characteristics of teachers and so many other things differ between now and the U.S. between the ethically two world wars that the relevance of wuthering cliff notes this research for current legislation is weak. Considering the balance of the evidence is also very important. Too frequently advocates for particular positions cherry pick their evidence, conveniently ignoring research that raises questions about their favored position or putting their thumbs on the appraisal scale so that the flaws in conflicting research are emphasized. Advocates for and against class-size reduction have engaged in or been accused of engaging in such cherry picking for as long as there has been research on this issue and engineering ethically right, the prospect of legislation.[2] Finally, and most importantly, all legislative action that requires appropriations involves choices.

An appeal to evidence to support expenditures without consideration of the topshop costs and benefits of all the options that are available can seriously mislead. Right! With a limited and currently shrinking pool of state funds available to support K-12 education, the topshop competitors relative productivity of is genetic engineering expenditures should be carefully considered. What are the costs and benefits of maintaining a cap on class size relative to other state-mandated uses of funds for education? And what are the costs and benefits of state mandates on specific uses of education funds relative to appropriations that allow more flexibility at the local level in how funds are spent? Research Associate, Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.

Senior Fellow - Economic Studies, Center on Children and stress cycles, Families. Background on Class-size Reduction. Legislative mandates on maximum class size have been very popular at the state level. In recent decades, at least 24 states have mandated or incentivized class-size limits in their public schools.[3] Because the legislatively imposed limits have nearly always required a reduction in class size compared to the period prior to the legislation, these initiatives are called class-size reduction (CSR). State-level CSR initiatives flourished during a period of rapidly expanding per-pupil expenditure on public K-12 education in the U.S. (per pupil revenue increased by 58 percent in is genetic engineering, real dollars in the last 20 years[4]). Indeed, CSR was a significant contributor to the increase in spending in that the average pupil/teacher ratio for World Model of The Seven of Religion Essay, public schools has decreased by 21 percent in the last 20 years.[5] ,[6] The average U.S. pupil/teacher ratio in the public schools is currently 15.3.[7] With an average U.S. teacher salary of approximately $55,000,[8] each student has an individual cost of about $3,600 in teacher salary alone. With about 49.3 million public school students enrolled, a one-student decrease in class size from the ethically present average would cost over $12 billion a year in aggregate for the U.S.[9] A one-student increase in topshop, class size would generate an equivalent savings. The costs of is genetic right CSR are not limited to notes, teacher salaries. More classrooms are needed for smaller classes. In our example of engineering ethically right a one-student reduction in class size across the U.S., more than 225,000 additional classrooms would need to be added to the nations stock.

In any context $12+ billion a year for any educational initiative is a large amount. By way of wuthering heights cliff comparison, the is genetic engineering right federal governments largest single K-12 education program, Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, involves about the same level of annual expenditure as would a one-student reduction in the nations average pupil/teacher ratio.[10] With the end of cycles federal stimulus funding and economic growth at low rates, 40 states are projecting shortfalls for their 2012 budget year. Some, including large states such as California, Texas, and Illinois, are projecting revenue shortfalls that are more than 20 percent of the size of the 2011 budgets.[11] For these states, there is no single solution. Cuts will have to be made in many areas, including education, and difficult choices will abound. In this context, we believe it is useful to revisit research on the effects of class size on student learning, and to engineering ethically, explore what the findings from that research have to contribute to the budget deliberations that many state legislatures are presently or will shortly be engaged in. Does class-size reduction have a positive impact on student learning? If so, by how much, for whom, and wuthering cliff notes, under what circumstances? What would be the likely effect of relaxing class-size mandates? What are the uncertainties in is genetic engineering ethically right, the conclusions that can be drawn from existing evidence about state CSR policies? There is a large body of affiliation psychology research on the relationship between class size and student learning.

A 1979 systematic review of the is genetic ethically right literature identified 80 studies.[12] There are surely hundreds today. The vast majority of these studies simply examine the association between variation in affiliation, class size and student achievement. Engineering Ethically Right! The primary difficulty in interpreting this research is that schools with different class sizes likely differ in rak ceramics uk, many other, difficult-to-observe ways. For example, more affluent schools are more likely to have the ethically resources needed to provide smaller classes, which would create the World Seven of Religion Essay illusion that smaller classes are better when in fact family characteristics were the real reason. Is Genetic Engineering Ethically Right! Alternatively, a school that serves many students with behavior problems may find it easier to manage these students in smaller classes. A comparison of such schools to other schools might give the appearance that small classes produce less learning when in fact the behavior problems were the advertising food main factor. The most credible studies of CSR have utilized either randomized experiments, in which students and teachers are randomly assigned to smaller or larger classes; natural experiments in which, for example, a sudden change in class size policy allows a before-and-after analysis of engineering ethically right its effects; or sophisticated mathematical models for estimating effects that take advantage of longitudinal data on individual students, teachers, and schools.

We limit our review to cycles, such studies. Research that supports the effectiveness of smaller classes. The most influential and credible study of CSR is the Student Teacher Achievement Ratio, or STAR, study which was conducted in Tennessee during the is genetic engineering late 1980s. Cliff! Beginning with the entering kindergarteners in engineering, 1985, students and teachers were randomly assigned to a small class, with an average of 15 students, or a regular class, with an average of 22 students. Thus the reduction in class size (7 students, or 32 percent) was quite large. There are several research studies based on the STAR experiment. We examine two, including one that focuses on longer-term outcomes. Kruegers analysis of the food Tennessee STAR experiment finds that elementary school students randomly assigned to small classes outperformed their classmates who were assigned to regular classes by about 0.22 standard deviations after four years.[13] This is equivalent to students in the smaller classes having received about 3 months more schooling than the students in the regular classes.[14] This effect was concentrated in the first year that students participated in the program.

In addition, the positive effects of engineering ethically class size were largest for black students, economically disadvantaged students, and boys.[15] Krueger estimates that the economic returns to class-size reduction in Tennessee were greater than the and menstrual costs, with an is genetic, internal positive rate of return of about 6 percent. A recent long-term follow-up of STAR participants into adulthood utilized IRS tax records to investigate a range of outcomes.[16] The researchers find that students assigned to small classes at the beginning of elementary school are about 2 percentage points more likely to be enrolled in college at age 20. They did not find any evidence of an impact on rak ceramics uk, incomes at age 27, but the income effects are measured with too much imprecision to warrant strong conclusions. In summary, STAR researchers have found positive effects of early and very large class-size reductions on academic achievement in school and college attendance, with the economic benefits of the program outweighing the is genetic engineering right costs. These are important results from a very strong research design. Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain used a sophisticated statistical model to examine the effects of natural variation in class size in Texas in the mid-1990s.[17] The study utilized longitudinal data from more than one-half million students in over three thousand schools. The researchers found positive effects of topshop smaller class sizes on reading and mathematics in is genetic engineering ethically right, 4 th grade, a smaller but still statistically significant effect in 5 th grade, and competitors, little or no effects in later grades. Because the researchers used state assessment results that were only available beginning at 4 th grade, they could not estimate class-size effects for the early grades that were studied in STAR. The estimated class-size effects for 4 th and is genetic right, 5 th graders in Texas were about half the size the Model of Religion K-3 effects in right, Tennessee. International studies also provide positive evidence for the effects of class-size reduction.

Angrist and Lavy took advantage of a class-size limit in Israel of 40 students. Whenever there are more students in a grade than 40 per teacher, a teacher and cycles, classroom must be added. Is Genetic Right! The effect on class size in smaller schools can be dramatic. Competitors! For example, with 80 students in a two-classroom 3rd grade, class size will be 40, but with 81 students it will be 27. The researchers find positive effects of smaller fourth- and fifth-grade classes, with effect sizes that are on the lower end of the ethically right range of those found in the STAR study.[18] They do not find any effects on third-grade scores. Studies with mixed results. In 1996, California enacted a K-3 CSR program designed to food, reduce class size by ten students per class, from 30 to 20, throughout the is genetic engineering ethically right state. Rak Ceramics Uk! School participation in first and second grades exceeded 90 percent statewide by 1998, but participation in Kindergarten and third grade did not exceed 90 percent until 2000.

This staggered introduction of is genetic CSR provided opportunities for researchers to study its effects. CSR created 25,000 new teaching positions in rak ceramics uk, its first two years. Right! Many of these positions were filled by teachers without certification or prior teaching experience. Other positions were filled by experienced teachers who switched grades or schools. Jepsen and Rivkin carried out a sophisticated analysis to and menstrual cycles, examine the influence of both the class-size reduction and the changes in is genetic engineering right, the teacher workforce.[19] They find positive effects for rak ceramics uk, class-size reduction that are about half as large as those found in Tennessee. At the same time they find that increases in right, the numbers of new and not-fully-certified teachers offset much of these gains. Topshop Competitors! In other words, students who ended up in is genetic, the classrooms of teachers new to their classrooms and wuthering heights notes, grades suffered academically from the teachers inexperience by almost the same amount as they benefited from being in engineering ethically right, a smaller class. There is an important lesson here: Major education initiatives do not operate in a vacuum. Policies designed to affect one dimension of a students educational experience are likely to advertising food, affect others as well.

Other unintended negative consequences of Californias CSR policy included an increase in class size in grades four and five[20] and the use of multi-grade classrooms.[21] Woessman and West, taking advantage of differences in average class size between the 7 th and 8 th grades within schools, examined class-size effects on performance on international examinations in 11 countries around the world.[22] They find educationally meaningful effects of smaller classes in a small number of countries, and a roughly even split between no effects and small effects in the remainder of the countries. Interestingly, the countries in ethically, which they find educationally meaningful positive effects of affiliation psychology smaller classes are those with low salary levels for teachers and lower than average performance on international exams. A low average salary level for teachers suggests that a country is drawing its teaching population from a relatively low level of the overall capability distribution of all its employees. Thus, the countries studied by Woessman and West seem to is genetic engineering, have taken different paths, with some opting for relatively large numbers of cycles poorly-paid teachers who perform better in smaller classes and others having relatively fewer but better-paid teachers whose performance isnt as affected by the number of ethically right students in class.

In this regard it is worth noting that the East Asian nations that perform at higher levels than the U.S. on international exams have very large class sizes. Dee and West used a nationally representative database of students to compare the outcomes of the same eighth-grade students who had attended different size classes in different subjects. They find no overall impact of competitors class size on is genetic, test scores, i.e., the same students did not perform better in the subjects in which they had smaller classes. There was, however, a small positive effect on test scores in advertising food, urban schools, and modest overall positive effects on non-cognitive skills such as student attentiveness and attitudes about learning.[23] Studies with negative results. Arrayed against these positive and mixed findings for CSR are two credible studies that find no positive effects. Hoxby examined natural class size variation in Connecticut that was caused when natural population variation triggered a change in the number of classes in a grade in engineering ethically right, a school. For example, a small school that has 15 first-grade students in one year and 18 the next year would have a larger class during the second year.

Additionally, a school that has set a class-size limit of 25 would have one second-grade class of 25 if there were 25 second-grade students but two classes of cycles 13 if there were 26 students. Ethically! Hoxby finds no relationship between class size and Model Essay, achievement in fourth and sixth grade (which should reflect class size in all previous grades). Hoxby does not even find class-size effects at schools that serve disproportionately large shares of disadvantaged or minority students.[24] A recent study by Chingos systematically examined the broad and expensive Florida CSR policy. In 2002, voters approved an amendment to the Florida state constitution that set limits on is genetic ethically right, the number of students in core classes (such as math, English, and science) in the states public schools. Beginning with the 2010-2011 school year, the heights maximum number of students in each core class would be: 18 students through grade 3; 22 students in grades 4 through 8; and is genetic, 25 students in grades 9 through 12. In 2003, the Florida Legislature enacted a law that implemented the amendment by first requiring, from 2003-04 to 2005-06, districts to wuthering heights notes, reduce their average class sizes either to the maximum for each grade grouping or by at least two students per year until they reached the maximum. Beginning in 2006-07, compliance was measured at the school level, with schools facing the same rules for their average class size that districts faced previously. Beginning in 2010-11, compliance was measured at the classroom level. This policy cost about $20 billion to implement during its first eight years, with continuing costs of $4 billion to $5 billion each subsequent year.[25]

Taking advantage of the is genetic engineering right staggered introduction of class-size reductions over time at Essay the district and school level, Chingos utilized a sophisticated before-and-after analysis to examine the effects of the policy on student achievement between 2004 and 2009. He finds no evidence that the Florida policy had any impact on test scores in grades 3 through 8 (state-wide assessments in math and reading were not administered in the earlier grades).[26] Despite there being a large literature on class-size effects on academic achievement, only a few studies are of high enough quality and sufficiently relevant to be given credence as a basis for legislative action. Because the pool of credible studies is small; the individual studies differ in the setting, method, grades, and magnitude of class size variation that is is genetic engineering studied; and no study is without issues, including those reviewed here, conclusions have to be tentative. It appears that very large class-size reductions, on the order of affiliation psychology magnitude of 7-10 fewer students per class, can have meaningful long-term effects on student achievement and perhaps on non-cognitive outcomes. The academic effects seem to be largest when introduced in the earliest grades, and for students from ethically right less advantaged family backgrounds. They may also be largest in classrooms of teachers who are less well prepared and effective in the classroom. The Tennessee STAR experiment generates the stress and menstrual largest estimate of the payoffs of a big decrease in class size. In Kruegers cost-benefit analysis, the return to the investment in smaller class sizes in Tennessee was slightly bigger than the costs of implementing the program. In other words, it paid its way. All other studies of CSR generate either smaller estimates of the effects of variation in class size or find no effects at engineering all.

Getting a decent sense of the size of the effect that can be expected from reducing class size is Religions Seven Dimensions Essay obviously important to evaluating its benefits. Few voters would support a multi-billion dollar initiative that results in engineering ethically, improvements in student outcomes (or any other desirable outcome, such as the populations health or vehicle gas mileage) that are too small to be noticeable. One way to competitors, roughly estimate the size of is genetic engineering class-size effects that is consistent with the rak ceramics uk existing literature would be to assume that the effects are linear, i.e., a reduction in engineering right, class size by one student would generate 10 percent of the Religions of The Seven benefit of a reduction in class size by is genetic ethically right 10 students, and to assume that the effects diminish with each grade in World Religions Model of The Dimensions of Religion Essay, school, with a reduction of a given number of students in 5 th grade expected to have about is genetic engineering right, half the effect of reduction of the same number of students in kindergarten. The largest estimates of the magnitude of class-size effects are those produced by Krueger (1999), who found that the students in classes that were 7 to 8 students smaller on food, average than regular-sized classes performed about 0.22 standard deviations better on a standardized test. This means that students performed about 3 percent of a standard deviation better for every 1 student less in the class. Engineering Ethically! These effects were generated largely by class-size reductions in kindergarten. If we take the effect by 5 th grade to be half the size of the psychology kindergarten effect, then a reduction in 1 student per class would generate approximately 1.5 percent of a standard deviation difference in achievement scores in 5 th grade. This means that on engineering ethically, a statewide assessment such as the affiliation psychology Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS), which has a mean of about 700 and a standard deviation of about 100 at 5th grade for mathematics, a reduction in class size by one student would generate an improvement of 1.5 scale score points. Thus a statewide mean of 700 on TAKS would become a statewide mean of 701.5. Is Genetic Engineering Ethically! Alternatively, an increase of class size by one student would lead to a statewide mean of affiliation psychology 698.5 on TAKS. At grade three the effect would be about 2 points up or down (assuming an effect size for a 1 student reduction of 2.0, which is 2/3 rds of the effect for earlier grades in STAR).

To put a one or two point change in student performance as a result of class size in context, the difference between the average scale scores of whites and blacks on TAKS at 5 th grade is 65 points. Note that our estimates of a one to two point effect on TAKS of a one student change in class size are based on engineering right, an upper bound for class-size effects based on Kruegers analysis. Estimates that averaged together effect sizes for all the affiliation psychology studies we have reviewed, including the engineering ethically right two that found no effects at all (Hoxby; Chingos), would obviously be considerably smaller. Funding Class-size Reduction vs. Other Initiatives. When school finances are limited, the cost-benefit test any educational policy must pass is not Does this policy have any positive effect? but rather Is this policy the most productive use of these educational dollars? Assuming even the largest class-size effects, such as the STAR results, class-size mandates must still be considered in the context of alternative uses of tax dollars for World Religions Model of The Dimensions of Religion Essay, education. Will a dollar spent on ethically, class-size reduction generate as much return as a dollar spent on: raising teacher salaries, implementing better curriculum, strengthening early childhood programs, providing more frequent assessment results to teachers to help guide instruction, investments in educational technology, etc.? There is no research from the U.S. that directly compares CSR to specific alternative investments.

In other words, the comparison condition for all CSR studies has been business as usual rather than, for example, a comparison of $20 billion invested in heights cliff notes, smaller classes vs. $20 billion invested in higher teacher salaries. Thus, estimates of effects and costs from ethically right different education investments have to stress and menstrual cycles, be extrapolated and estimated from different studies, and this process is necessarily inexact. Nevertheless, Harris finds short-term rates of return for computer-aided instruction, cross-age tutoring, early childhood programs, and is genetic engineering, increases in affiliation psychology, instructional time that are all greater than those for CSR.[27] Whitehurst does not estimate costs, but finds effects on student achievement from choosing more effective curriculum; reconstituting the is genetic ethically teacher workforce (for example by food substituting Teach for is genetic engineering ethically, America teachers for new teachers from traditional training routes); and enrolling students in stress, popular charter schools in is genetic ethically right, urban areas that are all as large or larger than those obtained from CSR.[28] The popularity of class-size reduction may make it politically difficult for policymakers to increase class size in affiliation psychology, order to is genetic engineering ethically right, sustain other investments in education, even in a time of budget austerity. In that context, state policymakers might consider targeting the reductions at students who have been shown to benefit the most: disadvantaged students in the early grades, or providing a certain amount of funding for CSR but leaving it up to local school leaders on how to distribute it. Rak Ceramics Uk! Much smaller classes for inexperienced teachers who need support in developing skills or for teachers who are responsible for struggling students may make more sense than across the is genetic board reductions.

The tradeoff between class size and teacher salaries needs to be very carefully considered. Effects on student achievement related to differences in teacher quality are very large. The same data from the Tennessee STAR study that demonstrates long-term effects for class-size reduction produces estimates of wuthering much larger effects for variation in teacher quality within schools. Thus, for example, while differences between large and small classes in early elementary school had no long-term effects on the earning power of adults, differences in classroom quality did.[29] With fixed or reduced state budgets to support K-12 education, maintaining class-size limits means a larger pool of teachers with lower salaries. Engineering! It means that funds that might be devoted to advertising food, raising teacher salaries across the board or selectively in hard to fill positions or for highly effective teachers will be limited. By one estimate, an increase in average class size by 5 students would result in engineering ethically, an across the board increase of 34 percent in competitors, teacher salaries if all the savings were devoted to engineering, that purpose.[30] Higher salaries would likely draw more qualified people into the teaching profession, and keep them there.

In the current fiscal climate, it is clear that the Religions Model of The Seven Dimensions yearly increases in is genetic engineering, funding in real dollars that have long been enjoyed by our nations public schools are coming to an end for the foreseeable future. Many states and districts are contemplating cuts in funding that will require schools to make hard choices. So although the affiliation research literature has focused on the effect of ethically reducing class size, the current policy debate concerns the other side of the cointhe consequences of increasing the size of classes. The potential for wuthering heights cliff, negative consequences of larger classes clearly needs to be weighed against the fallout from cutting other programs in order to ethically right, preserve smaller classesboth academic programs and non-academic offerings such as athletics and the arts. Another important point is that the effect of topshop any increase in class size will depend on is genetic engineering, how such an increase is implemented. Food! Our earlier rough calculation indicated that a one-student increase in the pupil/teacher ratio in the U.S., which would save over $12 billion per year in salary costs alone, would decrease the ethically teaching workforce by Model of The Dimensions about 7 percent of the nations teachers. Many school districts and states across the nation are considering reductions in the teacher workforce on this order of is genetic right magnitude.

If the teachers to rak ceramics uk, be laid off were chosen in a way largely unrelated to their effectiveness, such as last in first out, then the associated increase in class size could well have a negative effect on student achievement. But if schools choose the least effective teachers to let go, then the effect of increased teacher quality could make up for some or all of any negative effect of increasing class size.[31] State resources for education should always be judiciously allocated, but the need to carefully weigh costs and benefits is particularly salient in times of austere budgets. Class-size reduction has been shown to work for some students in some grades in some states and is genetic ethically, countries, but its impact has been found to be mixed or not discernable in other settings and circumstances that seem similar. It is affiliation very expensive. Right! The costs and benefits of class-size mandates need to be carefully weighed against all of the alternatives when difficult budget and program decisions must be made. Jonah Rockoff, Field Experiments in Class Size from the Early Twentieth Century, Journal of World Model of The of Religion Essay Economic Perspectives , 23(4): 211230 (2009).

See, e.g, Eric A. Hanushek, The Failure of Input-Based Schooling Policies, Economic Journal , 113(485): F64F98 (2003) and Alan B. Krueger, Economic Considerations and Class Size, Economic Journal , 113(485): F34F63 (2003). Education Commission of the States, State Class-Size Reduction Measures, Denver, Colorado: Education Commission of the States (2005). Note that the pupil/teacher ratio is nearly always smaller than class size because it includes teachers in is genetic engineering ethically, specialized roles as well as regular classroom teachers. However, within states, pupil/teacher ratio and class size are highly correlated. We use pupil/teacher ratio here because it can be calculated from data reported by all U.S. school districts to competitors, the federal government, whereas class size cannot. Presently there are 3.2 million teachers serving 49.3 million students in the public schools, which corresponds to 15.3 students for every teacher. Decreasing the pupil/teacher ratio to 14.3 would require hiring 226,000 additional teachers, which at $55,000 per teacher would cost $12.4 billion/year in salary costs alone. These per-pupil cost estimates are very conservative compared to others in the literature that try to account for all costs of teachers, including fringe benefits and facilities. See, e.g., Douglas N. Harris, Toward Policy-Relevant Benchmarks for Interpreting Effect Sizes: Combining Effects With Costs, Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 31(1): 329 (2009).

Gene V. Glass and Mary Lee Smith. Meta-Analysis of Research on Class Size and Achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 1(1): 216 (1979). Alan B. Krueger, Experimental Estimates of Education Production Functions, Quarterly Journal of engineering ethically right Economics , 115(2): 497532 (1999). The average student gains 0.88 standard deviations per year from kindergarten through the food end of third grade (Carolyn J. Hill, Howard S. Bloom, Alison Rebeck Black, and Mark W. Lipsey, Empirical Benchmarks for Interpreting Effect Sizes in ethically, Research, Child Development Perspectives , 2(3): 172177 (2008)). The STAR effect size of 0.22 is competitors 25 percent of that, which corresponds to 2.5 months of a 10-month school year. Matthew M. Chingos, The False Promise of Class-Size Reduction, Center for American Progress (2011). Raj Chetty, John N. Friedman, Nathaniel Hilger, Emmanuel Saez, Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach, and Danny Yagan, How Does Your Kindergarten Classroom Affect Your Earnings? Evidence from ethically right Project STAR, NBER Working Paper No.

16381, September 2010. Steven G. Rivkin, Eric A. Hanushek, and John F. Kain, Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement, Econometrica , 73(2): 417458 (2005). Joshua D. Rak Ceramics Uk! Angrist and Victor Lavy, Using Maimonides Rule to Estimate the is genetic engineering right Effect of Class Size on Scholastic Achievement, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114(2): 533575 (1999). Christopher Jepsen and Steven Rivkin, Class Size Reduction and psychology, Student Achievement: The Potential Tradeoff between Teacher Quality and Class Size, Journal of right Human Resources , 44(1): 223250 (2009). David Sims, Crowding Peter to Educate Paul: Lessons from a Class Size Reduction Externality, Economics of Education Review , 28: 465473 (2009). David Sims, A Strategic Response to Class Size Reduction: Combination Classes and topshop, Student Achievement in California, Journal of Policy Analysis and is genetic ethically right, Management , 27(3): 457478 (2008). Ludger Woessmann and Martin West, Class-Size Effects in School Systems Around the World: Evidence from Between-Grade Variation in TIMSS, European Economic Review , 50(3): 695736 (2006).

Thomas S. Dee and Martin R. West, The Non-Cognitive Returns to Class Size, Education Evaluation and wuthering heights cliff, Policy Analysis (forthcoming). Caroline M. Hoxby, The Effects of Class Size on engineering, Student Achievement: New Evidence from Population Variation, Quarterly Journal of Economics , 115(4): 12391285 (2000). [25] 200910 Florida Education Finance Program, DOE Information Database Workshop, Summer 2009, available at http://www.fldoe.org/eias/databaseworkshop/ppt/fefp.ppt . [26] Matthew M. World Model Seven Of Religion Essay! Chingos, The Impact of a Universal Class-Size Reduction Policy: Evidence from Floridas Statewide Mandate, Harvard University, Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Paper. 10-03 (2010), available at right http://www.hks.harvard.edu/pepg/PDF/Papers/PEPG10-03_Chingos.pdf. [27] Douglas N. Harris, Toward Policy-Relevant Benchmarks for Interpreting Effect Sizes: Combining Effects With Costs, Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 31(1): 329 (2009). [28] Grover J. Whitehurst. Dont forget Curriculum, Brown Center Letters on Education, #3 . Rak Ceramics Uk! October 2009, Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. [29] Raj Chetty, John N. Friedman, Nathaniel Hilger, Emmanuel Saez, Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach, and Danny Yagan, How Does Your Kindergarten Classroom Affect Your Earnings? Evidence from Project STAR, NBER Working Paper No. 16381, September 2010.

[30] Matthew M. Chingos, The False Promise of is genetic engineering Class-Size Reduction, Center for American Progress (2011).

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