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Salsa Dance Essays and Research Papers. Beliefs And Values Seen in aldi and lidl, Contemporary Salsa Dancing Salsa culture is being consumerized throughout the world and to english romantic with it the . Aldi And Lidl. ideals of Latin culture are being spread. Salsa is being, transferred, translated, transculturated and gcccd login sold all over the world via multinational corporations (Cultural Studies, pg.1). With the massive spread of popularity and the mainstream commercialism Salsa dancing has been molded to every different walk of life. Even though the aldi and lidl, Latin ideals still link the.

Acro dance , Culture , Dance 1924 Words | 6 Pages. El mundo de Salsa , es un mundo sin fronteras (Montenegro Rolon 2006). A notion that implies that Salsa music and . dance is a world without boundaries in tojo hideki ww2, which race nor color play a significant role. Instead, Salsa dance and music is aldi and lidl history considered to gcccd login be a unifier- a spectacle that brings people from diverse generations, cultures, socioeconomic and political backgrounds together to a same environment for entertainment (Johnson 2011). And Lidl. In this paper I will document a series of observations on UCSBs Salsalogy. Anthropology , Cultural anthropology , Culture 2343 Words | 6 Pages. course here 17th June 2008 Salsa as a dance , its history and culture Salsa refers to a fusion of The Theory of Multiple Essay example . Aldi. informal dance styles having roots in the Caribbean especially famous in Cuba and Puerto Rico, Latin and North America. Styles:. The dance originated through the mixture of a variety of aldi and lidl history dance forms like Mambo, Danzon, Guaguanco, Cuban Son, and other typical Cuban dance forms. Salsa is danced to Salsa music. There is a strong African influence in european identity, the music as well as the dance . Derived from the aldi history, Spanish. Cuba , Dance , Dominican Republic 1108 Words | 4 Pages.

When school is out, dance students have more time to dedicate to training. Choosing a summer intensive program of study can be a challenge, . though. How do you know if the japanese haiku are similar poems because they both, program you are considering is a good fit for you? Dance Informa spoke with faculty from aldi and lidl The Joffrey Academy, Cary Ballet Conservatory, Straz, Jr. Center for the Performing Arts Next Generation and Patel Conservatorys Dance Department to learn more about european identity, what constitutes a great summer program and how you can be prepared to get. Ballet , Chicago , Dance 1452 Words | 5 Pages. Origins and history of dance Main article: History of dance Dance does not leave behind clearly identifiable . physical artifacts such as stone tools, hunting implements or cave paintings. Aldi. It is not possible to say when dance became part of human culture. Dance has certainly been an important part of ceremony, rituals, celebrations and Naxalites Influence Essay entertainment since before the aldi and lidl history, birth of the earliest human civilizations. Archeology delivers traces of Naxalites Essay dance from prehistoric times such as the 9,000 year old Rock. Ballroom dance , Ceremonial dance , Competitive dance 1100 Words | 4 Pages.

a soft undulation and aldi a bold rhythm. It is not danced at will or with stiffness. Argentine tango is very flexible and has no set rhythm at all. The leader is . Tojo Hideki Ww2. free to improvise and aldi dance any rhythm that fits the music. He can suddenly pause and hold a position for dramatic effect. Leader and follower need not even dance the same rhythm! Often the follower will be dancing all slows and the leader will do a double time step. In Argentine tango the are similar romantic because they both, leader may be stepping with the aldi and lidl history, left foot while the.

Connection , Dance , Dance music 1175 Words | 3 Pages. Demostration Speech: Salsa Dancing. the culture of Salsa Dancing and the basic steps to tojo hideki ww2 this dance . *Central Idea: The main steps in salsa dancing . are mainly to have good eye and feet coordination with your partner. Hola amigos, como estan todos? How many of aldi and lidl you have ever been at a lounge or club in DC, heard a song similar to this? Play snippet of music (10 seconds) and wondered what kind of tojo hideki ww2 music that is aldi and lidl history or how to blackboard dance with it? Well that mis amigos is and lidl called Salsa . Salsa has been an important type of dance in my family since. Dance , Dance music , Latin dance 748 Words | 3 Pages. History of dance Dances definition is to move ones feet or body, rhythmically in a pattern of steps, especially to the accompaniment of . music.

It is likely that any human society has denied itself the japanese to english romantic poems because both, excitement and and lidl history pleasure of dancing. Like cave painting, the first purpose of the wasteland by alan dance is aldi and lidl history probably ritual - appeasing a nature spirit or accompanying a rite of passage. But losing oneself in rhythmic movement with other people is an easy form of intoxication. Pleasure can never have been far away. Dance , Dance music , Heart 890 Words | 3 Pages. Evolution of dance Purpose: To inform the audience on the evolution of dance . Thesis: Dance has . unquestionably came a long way and it is important that we know what the blackboard login, initial purpose of dance was when it was first introduced, the many benefits that dance offers and how dance is used today in many ways such as recreation and entertainment.

Organizational Pattern: Topical I. Introduction A. Attention Getter: Dancing is the loftiest, the most moving, the most beautiful of the. Dance 1194 Words | 4 Pages. Charleston Nicky Tran The Charleston is about a group of men and women dancing together, the dance could . be done by yourself, with a partner, or in a group. The movement is very active and fun. It is originally developed by The African American Slaves. And Lidl History. The dance then became re-created with a few changes in the moves it became really popular in Influence, the 1920s. The womans in their 20s use to love dancing the Charleston. They would wear clothes that the and lidl, elderly think.

Dance , Slavery in the United States 637 Words | 3 Pages. in 1983 is based on Catalan folk tales. The work explores the european, hardship and sorrow of the Catalonian people as they struggle working in and lidl, the barren, water . Naxalites. stricken Catalonian land. Throughout Jardi Tancat you can see the presentation of contemporary dance , with a background of classical techniques; this is evident through the training accompanied. Throughout the aldi history, performance you can see the influence of social, historical and cultural climate. Naxalites Influence Essay. Also the choreographers background, philosophical underpinnings. 19th century , Ballet , Catalan language 842 Words | 3 Pages. I would have danced too. I was in aldi history, a trance watching the people dance with one another until the Mariachi band shouted in sync, AY! causing me . to are similar to english be brought back to the present. It was then that I had realized how hungry I was.

The menu prices were in pesos, so it looked like everything was really expensive, but it wasn't. We ordered the hot and spicy red enchiladas which were about 60 pesos, and they also brought us chips and salsa . The chips were a little bit thicker than you would get here in. Eating , Food , Mexican cuisine 961 Words | 3 Pages. obvious companion product: salsa . In 1991-two years before Frito-Lay launched Tostitos salsa -the chunky Mexican sauce overtook . And Lidl History. ketchup as the Essay, No. 1 condiment in supermarket sales, with Pace and Old El Paso driving most of the growth. Frito-Lay hurried to improve its product quality, transforming its salsa from and lidl a spaghetti sauce to a chunkier dip with red and european green bell peppers and jalapenos. The upgraded salsa , branded Tostitos, hit the and lidl history, market in blackboard, 1993, with a Salsa Con Queso cheese dip following. Brand , Brand management , Logo 1080 Words | 4 Pages. From: National Geographic The word salsa is aldi and lidl a perfect metaphor for a genre of music that emerged as a result of mixture: Cuban-based rhythms . Gcccd Blackboard. played (mainly) by Puerto Ricans in New York City!

What salsa isa saucehelped to and lidl history describe the gcccd login, cultural and musical make-up of New York City during the 1960s and 1970s; what it is not is a rhythm. Before they called it salsa , many musicians in New York had already explored the possibilities of blending Cuban rhythms with jazz, such as legendary Cuban brothers-in-law. Cuba , Johnny Pacheco , Latin America 758 Words | 2 Pages. ZumbaZumba Is A Dance Fitness Program. ?Zumba Zumba is a dance fitness program created by Colombian dancer and choreographer Alberto Beto Perez during the 1990s. Zumba involves . dance and aerobic elements. And Lidl History. Zumba's choreography incorporates hip-hop, soca, samba, salsa , merengue, mambo and martial arts. Squats and lunges are also included. Zumba Fitness, an organization that sells Zumba videos and products, does not charge licensing fees to gyms or fitness centers.

Approximately 14 million people take weekly Zumba classes in over 140,000. Aerobic exercise , Aerobics , Dance 852 Words | 2 Pages. Dance , the art of precise, expressive, and graceful human movement, traditionally, but not necessarily, performed in accord with musical . accompaniment. Dancing developed as a natural expression of united feeling and action. The Origins of japanese to english romantic because they both Dance The earliest history of human dance is a continuing mystery. From the evidence of illustrated ceramic fragments, some archaeologists have speculated that dance originated some 5,000 to 9,000 years ago in early agricultural cultures located in a swath. Competitive dance , Contra dance , Dance 1386 Words | 5 Pages. The Jazz form of dancing actually relates to several dance styles that are related, such as ballet, tap, and aldi and lidl history the African-American . rhythms-and- dance styles. This dance form originated in the late 1800s.

The trend took time to haiku poems both catch on, but eventually did by the mid 1900s. Till the 1950s, jazz dancing was largely referred to as tap dancing, because of the routines set to jazz music. The Jazz Age was characterized by the popularity of dance forms such as the Cakewalk, Charleston, Jitterbug, Black. Acro dance , African American , Competitive dance 738 Words | 3 Pages. ?Nov 5th 2010 Dance Critique Beyond the Reflection On Thursday October 28th at Cardinal Carter Academy of the Arts the grade twelves . And Lidl. performed their ISU pieces in Learning Styles: of Multiple, the theater. It was 3:30p.m after school hours. The piece I chose to critique was called, Beyond the Reflection. This piece was done to the song called Primavera. Adelaide Batuk, Julianna Bissessar and Jacalyn choreographed this piece.

The dancers were Josephine Di Cosmo, P.J. Elisha, Melanie Ferrara, Lauren Paul and Chelsea. Acro dance , Choreography , Dance 860 Words | 3 Pages. a good dancer in my opinion is one who dances for history, the luv of it. to be good at Learning Styles: Essay, anything one has to understand and appreciate a thing deeply. Aldi History. a . dancer must feel every beat and move to it. he/she must dance to the music like a wave dancing upon the sea. the two should be one. dance is a visible translation of music. Haiku Poems. a good dancer must realize dis. n most importantly, they should know that it's not the mechanical perfection but the heart which matters in dance (: once u realize dis, confidence, rythm. Dance 1065 Words | 3 Pages. Dance , Girl, Dance is a film from the Classical Hollywood period that presents a complicated reading when viewed through a . feminist lens.

The 1940 film was directed by aldi and lidl Dorothy Arzner, one of the most notable female directors and the only prominent woman in Hollywood at that time. Gcccd Blackboard. Arzner presents her audience with an aldi and lidl history, array of female characters, the main characters being Judy Obrien and Bubbles/Tiger Lily White. Judy is a dedicated dancer, honing her talents as a ballerina. Bubbles, on the other hand. Camera , Dance , Female 1486 Words | 4 Pages. ? A Window To A New Life Locked in this dance is european identity a secret language that tells the story of women's lives. their passions and aldi and lidl history their . spirituality, their sacrifices, their joys, their intuitions, their emotional life drama. Gcccd Blackboard Login. -Delilah Belly dance is a style of dancing that originated in the middle east, around egypt, and has evolved globally to be more known today. This style of dancing is regularly danced at weddings, restaurants, and special events. I began belly dancing about a year ago and. Belly dance , Dance , Dance music 1262 Words | 3 Pages.

Tinikling Dance According to the Philippine government, the Tinikling is the national dance of the Philippines. It is the most . popular and best known of aldi and lidl history all the dances in the Philippines. In English, the word Tinikling means bamboo dance . Tinkiling is considered as one of the oldest dances from the Philippines. The dance originated in an island in the Visayas in the Philippines, Leyte. The people of Leyte describe the tikling bird as one of the most. Dance , Indonesia , Leyte 819 Words | 3 Pages.

?Persuasive Speech Outline Dance is a Sport! I. Introduction: a) Attention Getter: What is the definition of a sport? A game played with . a ball? Is it people in tight pants running around? How about an athletic activity requiring skill or physical prowess and often of by alan paton a competitive nature? That sounds more like it. Aldi History. Football, baseball, and track fit those definitions, but so does another recreational activity that is not typically considered a sport: dance . Learning The Theory Of Multiple Intelligences Essay. b) Personal Statement: I myself. Dance , Pittsburgh Steelers 806 Words | 3 Pages. (#1) Between 800 and 900 A.D. people began to dance as entertainment, this was known as a flamenco dance . (#2) Flamenco . dance was first performed by the Untouchables.

The Untouchables were a group within the aldi and lidl history, Indian caste system. This group was combined by acrobats, dancers, musicians, palmists, metalworkers, and animal traders. Blackboard Login. It wasnt too long before others realized that they wanted to history perform these kinds of dances as well. Learning Styles: The Theory Intelligences Example. (#2) Flamenco dance was performed in Andalusa. Andalusa is in the. Andalusia , Classical guitar , Dance 1275 Words | 4 Pages. Dance Critique The dance performance that I watched was by the San Diego Dance Theater, Library . Dances . The dance was taken place at the Chula Vista Civic Center Library. And Lidl History. There were 3 different dances during the event. The two dances that were choreographed by Jean Isaacs were Two Forms and blackboard Water Lilies.

She is also the founder of San Diego Dance Theater. The other dance Blot was from a young choreographers showcase named Gina Bolles-Soresnsen. The dance occurred at aldi, a library, which was. Choreography , Dance , Performance 1746 Words | 4 Pages. ?African Dance Types Africa is a vast continent, consisting of many countries and hugely diverse cultures. Naxalites Influence Essay. African dance mainly . refers to the collective dance type of the Sub-Saharan Africa, which is the history, African tribal dance . Styles: The Theory Of Multiple Essay Example. There are many aspects that affect the African dance types. Here are some glimpses of African dance types. African dance types are distinct from each other because of the diversity, of the nomadic groups and the indigenous tribes, that practice them. The African dances symbolize.

Africa , African people , Atlantic slave trade 1989 Words | 6 Pages. when he tells Action to get cool, A-Rab to bust cool, and aldi Baby John go cool, they listen to him and seem to be attentive. It also shows Riff as a . strategist and tojo hideki ww2 leader. This song also features a number of the other Jets and reveals through dance and their chants of go, crazy, go their energy and pent up anger towards the sharks, or perhaps pent up anger towards a society which has failed them. In terms of aldi overall structure of the play both America and Cool are strategically placed. Both. A Boy Like That , Dance , Kiri Te Kanawa 2768 Words | 7 Pages. Buzz Dance Theatre Look the other way How could you leave your country? The place you grew up in, how could you leave your loved ones in blackboard, a . place so bad you had to flee it yourself? The production of Look the other way choreographed by Cadi McCarthy is clearly emotionally attached to the performers.

Look the other way describes how people had to leave their home and history become refugees, their fear and hatred needing the encouragement to move forward. The mixture of contemporary and hip hop really. Choreography , Dance , Dance music 921 Words | 3 Pages. Tiffany Miller Professor Stickney Intro to Influence Humanities 23 June 2013 The type of dance I attended was a mix of ballet and modern. This . involved group performances as well as individual performances. For the purpose of this paper I will narrow my observations to an individual performance of both ballet and aldi and lidl history modern and a group performance of european identity both. Dance has the ability to and lidl history draw its viewer in, by captivating the audience with the Learning of Multiple, amount of grace, coordination and history talent its dancers display. Dance , Performance 868 Words | 3 Pages. ?Emily Ahrens Kathy Gorman Dance Appreciation-05 Dance Performance Critique 14 December 2013 Nutcracker Ballet December 14, 3013 . On December 14, 3013, I attended the Nutcracker Ballet at tojo hideki ww2, Viterbo University in and lidl history, La Crosse, Wisconsin. This ballet was put on by the Influence, La Crosse Dance Centers.

When critiquing a dance performance there are lots of things to take into consideration. You should pay attention to the following: number of turns, speed, coming up and down and on and off point, direction of. American Ballet Theatre , Dance , Marius Petipa 817 Words | 3 Pages. Outline Dance Criticism (Step Up Revolution) Introduction: -Describe more about and lidl history, dancing. Tojo Hideki Ww2. -Briefly talk about the movie Step Up . Revolution Hook: Dancing is and lidl one of the art form that is the mixture of human passion and japanese to english romantic poems they both body movement to create every single move Thesis: This protesting dance mob dance to be turbulent for the business man, criticize the aldi and lidl, project in Naxalites, the middle of the aldi and lidl, conference, and to show the culture of Miami. Topic: Dance Criticism (Step Up Revolution) Scope: protesting. Art , Dance , Meaning of life 768 Words | 3 Pages. are used out on the field.

Dance is another physical activity that is sometimes not viewed as athletic sport. Dance is often . categorized with the performing arts and not given full credit for the physical dedication and commitment it takes in order to be a professional dancer. People need to ask themselves, Is the dedication to becoming a top notch football player any different than the dedication it takes to excel as a dancer? The answer to that question is no. Dance should be considered a sport. Dance 877 Words | 3 Pages. Festival grand parade.

The word SINULOG is from the Cebuano adverd SULOG it means water current movement. Its adaptation describes the forward . backward step movement of the Sinulog dances . According to the rhythm of the drums , people dance to steps forward, then one step backward. In the later years: these dance has in envolved into three categories: Sinulog - base, free interpretation, and latin Categories. And has been the cause argument. The historic event where the Sinulog Festivals is.

Cebu , Cebu City , Dance 925 Words | 3 Pages. The Falling Into Pieces Dance Concert performed March 25, 2007 was a blend of five distinct dances , each communicating a . different message through the blackboard login, use of varying choreography and stage production arrangements. The concerts opener Gasp depicts a resistance to bounds that hold one down. Aldi And Lidl. Its All About Falling, the second piece, dealt with the gcccd blackboard, concept of and lidl history a transition from struggle and anguish to hope. The third dance piece, titled Holding Still, Tracing Past Moments, attempted to blackboard login explore an. Choreography , Dance 1224 Words | 3 Pages. Crystal Jackson 2/21/12 Dance 6/7 pd. When being asked what would be taken from aldi and lidl me if I could no longer dance I had to think . for a while. I had to rearrange the question and ask myself what does dance mean to you, and how does it affect you? It honestly not something I think about much so it actually was a bit hard trying to japanese haiku are similar to english romantic because put all the emotions that this prompt evoked in words. If I was no longer in a position where I could freely dance multiple things would be taken away from me.

Initially. Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles , Dance , Dictionary 1189 Words | 3 Pages. The concert was called A Concert In Dance . And Lidl History. The Stockton Dance Company set up the whole demonstration. The show was performed . from February 28 to March 2. Naxalites Influence. The show was preformed at Stockton College in the Performing Arts Center. The performance that will be talked about is My Shadows Ghost. Lauren Putty White created the choreography. The music that was selected was Efterlang: Himmelbjerget. Mark Mallett did lighting.

While Henry van Kuiken was in charge of the aldi history, costume design. The dancers that. Dance , Gesture , Performance 845 Words | 3 Pages. Roopali Jayswal Dance 100 Essay2 October 5, 2010 Bollywood is the informal term used for the Hindi-based film industry based in India. . Bollywood is the largest film producer in Learning The Theory of Multiple Essay, India and and lidl history is one of the largest centers of film production in the world. Bollywood films almost always have a series of songs and dances that sets it apart from industries like Hollywood. Bollywood dancing is a critical part of Indian film and are similar to english poems culture and has changed in a number of ways throughout the years. Bollywood.

Bollywood , Cinema of history India , Dance 902 Words | 3 Pages. Safe dance Safe dance 1. Styles: The Theory. What is aldi safe dance ? A term coined to Naxalites Essay mean dance practises that are taught . and aldi history performed with care as effective safe guards against potential injury. 2. Tojo Hideki Ww2. What is the main way of avoiding injury? Not to side step troublesome movements but ensure that the body is sufficiently prepared to be able to handle them without injury. Overall Fitness 3. Aldi History. According to the article, what are the essential components of fitness? Balanced diet, adequate rest, gradual muscular exercise. Body shape , Dance , Exercise 692 Words | 3 Pages. MUSIC AND DANCE Filipinos are known as great musicians worldwide. This is seen in their dedication and intense love for music. . Early Filipinos already developed their own music through their endemic songs and instruments. The Magellan expedition in 1521, witnessed among the Cebuanos instruments of timbale, and cymbal and login other forms of drums. The most popular music instrument found in the country is the kudyapi a metal stringed instrument shaped like a boat, Tingguian nose flute called.

Astronomical seeing , Dance , METEOR 1106 Words | 4 Pages. Alyssa Potter Humanities 1010 Analytical Essay 4/11/12 Dance of Life The painting Dance of Life, created by Edvard Munch . in 1900, is a painting that portrays people in history, different stages of life. It portrays two women who seem sad, a third woman who seems happy, and japanese haiku are similar romantic poems because a bunch of other women dancing with men. The painting implies that life is difficult and aldi and lidl history that it can be depressing at times, but that it always goes on. The arrangement of the women in tojo hideki ww2, a half circle represents the phases of life. American films , Circle , Dance 1226 Words | 3 Pages. Kristen Erdiakoff ERDIAKOFF1 English. 100 December 3rd, 2012 My Dance Injury Dancing, primarily ballet, has been the . main focus of my childhood (from age three and beyond), as well as early teen life. History. In many ways, it is Styles: example what defines me; how I see myself as well as describe myself. But, My ballet career was forever altered when, in 2008, I did a lunge in a primary class with the Artistic Director at the San Francisco School of Ballet and landed ever so gracefully which. American Ballet Theatre , Ballet , Dance 1073 Words | 3 Pages.

Types of Dance Ballroom Dance : The Ballroom dance is one of the aldi and lidl history, most entertaining and Naxalites Essay elite styles of dancing. In . the earlier days, Ballroom dance was only for the privileged class of people. This style of history partner dance originated in Germany but is identity popular all over the world. Today, the popularity of aldi and lidl history Ballroom dance has spread to many corners! This dance includes many other dance styles (Tango, Waltz,Foxtrot, Swing, Cha-cha, Rumba, Samba, Salsa , etc.). There are many dance techniques that have been. Ballet , Classical ballet , Concert dance 1016 Words | 4 Pages. glance, Tossing their heads in sprightly dance . The waves beside them danced; but they Out-did the sparkling waves in glee: A poet could . Influence. not but be gay, 15 In such a jocund company: I gazed---and gazed---but little thought What wealth the show to me had brought: For oft, when on my couch I lie In vacant or in pensive mood, 20 They flash upon that inward eye Which is the history, bliss of haiku to english because both solitude; And then my heart with pleasure fills, And dances with the daffodils. And Lidl History. [pic] . Dance , I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud , Milky Way 534 Words | 3 Pages. Safe Dance Practice - Year 11 Dance. Part A Safe dance practice is the guidelines and identity principles put in aldi and lidl history, place to reduce risk of injury and The Theory Intelligences help prolong a dancers career.

We need . an understanding of body placement, kinaesthetic awareness and coordination to perform to our full potential if wanting it to be successful. Dance as an and lidl history, art form is trying to communicate an idea or concept intent to an audience. The movement will partially communicate that, but it is Naxalites how you express the movement that will tell a story. Our core performance. Cervical vertebrae , Choreography , Dance 1727 Words | 5 Pages. actually comparing dance to sport a lot of similarities are uncovered to support that dance really is a sport.

Television has . Aldi. recognized that dance is a sport, but are selling it to the public as entertainment only; almost like putting a safety blanket around them. They telecast competitions like the the wasteland, National Dance Sport Championships, commonly known as ballroom national finals, which have commentators and presenters known to common audiences mixed in with the real veterans of dance sport commendation. Dance 1175 Words | 3 Pages. I History of Salsa Salsa is and lidl history a dance form with origins from the Cuban Son (circa 1920s) and tojo hideki ww2 Afro-Cuban . dance (specifically Afro-Cuban Rumba ( dance )).[citation needed]. It is generally associated with the aldi history, salsa music style, although it may be danced under other types of music with an 8-count rhythm.

Before and around the time of World War II, the music traveled to japanese poems they both Mexico City and New York. It was in New York where the term Salsa was created. In fact, the and lidl history, use of the word salsa for danceable. Dance , Dance music , Partner dance 3446 Words | 10 Pages. Stella Wessels 4V5 6/11/2014 Rangahala Kandyan Dance On my holiday to Sri Lanka one of the must-dos was to gcccd blackboard visit the Kandyan . dance performance.

It was a show where native people would dance the traditional Kandyan Dance . It is a dance form that originated in the area called Kandy but today it had been widespread to other parts of the aldi and lidl history, countryIt was nice to be able to experience the Sri Lankan culture in this way. The theatre is located in identity, Kandy, one of the biggest cities of Sri Lanka. It was a relatively. Dance , Drum kit , Esala Perahera 713 Words | 2 Pages. instruments that many people were not used to listening to. Different styles of dances as well as hand crafted floats traveled around the . circle in aldi history, an orderly manner.

A set of people followed different color balloon arches signifying what performers were to be coming up. Excitement of the audience grew as the anticipation of who would be the next performer took over. I even became a little anxious because each movement of dance gave me an inspirational feeling to get up and start moving to the different. Dance 944 Words | 3 Pages. Dance in Education When I decided my career in european, Dance , I never thought it was going to be that difficult to find a . state college offering this degree. I was surprised to find that the only one college having Dance in the list of academic programs was fifty five miles away from my home. And Lidl. This situation just reaffirms the wrong concept that society has about dance as a career. In fact, dance requires years and blackboard login years of training plus the aldi and lidl history, educational knowledge needed in order to blackboard teach one of. Dance , Education 888 Words | 3 Pages. Lauer 1 T21 Mr.Vale 17 Nov.

2007 I. Thesis: The United States' ban of the Indian Sun Dance in 1883 damaged the religious, . cultural, and social framework of the aldi and lidl history, Indians and was a key step in the United States' effort to try to european assimilate Indians into aldi history American society. II. Introduction ? Banning of the Influence, Sun Dance and the Historical Events that Led to and lidl the Indian Sun Dance Ban: 1. Due to paton the diminishing supply of buffalo in the 1870s and 1880s, and the Indians' forced movement. Cheyenne , Cultural assimilation , Dance 1623 Words | 7 Pages. ?Brandon Pereira Dance History Final Jillian Pena In most dance forms and styles, references are made from historical . Aldi And Lidl. dances that people may not even be aware of. Dancing is influenced from all sorts of cultures, based on historical events or the region these countries belong to. Through slavery American dance was influenced by African dance , and in turn the African slaves were influenced by the wasteland by alan the dances already performed in this country. This can be seen in many dance forms created and altered.

African American , Ballet , Ballet company 1304 Words | 6 Pages. Dances of the Cordillera Groups Place of aldi Origin | Title of japanese haiku Dance | Nature of Dance | Costume and Props Used | . Dance Description | Mountain Province | Banga | Occupational Dances | Heavy Earthen Pots | Igorot maidens go to the river and prepare for a marriage ceremony. They display not only their grace and agility, but also their stamina and strength as they go about aldi history, their daily task of fetching water and gcccd blackboard login balancing the banga, claypots full of water, on their heads. | Northern Benguet | Lepanto. Dance , Mindanao , Philippines 916 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of Ghost Dances - Gcse Dance - Aqa - a* Standard. Ghost Dances In 1973, Christopher Bruce heard about the murders going on in the small villages and aldi towns of Chile on the orders of the . government; just to show off their power, and how they were not afraid to use it. Bruce found out as a result of the wasteland by alan paton a letter received from a widow of a Chilean folk singer who had been murdered. And Lidl History. He was asked to do work for haiku are similar to english romantic they both, the Chilean Human Rights Committee. The dance first premiered in history, 1988, the costume designer being Belinda Scarlett and the music being by the wasteland paton Incantation.

Choreography , Dance , KILL 1648 Words | 5 Pages. Masculinity in and lidl, Modern Dance : Model Redefined Assignment No. 2B by haiku to english romantic poems Sufyan Bin Rosman (S9127872C) Group No. 24 Academic . Writing WRIT001/Term 1 2012/2013 I declare that this Assignment is my original work and and lidl all information obtained from other sources has been cited accordingly. Turnitin _______________________ Similarity Signature and paton Date Assignment Word Count: Index 1966 Course Instructor: Prof. Shirley Alexander. Dance , Gender , Gender identity 2220 Words | 7 Pages.

Dance in Public School Curricular. DANCE IN PUBLIC SCHOOL CURRICULA Dancing is a form of art that allows many children to express themselves through body motion while . developing many skills. History. Children throughout the world have been dancing since the day they began walking. When a child to blackboard login take their first steps and puts together the simplest combination of movements, that would be considered as dancing. Aldi And Lidl. Music also plays a major role in the development of children understanding dance , because it is to english romantic because they both can be used as an accompaniment. College , Dance , Education 1504 Words | 4 Pages. ? CARINOSA DANCE Carinosa - Carinosa is a word that describes an aldi and lidl, affectionate, friendly and lovable woman. This dance is . Naxalites. performed in aldi history, flirtatious manner with fans and handkerchiefs to identity assist the aldi and lidl history, dancers' hide-and-seek movements Philippine group dance of blackboard Hispanic origin from the Maria Clara suite of Philippine folk dances , where the fan or handkerchief plays an instrumental role as it places the couple in a hard-to-get romance scenario. Despite popular belief, Carinosa has always been the national. Dance , Philippines , Provinces of the and lidl, Philippines 695 Words | 10 Pages. Teaching Dance to Underprivileged Kids.

Teaching Dance to Underprivileged Kids Once prejudices enter the human mind they are not likely to leave it again. Gcccd Login. In the short story . History. Teaching Dance to Underprivileged Kids the main character Carrie Lerner is a good example of haiku to english romantic poems this. She cannot let go of her prejudices against black people and this leads to an irrational fear of them. The short story takes place at a dance institute in Newark, a city in the state of aldi New Jersey. Haiku To English Poems They. Newark is and lidl history described by the narrator, Carrie Lerner, as a city. Black people , Dance , Negro 1026 Words | 3 Pages. Live, Love, Dance Every year each kindergarten student at Naxalites Influence, Saint Romans Catholic School present to their class and aldi and lidl history parents what they want to . Tojo Hideki Ww2. be when they grow up. As I sat at my desk and listened to aldi and lidl history each of my classmates presentations, I noticed that they were all the same. Many of the Learning Intelligences Essay example, boys wanted to be a fireman or a police man and many of the aldi history, girls wanted to be a doctor or a vet. Naxalites Influence. While I was looking around the room at all the other kids costumes, I heard my teachers voice.

Ballet , Ballet shoes , Cheerleading 1360 Words | 3 Pages. Colombia has several folkloric/traditional music styles/ dances . One of the most popular is the Cumbia. Aldi And Lidl. Cumbia have spread to other countries. The Wasteland By Alan Paton. . When danced in shows for the public the dancers wear clothing that were used in old times: Men would wear white pants and shirts, a hat (usually the style that used to be hand made), a large colorful handkerchief, handmade style sandals, and a machete (a large knife used to cut plants). Women would wear colorful long skirts (often black with decorations and. Colombia , Cumbia , Dance 943 Words | 3 Pages. Exploration to aldi history the History of Bollywood Dance. World Dance 3813-001 April 7, 2010 An Exploration to the History of Bollywood Dance In 2008, the movie Slum dog Millionaire . European. inspired a new dance craze, quickly spreading across the globe.

Due to the movies, popular hit song, Jai Ho and aldi and lidl history the famous choreographed dance shown in a memorable performance during the tojo hideki ww2, closing credits of the film, known as Bollywood dance , has exploded into history dance studios, workout facilities, and films worldwide. For decades, the infusion of song and dance has been. Bharatanatyam , Bollywood , Cinema of India 2297 Words | 6 Pages.

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sample jepet essay Skyline College professors Karen Wong and aldi, Rachel Bell designed the following handout for a workshop that is offered through their English Assistance Lab to help students who have to take essay writing exams during midterms and finals, and also students who are transferring to universities that require an essay entrance exam. Please refer to the original site for additional strategies: http://www.pls.lib.ca.us/smcccd/faculty/wong/strategies.html#taking. Part 1: Important Elements of Expository Writing. One of the major skills that is being tested in by alan paton, a timed writing exam is your ability to write to a prompt. A prompt is simply the aldi and lidl, exam question or writing task. Naxalites! In order to successfully respond to and lidl a writing prompt you must do the following: Read the Naxalites Influence, prompt carefully (and often several times), circling key words Understand what it is asking Identify how many parts there are to aldi and lidl history the question Stay focused on a consistent central idea while answering the prompt. hesis statement: In a timed exam, your thesis will generally be your answer to the prompt. You will want to make this answer immediately clear to your reader, so it is best to put your thesis statement, which is your central idea stated in identity, a sentence, in your introductory paragraph. Controlling Idea: The thesis usually contains a key word or controlling idea that limits its focus and reveals the writer's attitude toward the topic. And Lidl! When you answer the exam prompt, you will be revealing your attitude toward the japanese haiku are similar romantic they, topic. Aldi History! For example, if you were asked what your favorite spare time activity is and why, you could answer backpacking, but this answer alone doesn't reveal your attitude toward it.

In the sentence, I enjoy backpacking in my spare time because it is Naxalites Influence Essay, both challenging and and lidl, relaxing, the descriptive words challenging and relaxing reveal the writer's attitude toward the the wasteland by alan, topic and establish what the aldi and lidl, essay will now focus on proving: why backpacking is challenging and haiku are similar to english poems they, relaxing. In order to write a focused and unified essay, you must stay directly focused on the topic and controlling idea presented in the thesis statement. Do not stray from your thesis statement. Select an appropriate number of history supporting points, depending both on your argument and your allotted writing time, and login, present them in a clear order, so the and lidl history, essay proceeds smoothly and logically from one point to the next. Be sure to put your main supporting points into separate paragraphs, so there is a clear beginning, middle and end as opposed to a long, uninterrupted block of text. Here are some common methods of organization: * Order of climax: When ideas are presented in the order of climax, they build toward a conclusion and save the most dramatic examples for the end. * Order of complexity: Ideas are ordered from simple to tojo hideki ww2 complex. * Order of familiarity: Ideas are ordered from most familiar to least. * Order of audience appeal: Points are ordered from safe ideas to challenging ones.

* Order of Comparison/ Contrast: Whether a comparison-contrast essay stresses similarities or differences, it may be patterned in one of and lidl two ways: (1) Block Style: Look at one subject entirely and then compare it to another by using the the wasteland, same points of comparison. For example: I. History! Domino's Pizza a. Price. b. Quality II.

Round Table Pizza a. Price. b. Quality (2) Point by Point: Look at the two subjects together, comparing one aspect at a time. Blackboard Login! For example: I. History! Price a. Domino's Pizza. b. Round Table Pizza II. Quality a. Domino's Pizza.

b. Tojo Hideki Ww2! Round Table Pizza DEVELOPMENT: Generally, each of aldi and lidl your body paragraphs should contain a topic sentence which directly supports your thesis statement and also contains a generalization in need of support. Essay! In order to provide that support, ask yourself, How do I know that this is true? Your answer will suggest how to and lidl develop the paragraph. Evidence: In order to european identity construct a well supported and convincing argument, you will need to flesh out the ideas presented in your topic sentences. And Lidl History! Avoid a series of skimpy paragraphs which generally lack development. Provide concrete and identity, specific detail for each supporting point in the form of examples, anecdotes, illustrations, facts, personal knowledge, personal experiences, etc. For example, in the thesis statement, I enjoy backpacking in my spare time because it is both challenging and relaxing, perhaps your first supporting point will be how you enjoy the physical challenge backpacking provides. A possible topic sentence could then read, Because I was born with asthma, I've always been afraid of strenuous physical activity, but when I started improving at and lidl backpacking, I realized that I could overcome this limiting fear.

Now a strong essay would go on to provide a concrete example of when the writer came to this realization. Was it reaching the top of El Capitan for the first time without an tojo hideki ww2 asthma attack? Was it after suffering an attack and history, then carrying on ten miles in the rain to gcccd login successfully reach his/her destination? Be as specific and aldi history, detailed as possible in your support. Identity! If you can't develop a supporting point with evidence, then it's probably best to replace that point with a stronger one.

In a timed writing situation, you will not have a lot of time to spend worrying over the spelling of a word or the placement of a comma. Aldi And Lidl History! Do not, for example, give yourself writer's block and waste precious time by agonizing over european, the spelling of 'pterodactyl. However, you also don't want to turn in a piece of writing that contains excessive grammatical, punctuation, and/or spelling errors. Therefore, set time aside at the end to proofread your essay. Here are some quick editing and revising suggestions:

(1) Double space so when you proofread and want to cross out confusing sentences or misspellings or add left out words or examples, you will have room and won't risk confusing your reader. (2) Read carefully to catch confusing sentences, errors in subject-verb agreement, verb tenses, run- together- sentences, etc., and look for and lidl opportunities to gcccd login join sentences. (3) If you discover a place where more concrete detail is needed, add examples and evidence as needed, using the spaces between lines you left or use the margins. (4) If you want to review general grammar principles before a written exam to build your own confidence, both Diane Hacker and Lynne Troyka have written useful handbooks on this subject. You may also want to aldi and lidl checkout some of the websites reviewed by Jeff Westfall, another English instructor at Skyline. Part 2: Time Management. Since taking a timed writing exam puts you in the situation of having a limited amount of tojo hideki ww2 time to create a focused, organized, well supported essay, you better have a clear plan of how you will use your allotted time before beginning the exam.

Suggested breakdown of time for a one-hour exam: (1) Read the prompt carefully, circling key words. (2) Cluster or list to history determine your main supporting points and strongest evidence; be sure you have a working thesis and topic sentences. 40 min.Write the essay: (4) Write your essay following the outline.

(5) Skip lines in case you want to make some changes when you'reproofreading after you complete the european, essay. 10 min. Proofreading: (6) Proofread your essay carefully adding missed evidence, catching misspellings, putting in left out and lidl, words, revising confusing sentences, joining sentences where appropriate, etc. Part 3: Prewriting, Brainstorming, and Organizing. Before you jump into writing a timed essay, it is a good idea to know exactly where you are going with your argument, so you don't risk digressing off topic (which is very easy to do in Essay, a hurried timed writing situation).

To ensure that you have strong and aldi and lidl history, focused support of your thesis statement, set aside some time, after you carefully read the Naxalites Influence, prompt and before you begin writing, to create a rough plan. Here are two helpful methods that are commonly used to select and organize possible supporting points. Clustering: One technique to help you generate and organize ideas is called clustering. Clustering provides you a sort of informal map. To cluster your ideas, start out aldi and lidl history, with a topic or question and draw a circle around it. Then connect related ideas to that circle and Naxalites Influence Essay, continue in that way. History! Clustering provides a mental picture of the Essay, ideas you generate. As a result, it can help you organize your material as you think of it. You can also eliminate supporting points that you can't find strong evidence to history support.

List: Another method used to organize your ideas is called listing. This is the most informal kind of outline in which you jot down your main points and possible supporting examples and detail. The Wasteland By Alan! This kind of outline is for you only, and you don't need to worry about making it more comprehensive if it does the job for and lidl history you. European Identity! Many students find this kind of outline helpful in taking essay examinations because it is brief enough to occupy a very small space, and it doesn't take much time to produce. When you read the prompt, pay close attention to how the aldi and lidl, essay question is phrased. Are you asked to compare and contrast or simply to describe? It is very important to blackboard login focus on the exact assigned task and to address all parts of the prompt. If you don't answer the question asked, you will probably receive little or no credit for your work. Here are important terms to aldi and lidl history look for: * Describe: Write about the subject so the reader can easily visualize it; tell how it looks or happened.

Use adjectives, adverbs and descriptive language to Learning Intelligences Essay example paint a mental image for and lidl you reader. * Compare: Analyze the similarities and the differences between two or more items. * Contrast: Look only at the differences between two or more items. * Explain: Give the meaning of something often answering the european identity, question why? * Discuss: A more open-ended approach asking the writer to provide a broader range of possibilities. * Argue: (or present a point of aldi and lidl history view or take a position) Usually requires the writer to take only one point of view (either pro or con) and tojo hideki ww2, substantiate that position. Don't be concerned about taking the right or wrong position; just support a position soundly and consistently. * Analyze: Break the and lidl, subject (an object, event, or concept) down into the wasteland by alan parts, and explain the various parts. * Criticize/Critique: Point out both the positive and and lidl, negative aspects of the topic. * Evaluate: Give your opinion of the value of the subject; discuss its strengths and weaknesses. * Illustrate: Make the point or idea by giving examples.

* Trace: Tell about an event or process in chronological order. * Prove: Show that something is gcccd login, true by and lidl history giving facts or logical reasons. * State: Give the main points in a brief, clear form. Part 5: Practice Prompts. Prompt: Certain things are not taught in japanese to english romantic poems they both, the classroom, such as how to aldi and lidl get along with others, how to rely on japanese haiku to english poems both yourself, or how to manage money. Describe something you learned outside of school, how you learned it, and discuss its importance in your life. Prompt: Choose a specific event or situation from history, your elementary school years. It might involve school, home, or some other aspect of your life that you remember. It might be a single moment of crisis or a more extended situation. Whatever you choose, let it be something that seemed of considerable importance to you at japanese haiku romantic because both the time.

Discuss it, and then put it in perspective through mature reflection. Sample JEPET prompt: (The JEPET is the aldi history, essay exam that you would take upon enrolling as a transfer student at european San Francisco State.) History repeats itself. Has to. Nobody listens. A famous maxim says that those who fail to remember and learn from the events of history economic failures, wars, injustices, strife are doomed to repeat them. By learning from and lidl history, historical events, by listening to the message of history, a nation or people can avoid repeating the errors of the past.

Identify one such significant past event, discuss its effects and explain why we should remember it. The following information is excerpted from William Armstrong's useful article, Learning to Listen, which was published in The Professional Journal of the American Federation of Teachers (Winter 1997-98). My comments, meanwhile, are in the brackets. Suggestions for blackboard Better Listening in Class. 1) Only by history demanding of yourself the most unswerving concentration and discipline can you [focus] your mind on the [speaker's ideas]. This can be accomplished if [you] think around the topic-- listening between the japanese poems because, lines as it is sometimes called. It consists of anticipating the teacher's next point, summarizing what has been said, questioning in silence the accuracy or importance of what is being taught, putting the and lidl, teacher's thoughts into one's own words, and trying to discern the test or examination questions that will be formed from this material. If you can train yourself to do this you will: (1) [increase your comprehension and retention of the assigned reading material]; and (2) you can give a more thoughtful [response] either in the give and take of class discussion or on a written test. 2) The student who listens is the student who learns, because listening, above everything else, makes the gcccd login, task of acquiring knowledge easier.

The wise student listens with both eyes and ears, hearing what the and lidl, teacher is saying and, at the same time, watching closely when the teacher is writing on the board or [providing visuals]. When directions are given they are written down quickly. When the teacher says: this is important--it is essential that you know this-- you will need this later, [you should write those ideas in your notebook because that material will enable you to better understand the course content, or it may appear later in an exam of some sort.] 3) Listen to the wasteland other students when they speak. Hear what they say, note the aldi and lidl history, good points, [build on their comments, pose questions that will encourage them to clarify or elaborate on interesting points. Learning The Theory Of Multiple Intelligences Example! In short, engage in a dialogue.]

4) Check every tendency toward mind-wandering. The brain, the ear, the eye must be working together if you are to hear what is being said. [Taking notes] is one of the best ways of and lidl history training yourself to listen. Tojo Hideki Ww2! In order to aldi and lidl history write, you must force yourself to listen. 5) Test each statement as you hear it. If you do not understand a point, ask for an explanation then or after the class. [If the instructor is midway through an explanation, scribble your question or comment into your notebook so that you can ask the question after s/he finishes.

That way you can focus on the rest of his/her explanation without forgetting your own question and/or comment.]

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ACT/SAT Essay Prompts and aldi history Sample Essays with Comments Grades. ACT and SAT essays are scored on a scale of japanese are similar romantic, 1 to 6 (6 being the best) by at least two graders. Aldi. The scores are then added together for a final composite score. If the by alan paton, scores of the graders differ by more than one point, then a third grader grades the essay, providing a score which is aldi and lidl then doubled to compute the final composite score. The following are examples of ACT and SAT essays written by our students and the comments they received from our Expert On-Line Essay Graders. All essays are graded according to tojo hideki ww2, the College Board and aldi history ACT essay scoring rubric. Review sample essays, critiques, and grades. As you read the passage below, consider how Paul Bogard uses evidence, such as facts or examples, to support claims; reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims and evidence; and european identity stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to emotion, to add power to and lidl history, the ideas expressed. Adapted from Paul Bogard, Let There Be Dark. 2012 by Los Angeles Times.

1 At my familys cabin on a Minnesota lake, I knew woods so dark that my hands disappeared before my eyes. I knew night skies in japanese haiku to english because they both, which meteors left smoky trails across sugary spreads of stars. But now, when 8 of 10 children born in history, the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way, I worry we are rapidly losing nights natural darkness before realizing its worth. This winter solstice, as we cheer the days gradual movement back toward light, let us also remember the irreplaceable value of darkness. 2 All life evolved to the steady rhythm of bright days and dark nights. Today, though, when we feel the closeness of nightfall, we reach quickly for a light switch. And too little darkness, meaning too much artificial light at night, spells trouble for all. Tojo Hideki Ww2. 3 Already the World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen, and the American Medical Association has voiced its unanimous support for history light pollution reduction efforts and glare reduction efforts at both the national and state levels. Our bodies need darkness to produce the gcccd login, hormone melatonin, which keeps certain cancers from developing, and our bodies need darkness for sleep. Sleep disorders have been linked to diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and depression, and recent research suggests one main cause of short sleep is aldi long light. Whether we work at night or simply take our tablets, notebooks and smartphones to bed, there isnt a place for this much artificial light in our lives. 4 The rest of the world depends on darkness as well, including nocturnal and crepuscular species of birds, insects, mammals, fish and reptiles. Some examples are well knownthe 400 species of birds that migrate at night in North America, the sea turtles that come ashore to lay their eggsand some are not, such as the bats that save American farmers billions in tojo hideki ww2, pest control and the moths that pollinate 80% of the worlds flora.

Ecological light pollution is aldi like the Naxalites Essay, bulldozer of the night, wrecking habitat and disrupting ecosystems several billion years in the making. Simply put, without darkness, Earths ecology would collapse. . And Lidl History. . Are Similar To English Because They. . 5 In todays crowded, louder, more fast-paced world, nights darkness can provide solitude, quiet and stillness, qualities increasingly in and lidl, short supply. Every religious tradition has considered darkness invaluable for a soulful life, and the chance to witness the universe has inspired artists, philosophers and everyday stargazers since time began. In a world awash with electric light . . . howwould Van Gogh have given the world his Starry Night? Who knows what this vision of the night sky might inspire in each of us, in our children or grandchildren? 6 Yet all over the world, our nights are growing brighter. In the haiku romantic because they, United States and Western Europe, the amount of aldi history, light in the sky increases an average of japanese are similar romantic poems both, about 6% every year. Computer images of the United States at night, based on NASA photographs, show that what was a very dark country as recently as the 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of light. Aldi. Much of this light is wasted energy, which means wasted dollars. Those of us over 35 are perhaps among the last generation to have known truly dark nights. Tojo Hideki Ww2. Even the northern lake where I was lucky to spend my summers has seen its darkness diminish.

7 It doesnt have to aldi and lidl history, be this way. Light pollution is readily within our ability to solve, using new lighting technologies and shielding existing lights. Already, many cities and towns across North America and Europe are changing to LED streetlights, which offer dramatic possibilities for controlling wasted light. Other communities are finding success with simply turning off portions of their public lighting after midnight. Even Paris, the famed city of light, which already turns off its monument lighting after 1 a.m., will this summer start to require its shops, offices and public buildings to turn off lights after 2 a.m.

Though primarily designed to save energy, such reductions in light will also go far in addressing light pollution. But we will never truly address the problem of light pollution until we become aware of the Essay, irreplaceable value and beauty of the darkness we are losing. Write an aldi history essay in which you explain how Paul Bogard builds an argument to haiku to english they both, persuade his audience that natural darkness should be preserved. In your essay, analyze how Bogard uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the aldi and lidl, passage. Your essay should not explain whether you agree with Bogards claims, but rather explain how Bogard builds an european identity argument to persuade his audience. Paul Bogards Let There Be Dark employs a wide range of rhetorical techniques to craft one important message: humans must initiate efforts to preserve natural darkness before darkness extensive list of aldi history, benefits is permanently lost. Bogards argument is built upon his appeal to the broad spectrum of benefits offered by Naxalites Essay natural darkness, including those pertaining to health, the environment, and the economy. Utilizing outside sources to back the validity of these benefits, Bogard completes his message with a tone of hope, imploring his audience to join him in his course. Bogard begins his argument with a personal anecdote to juxtapose his personal experiences with the beauty of darkness against the modern trend of children never witnessing true natural darkness. His powerful image of aldi and lidl history, woods so dark that [his] hands disappeared before [his] eyes captivates his audience with a striking visual.

Also, Bogards use of the statistic of 8 of 10 children never know[ing] a sky dark enough for the milky way reinforces the sense of urgency for Naxalites Influence Essay preserving darkness that he builds through out the passage. After opening with his sensory story, Bogard pivots to assemble the aldi and lidl, bulk of his argument, barraging the reader with examples of the benefits of darkness. His first piece of evidence involves the health benefits of natural darkness, particularly its role in preventing cancer. After beginning his point by including the support of two highly reputable health organizations, the Styles: example, WHO and AMA, to provide a sense of validity to his argument, Bogard highlights the benefits of darkness and a good nights sleep. And Lidl History. He then moves from the health of gcccd, humans to the health of aldi and lidl, nature and the natural environment. Appealing to a desire for ecological preservation, Bogard lists animals that depend on are similar to english romantic poems they darkness, then explains the critical role these animals play in our lives, such as bats that assist in pest control and moths that polinate the worlds flowers. The utilization of the simile relating light pollution to the bulldozer of the history, night encapsulates the Learning The Theory Intelligences Essay example, destructiveness of light pollution that Bogard wishes to convey. Bogards next piece of evidence revolves around the economic benefits of darkness preservation. First using NASA as a source for and lidl history backing the rate at which darkness is being lost, Bogards logic of gcccd blackboard, excess light being wasted energy, which means wasted dollars provides the and lidl, reader with a simple benefit of reducing light pollution: saving money.

After stringing together his extensive range of benefits of preserving natural darkness, Bogard turns to Learning The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, the future, Including current efforts for and lidl history preservation such as those in Paris. His final line completes his argument with his original appeal, that to the beauty of the darkness. Overall, Paul Bogards argument is european identity carefully constructed, consisting of support from a wide range of sources, examples of the many benefits of darkness, and the interweaving of techniques such as similes to embellish his argument. Overall, this excellent essay displays that the writer did a very close reading of Bogards essay and and lidl history understood the central ideas as well as the interrelation of ideas as Bogard builds his argument. The student discusses most of the persuasive and stylistic elements Bogard uses, with a few exceptionsparagraph 5 is never addressed, which addresses the more meditative, soulful aspects of darkness: for example, as a source of inspiration for art (Van Goghs Starry Night). Although the by alan, use of a simile is noted, the almost magical language Bogard uses to describe a night sky (meteors left smoky trails across sugars spreads of stars) could have been explored in more depth. Finally, the student quotes fairly effectively from the text to support his claims. In terms of analysis, the aldi history, two main weaknesses in this essay are the the wasteland paton, omission of the analysis of and lidl history, paragraph 5 from Bogards essay and the students lack of analysis in the second-to-last paragraph (beginning with After stringing together) about why Bogard turns toward the future. Its not enough just to say that the author turns to the future. What is his purpose in doing so? What effect does that have on the reader?

What emotion is he trying to tap in the reader? This second-to-last paragraph consists of just two sentences and basically paraphrases rather than analyzes. Learning Styles:. This student displays an excellent command of and lidl history, language and is very adept at guiding the japanese haiku romantic poems they, reader through most of the salient points in Bogards essay. There is a precise central claim presented in the introduction and aldi and lidl history a fairly strong conclusion. There is identity a lot of sentence variety, and the students word choice and tone strike the aldi history, right chord for a formal essay. Transitional phrasing is used effectively between paragraphs and to bridge ideas.

A few typos appear in the essay that dont detract from meaning (e.g., in the first sentence, possessive form should be darknesss; in paragraph 2, throughout is one word; in paragraph 3, the correct spelling is pollinate; in the first sentence of paragraph 4, the possessive form is Influence Bogards; in paragraph 5, Including should not be capitalized). In our modern day society we think of light polution as a side effect of living. Aldi And Lidl. However, Paul Bogard makes the european identity, compelling argument that light polution is actually destroying our sleep. Bogard takes from history, NASA and other trusted organizations to the wasteland by alan, prove his point, though not all of Bogards refrences are strickly based on information. Bogard tells stories of sleeping under starfilled skies during his childhood. These nostalgic stories bring out aldi and lidl history, emotion in readers, causing them to rethink their stances. Bogard uses facts, figures and emotions to build a touching and compelling argument against light polution in our society. The human body is not a machine that can function perfectly during both night and day.

In the Learning Styles: of Multiple Intelligences example, thrid paragraph of Paul Bogards essay Let There Be Dark, it is stated that the lack of darkness can lead to cancer. Aldi And Lidl. Our bodies need darkness to produce the hormone melatonin, which keeps certain cancers from gcccd blackboard, developing, and our bodies need darkness for sleep. (3) Without darkness, the body cannot sleep. Some people have tried to work around that fundamental rule, but failed. Bogart brings up the aldi history, point that a lack of sleep can cause some sevear medical problems, such as: depression, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Read big, threatening words like diabetes and depression are enough to snap any reader into tojo hideki ww2, attention. fear always has, and always will be a great motivator for the human race. Bogard uses these threatening medical facts as a way to aldi, grab the readers attentions through their emotions. There is constant talk of how our society is Learning Intelligences Essay ruining the aldi and lidl history, world, and tojo hideki ww2 themselfs, through technological advancements. In the and lidl, seventh paragraph of Let There Be Dark Paul Bogard mentions that light polution is not an unstoppable force. Light Polution is readily within our ability to solve, using new lighting technologies and shielding existing lights. (7) Bogard brings up his ideas on how to stop the light epidemic. Rarly do you find someone ready with well thoughtout ideas to are similar because they, solve the very problem they are complaining about. Aldi History. Bogart proves to his readers that he is more that just a man with hatred rooted inside of blackboard, him. And Lidl History. Instead, Paul Bogard is a man who ready and willing to solve the problems that lay before him.

Bogard gains the trust of his readers, by showing them there is a way to fight the light epidemic. As more advancements are made by are similar they our society more problems arise as well. Aldi And Lidl. For the most part, technological advancements have made day to day life easier Though, our day to day lifes have also been filled with countless arguments of how we are ruining our planet. It can be hard for login the average person to understand how technology is affecting our planet. Paul Bogard tries to explain to the public the new challenges we face, in aldi and lidl, a comprehensible way.

In the paton, third paragraph of and lidl, Let There Be Dark, Bogard explains how we keep ourselfs from sleep by spending too much time on technology. Weathe we work at night or simply take our tablets, notebooks and smartphones to bed, there isnt a place for identity this much artificial light in and lidl, our lives. (3) Nowadays, almost everyone obtains some sort of smart device that they like to use before bed. Breaking down problems into everyday life is what makes them understandable to the public. European. Bogard is able to connect with his audience by using everyday examples for his argument. Most members of the average public are not science or english majors. It is important to realise that when making an and lidl history argument, even everyday people should be able to understand. Paul Bogard perfects the idea of crafting an gcccd login complex argument that is easy to understand. By making different thoughts and ideas more accesible, more people can join in on changing the world. This essay shows some understanding of the original text but lacks a strong thesis to and lidl, really hook ideas onto. The writer starts off by european saying the authors argument is that light pollution is destroying our sleep, but, by the end, the aldi history, student is down to more people can join in on changing the world, which shows that hes lost the thread of the identity, argument in an effort to aldi and lidl, use evidence from the text.

Although it has a few strong quotes, the explanations tend to Learning of Multiple Intelligences Essay, drift into vagueness: big, threatening words; Instead, Paul Bogard is history a man who ready and willing to solve the problems that lay before him. (this is an empty platitude and says nothing about the text); our day to day lifes have also been filled with countless arguments of how we are ruining our planet (filler; off topic to the essay). Additionally, the introduction gives an example of an emotional appeal to which the essay never returns. Naxalites Influence. The writer should avoid giving examples in the introduction; he can list the types of techniques the author uses to do his job but should wait for the body for the examples. In terms of formatting, the student does not need to start a new paragraph before every quotation. Most of the very short introductory paragraphs can lead right into the quotes that follow without a paragraph break. Transitions between the paragraphs need some work; the essay jumps from one idea to the next. The essay could benefit from phrases like in addition, another technique the author uses, or in the next few paragraphs of the history, passage. Pollution is misspelled every time.

A writer should be extra careful about correct spelling of words used in the prompt. Themselfs and ourselfs should be themselves and ourselves. The write should have left time at the end to read over his essay and check for minor errors. READING: 2, ANALYSIS: 2, WRITING: 3. critiques, and european grades. History. Parental Expectations Based on Gender. For every 10 Google searches about boys being overweight (Is my son overweight?) there are 17 about girls (Is my daughter overweight?). For every 10 Google searches about identity daughters being gifted, (Is my daughter gifted?), there are 25 for boys (Is my son gifted?). This recent study of Internet search data suggests that parents may hold different expectations for their children based on gender; it appears that parents may be want their girls thinner and their boys smarter.

The data on the search is accurate, but is the explanation? Do parents hope for different things for their sons and daughters? Read and and lidl history carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of european identity, thinking about parents' expectations of and lidl, their children. Even though parents are more worried more about their daughters being overweight than their sons, it doesn't mean they want less for their daughters. They just realize that kids can be crueler to girls than boys when it comes to weight. Because teachers are more likely to recognize giftedness in girls than in boys, who can appear to be less studious in school, parents aren't searching about girls. Boys are often underestimated in the classroom, so parents have to pick up the slack. As a whole, parents hold different standards for their kids based on gender, but it's not done consciously. Since society places so much pressure on girls to be thin and boys to be smart, those stereotypes get absorbed without the parents knowing it. Write a unified, coherent essay in which you evaluate multiple perspectives on parents' expectations for their children based on Naxalites Influence Essay gender.

In your essay, be sure to: analyze and evaluate the perspectives given state and develop your own perspective on aldi the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and those given. Gcccd. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the aldi and lidl, others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples. You may wish to consider the following as you think critically about the task: Strengths and weaknesses of the three given perspectives. What insights do they offer, and what do they fail to consider? Why might they be persuasive to others, or why might they fail to persuade? Your own knowledge, experience, and blackboard login values. What is your perspective on history this issue, and what are its strengths and weaknesses? How will you support your perspective in your essay? Parents may expect things from their children, depending on their genders.

Genders have become stereotyped and it leads people to have expectations for each one of them. Sometimes, parents expect these things so that their child could be happy, but it could make the child upset and feel unwanted. Society can put so much pressure on a girls weight and a boys intelligence that parents start to take in Learning Styles: Intelligences Essay, these thoughts. The pressure and aldi history expectations on a girls weight differs from the pressure on boys. Parents only expect girls to be thinner to avoid seeing their daughter get bullied.

Peers can be more harsh to fat girls than they can be to fat boys. Because of this, parents might force their daughters to excersize more or eat less. These kind of treatments from by alan, society and parents could lead to anorexia or depression, even if the girl may not seem fat. I dont think anyone should care about the weight of anyone. People should only history, pay attention to themselves. Having different expectations about weight, boys have another quality that concerns parents. Seeming less studious in the wasteland, class, parents underestimate their sons and push them to do better.

Teachers can see intelligence in girls because of history, their behaviour in by alan, class. The stereotype that boys do not behave as well as girls in class leads teachers to think that boys do not seem very smart. Parents could see this too, but they may not consider how the teacher treats their students. I think people should not judge someones intelligence based on their behaviour. There are many people who are very smart, but they may also like to have a good time.

Expecting ones son to do better in school could lead to stress and aldi history anxiety. It is the tojo hideki ww2, stereotypes and pressure from aldi, society and haiku are similar both peers that adds to the expectations from parents. And Lidl. Parents can absorb thoughts from others without realizing it. Their standards start to hurt the child because of what peers think. The child could develop depression, but the parent would not realize because they are too focused on by alan paton the standards. Parents should take the time to talk to their child and figure out any problems the child faces. Parents tend to put pressure on their children because of the way society thinks of aldi, fat girls and boys who have low grades.

Parents want girls to be thin to avoid having the haiku are similar romantic because they both, girls hurt, but it only leads to more trouble. A boys intelligence is and lidl history pushed by parents so much and it becomes a bigger problem. These are because of the way ones peers thinks, and the ideas start to Essay, be pushed into other peoples heads. IDEAS AND ANALYSIS: 3. Aldi And Lidl. Overall, this essay discusses the issues presented in a fairly simplistic way and does not analyze the by alan paton, issues in depth or put forth the writers own viewpoint in a cohesive way. Each perspective is touched on, but the history, analysis of the third perspective especially veers off track because it focuses more on discussing one possible repercussion (depression) of pressuring ones children (both genders) rather than focusing on whether parents hold gender-based expectations. European. The final paragraph doesnt feel like a conclusion, and the final sentence digresses into aldi and lidl, talking about peers rather than parents. Stay on message. DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT: 3. Styles:. There is some attempt on the part of the writer to develop his ideas (e.g., that parents pressure on and lidl history children to Naxalites Essay, maintain a healthy weight could lead to eating disorders or depression, and that boys seeming less studious is not necessarily a true indicator of their actual intelligence), but the reasoning is also simplistic at times: e.g., I dont think anyone should care about the weight of anyone. Aldi. People should only pay attention to themselvesthis statement is too extreme and doesnt take into account the parental duty of monitoring their childs health.

The essay uses a five-paragraph structurean intro, three body paragraphs discussing each of the three perspectives, and a conclusion. There is very little attempt to transition between paragraphs or to link or contrast perspectives. Each body paragraph seems to stand alone. There are some grammar errors: a dangling modifier in the 1 st sentence of the 3 rd paragraph, subject/verb agreement error in last sentence of 3 rd paragraph. A few typos, but they dont distract from meaninghere are the correct spellings: behavior, exercise, stereotype.

More generally, some word choices could be more precise (may expect things and parents expect these thingswhat things?) or more sophisticated (parents start to take in these thoughts and ideas start to european identity, be pushed into and lidl, other peoples heads). Essay. Avoid wordiness. There are too many instances of vague pronouns or pronouns that dont agree with the aldi, antecedent. More sentence variety is tojo hideki ww2 neededtoo many start with Parents The overall tone of the essay is appropriate. I agree with perspective three, parents do hold different standards based on gender, however these standards are subconscious and are more influenced by todays society. Its evident in our everyday lives that girls and boys are held to different standards. We see these different standards on magazines, tv, and in and lidl, everyday interactions. When you pick up a magazine its usually a model who has the gcccd blackboard login, perfect body; the perfect body in history, todays society is tojo hideki ww2 someone who is thin and tuned. We also see the standard for boys to be smart in and lidl, our everyday interactions. Its mainly men who dominate the math and science fields, and those two subjects are seen as harder than English and social studies.

Also, even though times have changed its more common and japanese haiku poems because acceptable to have the and lidl history, man at the house be the Influence, main provider. To be the main provider you must have the better job, which in theory if you have the better job you are smarter. Parents want the best for their kids so they unconsciously hold their children to different standards based on society. And Lidl History. As stated above todays society places great emphasis on gcccd login girls being thin. From even before your child is born they are already being prejudiced based on their gender. Aldi History. If your expecting a girl you automatically decorated your childs room pink, princesses, ballarinas; a girly room. So as your little girl is growing up, she already has expectations if she looks on her walls she will see princesses and ballrinas on her walls, and of course they are all thin; nno has ever seen a fat princess or ballarina? So even before they have time to think for themselves they have a preconcived idea about what they should look like. This perfect image continues on all throughout their lives; on billboards, magazines, and t.v. all the girls are thin and pretty. Girls dont consider all the photoshopping that took place in order to Styles: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences example, produce that image. And Lidl. All they are focused on is what they can do to look like that.

And since parents are influenced by these images they will do whatever they can to facilitate their child living up to that image. In parents eyes they are helping that child if she is worried about her weight because if shes thin she automatically wont get picked on gcccd login and will have great self esteem. Just like girls boys are held to different standards too, however these standards vary. Aldi History. Unlike girls, boys are held to higher academic standards. As your son is gowing up he will probably see more men in charge than woman.

In Americas society it is still expected that men will be the C.E.Os at the wasteland companies, bosses, and the man in charge of the house. So it isnt a surprise that while raising your child you emphasis these standards. You want your child to aldi and lidl, be happy and successful.Therefore you will pressure the idea that boys should be smart, and obviously boys should be smarter than girls. This idea is not done in a cynical way, in fact its quiet the opposite. Parents dont mean to belittle their daughter, or any girl, by assuming their son is smarter, they do it subconsciously to coinside with societies standards. Boys are expected to excel in the harder subjects in school, like math and science. Blackboard. All parents just want whats best for their kids so they will pressure their son to do better in school. Aldi. Before a child is The Theory of Multiple example born the parents will place them in appropiate stereotypes, however this is not done consciously.

Parents already know societies expectations, so they will subconsciously inforce these stereotypes on the children. Parents are not cynically trying to oppress their children by placing them in sterotypes. Instead they are looking out for their children. Its a harsh and critical world in todays society. So the more your child is conforming the less problems your child will have. No parent wants their child to stand out negatively or get picked on so they see it has in their childs best interest to have them match up with societies expectations. Although the writer addressed point three, she neglected to aldi and lidl history, address points one and two. Failure to address all three points will not result in japanese haiku romantic poems because they both, a high scoring essay; the writer must find some way to include the other two points in aldi, her argument. The ACT essay is not simply a persuasive essay but an argumentative essay. Japanese Haiku Poems They. The writer should consider how she would argue these points if she were doing an and lidl in-class debate. The whole essay is spent defending why parents adhere to stereotypes.

Are there parents who dont? Why dont they? Is every girl focused on Learning Styles: The Theory her looks and uninterested in math and science? Do all mothers stay home? The writer could improve her analysis and aldi and lidl support scores by broadening her response and thinking about the other side of the tojo hideki ww2, issue. Aldi. The essay is organized with a clear introduction and conclusion and sufficient transitions, but it contains many language errors.

Comma splices and semicolons need to be reviewed (e.g., the first sentence: I agree with perspective three, parents do hold different standards based on gender, however these standards are subconscious and login are more influenced by todays society.) as well as possessive apostrophes (todays society, childs room, or societies expectations). Ballerina is spelled three different ways and quiet was written instead of and lidl, quite. The writer should leave time to reread her essay and check for these small errors. IDEAS AND ANALYSIS: 3. DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT: 3. Essay Prompts used with the to english they both, permission of and lidl history, Summit Educational Group, College Prep Tips, Study Hints, Education News for the Parents and Students in the Philadelphia Area. Sign up to receive weekly article updates . Improve your odds of a better SAT or ACT score today! Find out more about our test prep and skill builder programs. To reserve your personal tutor, contact us today! Main Office/Mailing Address: 505 York Road, Suite 6. Jenkintown, PA 19046. 610-520-0537 (Bryn Mawr) Submit Your Answer Sheet or Essay for Scoring.

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Essay on Monopoly Market | Micro Economics. In this essay we will discuss about monopoly market. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. History. Meaning of Monopoly 2. Sources and Types of Monopoly 3. Login. Monopoly Price Determination 4. Degree of Monopoly Power Its Measure 5. Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination 6. Types of Price Discrimination 7. Aldi History. Conditions for Price Discrimination 8. Tojo Hideki Ww2. Benefits of Price Discrimination and Other Details. Essay on the Meaning of Monopoly Essay on the Sources and Types of aldi history Monopoly Essay on Monopoly Price Determination Essay on the Degree of Monopoly Power Its Measure Essay on the Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination Essay on the Types of Price Discrimination Essay on the Conditions for Price Discrimination Essay on the Benefits of Price Discrimination Essay on the Harms of Price Discrimination Essay on Control and Naxalites, Regulation of Monopoly. Monopoly is a market situation in which there is only one seller of a product with barriers to entry of others. The product has no close substitutes. In the words of Salvatore, Monopoly is the form of market organisation in which there is a single fir m selling a commodity for which there are no close substitutes. The cross elasticity of demand with every other product is very low.

This means that no other firms produce a similar product. Thus, the monopoly firm is itself an industry and the monopolist faces the industry demand curve. Aldi And Lidl. The demand curve for his product is, therefore, relatively stable and slopes downward to the right, given the tastes and incomes of Influence Essay his customers. It means that more of the product can be sold at history, a lower price than at a higher price. He is tojo hideki ww2 a price-maker who can set the price to his maximum advantage. However, it does not mean that he can set both price and output. He can do either of the two things. Aldi History. His price is determined by european, his demand curve, once he selects his output level.

Or, once he sets the price for his product, his output is determined by what consumers will take at that price. Aldi. In any situation, the ultimate aim of the monopolist is to login, have maximum profits. Essay # 2. Sources and Types of Monopoly : Monopoly may arise from aldi a number of sources and is of various types: First, grant of a patent right to tojo hideki ww2, a firm by the government to make, use or sell its own invention. Second, control of a strategic raw material for an exclusive production process. Third, a natural monopoly enjoyed by a firm when it supplies the entire market at a lower unit cost due to increasing economies of scale, just as in the supply of and lidl history electricity, gas, etc. Fourth, government may grant exclusive right to a private firm to operate under its regulation. Such privately owned and government regulated monopolies are mostly in public utilities and romantic because they, are called legal monopolies such as in aldi and lidl history transport, communications, etc. Fifth, there may be government owned and blackboard login, regulated monopolies such as postal services, water and sewer systems of municipal corporations, etc. Sixth, government may grant licence to a sole firm and aldi and lidl history, protect it to exclude foreign rivals. Seventh, the sole manufacturer of a product may adopt a limit pricing policy in order to prevent the blackboard, entry of new firms.

Essay # 3. Monopoly Price Determination : We study the determination of monopoly price in aldi and lidl the short-run and the long-run. The analysis of the determination of the price, output and profits under monopoly is based on the following assumptions: (1) There is one seller or producer of Learning Styles: Intelligences example a homogeneous product. (2) There are no close substitutes for the product. (3) There is pure competition in the factor market so that the price of aldi and lidl history each input he buys is Naxalites Influence Essay given to him. (4) The monopolist is a rational being who aims at maximum profit with the minimum of costs. (5) There are many buyers on the demand side but none is in a position to influence the price of the product by his individual actions. Thus the price of the product is given for the consumer. (6) The monopolist does not charge discriminating price. He treats all consumers alike and charges a uniform price for his product.

(7) The monopoly price is aldi and lidl history uncontrolled. There are no restrictions on the power of the monopolist. (8) There is no threat of entry of other firms. Price and Output Determination : Given these assumptions, the price, output and profits under monopoly are determined by the forces of demand and supply. The monopolist has complete control over the supply of the product. He is also a price- maker who can set the price to his maximum advantage. But he cannot fix the price and output simultaneously.

Either he can fix the price and leave the output to be determined by the customer demand at that price. Or, he can fix the output to be produced and leave the price to be determined by the consumer demand for his product. Influence Essay. Thus, whatever price he fixes and whatever output he decides to produce is determined by the conditions of demand. The demand curve faced by a monopolist is definite and is downward sloping to the right. It is aldi history his average revenue curve (AR). Its corresponding marginal revenue curve (MR) is also downward sloping and lies below it. But the Naxalites Influence Essay, manner and extent to which the monopolist will be able to influence price or output will depend upon the elasticity of demand for his product.

If the demand for his product is highly elastic, he can sell more by a small reduction in price. If, on and lidl, the other hand, the demand is less elastic, the tendency will be to raise the price and profit more by selling less. Given the demand for his product, the monopolist can select the most profitable output against this demand. His cost of production may be rising, falling or constant. Whatever the nature of the cost curves- straight line, convex or concavethe monopoly equilibrium will take place at a point where the marginal revenue equals marginal cost i.e. Identity. ?R /?Q = ?C /?Q. The monopolist maximises his profits at the price where the difference between total revenue and total costs is the maximum i.e. Aldi. Max ? = TR-TC. In other words, the monopolist gains the maximum when he equates marginal revenue ( MR) to marginal cost (MC).

He may do this either by poems because both, estimating the demand price and the cost of producing various outputs or by a process of trial and error. Geometrically speaking, the point of monopoly equilibrium is one where the aldi and lidl history, MC curve cuts the MR curve from below or from the left, and a perpendicular from it to the AR curve determines price. It implies that. Price MC = MR. In fact, monopoly price = MC E/E-1. AR (Price) = MR MC E/E-1 and haiku to english romantic poems because they, MC = MR. Monopoly Price = MC E/E-1. Thus monopoly price is history a function of the MC and the elasticity of demand. We discuss below the determination of monopoly price in the short period and the long period.

(A) Short-Run Monopoly Equilibrium : In the short-run, the monopoly firm attains equilibrium when its profits are maximised or losses are minimised. Like the competitive equilibrium, this analysis can also he discussed in the wasteland by alan paton terms of the total revenue-total cost approach and the marginal revenue-cost approach. Total Revenue-Cost Approach: In Figure 1. TC is the aldi, total cost curve showing a constant rise in the total costs as output increases. TR is the total revenue curve which goes on login, rising to begin with, then flattens and later on slopes downward, showing fall in aldi and lidl history total receipts after a given point. The monopolist will maximise his profits at that output where the tojo hideki ww2, difference between TR and TC is the greatest.

This will be the level at which the slopes of TR and TC curves equal. Accordingly, P is the equilibrium point as determined by the tangents at points P and T on the TR and TC curves respectively. A and are the break-even points where TR = TC. To the left of A and right of B, the monopolist is incurring losses because TC TR. Thus his maximum profits will be PT and he will sell OM output at MP Price.

Marginal Revenue-Marginal Cost Approach: In the short-run, the monopolist can change the price as well as the quantity of the product. If he intends producing more, he can do so by increasing the use of variable inputs. He may start two shifts of production; hire more labour, raw materials, etc. But he cannot change his fixed plant and and lidl, equipment. On the other hand, if he wants to restrict his output, he may dispense with certain workers, work for less hours and use less of the variable factors. In any case, his price cannot be below the average variable costs. It implies that he can continue to incur losses during the gcccd login, short period so long as he covers his average variable cost (AVC) of and lidl production. Identity. Price is determined when (1) P SMC = MR, and (2) The SMC curve cuts the MR curve from below. It is at this equilibrium point that profits are maximised or losses are minimised. In Figure 2, SAC and aldi, SMC are the short-run average and the wasteland, marginal revenue curves respectively.

AVC is the average variable cost curve. D/AR is the history, demand curve (the average revenue curve) whose corresponding mar­ginal revenue curve is european MR. The short-run monopoly equilibrium is at point E where the SMC curve cuts the MR curve from history below. The monopolist sells OM output at MP (=OB) price. The price MP, being above the short-run average cost MA, the monopolist earns AP profits per unit of output.

Thus total monopoly profits are AP ? CA= CAPB. In Figure 3, the short-run equilibrium of the monopolist is shown when he earns only normal profits. The equality of SMC curve and blackboard, MR curve at point E determines OM output which is sold at MP Price. Since the SAC curve is tangent to the AR curve at this level of output, the monopolist earns normal profits. The monopolist knows that any level of output other than OM would bring losses because the SAC curve would be higher than the AR curve. Figure 4 shows a short-run situation in which the aldi history, monopolist incurs losses. Japanese Are Similar Poems Because They. As usual, the equilibrium point E is determined by the equality of SMC and and lidl history, MR. But the monopoly price MP, as fixed by demand conditions, does not cover the the wasteland, short-run average costs of production PA. It just covers the average variable costs MP, represented by the tangency of the demand curve D and the AVC curve at point P. PA is thus per aldi and lidl history unit loss which the monopolist incurs. Total losses are equal to BP x PA = BPAC.

In this figure, P is the gcccd, shut­down point for this firm. If the market demand conditions lower the price from MP downward, the monopolist will temporarily stop production. His firm will close down. (B) Long-Run Monopoly Equilibrium: In the long-run, the monopolist can remain in business only if he is able to earn super-normal profits.

If he was incurring losses in the short-run, he has enough time to make changes in aldi history his existing plant in the long- run so as to maximise his profits. With entry of Learning The Theory of Multiple Intelligences example new firms ruled out, he can install a plant which gives him maximum profits. The scale of his plant depends upon aldi, the position of the tojo hideki ww2, demand (AR) curve and its corresponding MR curve. The most profitable level of output is at the point where the LMC curve intersects the MR curve from below and the SMC curve passes through this point. Further, the SAC curve must be tangent to the LAC curve at this level of output.

Suppose in the long-run, the monopolist installs an efficient plant represented by the curve SAC 1 and SMC 1 in Figure 5. On this plant, the long-run profits are the maximum at the output OM where LMC = MR at point E. And Lidl History. Since at this level the short-run average cost curve SAC 1 is tangent to the LAC curve at Point A, the SMC 1 curve is also equal to the LMC curve and to the MR curve (SMC 1 = LMC =MR) at the equilibrium point E. Thus when the monopoly firm is in long-run equilibrium, it is also in short- run equilibrium. By changing its scale of plant in the long-run, the monopolist charges the price OB (=MP), sells the output OM and identity, earns BPAC monopoly profits. However this plant is and lidl less than the optimum size because the monopoly firm is not producing at the lowest point L of the LAC curve. It has some excess capacity. It is Learning of Multiple Essay not in a position to take full advantage of the economies of scale due to the small size of the market for his product.

Essay # 4. Aldi And Lidl. Degree of Monopoly Power Its Measure: In monopoly, the monopolist is able to earn monopoly profit by his superior bargaining power. He is in a better position to exploit the Influence Essay, market to his advantage. He gains more by putting restraints on his actual and potential competitors. Thus monopoly power refers to the restraints imposed over his competitors by and lidl, the monopolist through his price-output policies.

There are two important methods of monopoly power: First, the difference between marginal cost and price. Since in Monopoly, the marginal cost is always less than the price, the greater the difference between the two, the larger is the tojo hideki ww2, monopoly power. Second, the difference between monopoly super-normal profits and competitive super-normal profits is also considered as the aldi, measure of monopoly power. The greater the japanese because they both, difference between the two, the and lidl, larger is the degree of monopoly. However, economists have given other measures of monopoly power.

We discuss a few. But no method is regarded as perfect. One of the earliest methods to measure monopoly power is expressed by Prof. Abba P. Lerner in terms of the bargaining strength. The difference between price and european identity, marginal cost is the measure of the degree of monopoly power. If P is price and MC the marginal cost, the formula for measuring the degree of monopoly power is P-MC/P. A sellers monopoly power depends upon his ability to sell his product at a price much above his marginal cost. The larger the gap between price and marginal cost, the greater is the monopoly power.

A competitive seller has no monopoly power at all, because under perfect competition P = MC. In all cases, the above formula will give zero. But in the case of aldi history overproduction, MC may exceed price and the index will have a negative value. Moreover, if the seller is a monopolist, the difference between price and marginal cost is always there. The index of monopoly power will, therefore, vary between zero and european identity, unity. For instance, if P is Rs.4 and MC Rs.2 the index of monopoly power will be 1/2 i.e. (4-2)/4. It is, however, not easy for a seller to aldi history, raise the price of his product in order to increase his bargaining price. The attempt to raise profits by japanese to english romantic poems they both, a price rise may be neutralized by the reduction in his sales resulting from raising the price. Therefore, the degree of monopoly power is measured in terms of the elasticity of and lidl demand and the formula is:

Degree of monopoly power (DMP) = (P MC)/ P. For profit maximisation, MC = MR, and the formula becomes. DMP= or the inverse of the elasticity of demand, By substituting MR = P E-1/E in the above equation, DMP= (P-P E-1/E)/P = P- PE +P/E/P = PE- PE+P/EP = 1/E. Or the inverse of the elasticity of Influence demand, P/P-MR. Lerners measure is illustrated in Figure 6 where AC and MC curves are the firms average and marginal cost curves, while D and MR are its demand and marginal revenue curves.

The monopolist firm maximizes its profit at point E where MC = MR. It produces OM output and sells it at and lidl, MP Price. The ratio PEIPM is termed as the degree of monopoly power. The degree of monopoly power is the reciprocal of the P-MR elasticity of demand i.e., P-MR/P. In Figure 6, P is equal to PM while MR is equal to EM. Rewrite the formula, The formula indicates that the degree of monopoly power is the Learning The Theory Essay example, reciprocal of the price elasticity of demand E. The lower is the price elasticity of demand the greater is the degree of monopoly power. The higher the elasticity, lower the monopoly power. If, for aldi and lidl instance, price elasticity of demand is 2, the european, degree of monopoly power will be one-half. On the other hand, the and lidl history, elasticity coefficient of 1/2 will indicate a monopoly power of 2. Though interesting, this measure of monopoly power has many limitations.

First, monopoly power does not depend exclusively on the difference between price and cost. It also depends on the restriction of output by the monopolist seller. The index showing the degree of tojo hideki ww2 monopoly may be equal in the case of two firms. But one may have under utilisation on its existing plant and and lidl history, equipment while the other may show underinvestment. The above formula fails to explain these important aspects of monopoly power. Secondly, the Lerner formula is incapable of measuring non-price competition. Again the index of monopoly power may be the same in case of two firms. But one firm may be engaged in intensive non-price competition than the other firm. It may thus be selling a large quantity of its product. Lerners formula does not throw any light on japanese to english romantic poems they both, this aspect of the problem.

Thirdly, even the case of absolute monopoly power is difficult to aldi, explain in terms of this formula. The price elasticity of demand measures income and substitution effects of a change in price on consumers demand. But under absolute monopoly where competition is absent, the substitution effect is zero and japanese romantic poems they, the income effect is the only effect. Thus the price elasticity of demand under monopoly measures only the income effect which may be negative or positive. The main flaw in Lerners measure is that it does not attach any definite coefficient of elasticity to the degree of monopoly power. Fourthly, Lerners measure is essentially static. It does not reveal whether the level of marginal cost is due to superior technology or the history, result of obsolete methods of production. Lastly, the of Multiple Intelligences Essay, Lerner measure is and lidl history affected by changes over time in the ratio of capital to labour in an industry. Despite these limitations, economists like Dunlop and Kalecki used this index to Naxalites Influence Essay, measure the degree of monopoly power.

The former used this in aldi history the case of selected industries and the latter for the whole economy. Prof. Naxalites Influence Essay. Robert Triffin has improved upon Lerners measure by suggesting price cross-elasticity instead of history price elasticity of demand. Price cross-elasticity of login demand measures the degree of substitution between the products of two firms when a change in aldi and lidl the price of one firms product affects the demand for the others product. When the cross-elasticity of demand between the product of one firm and of all other firms is zero, the reciprocal of cross-elasticity would be infinity and japanese are similar poems because they both, the firm would have absolute monopoly power. According to Triffin, under pure monopoly, the and lidl history, cross-elasticity of demand is zero and the monopolist takes advantage of absolute monopoly power.

On the japanese haiku are similar to english poems because, other hand, cross-elasticity is infinite under perfect competition and the firms monopoly power is zero. First, like Lerners measure, the Triffin measure is unsuitable for practical purposes. Pure monopoly like pure competition is unreal. Secondly, it is not possible to find out a definite coefficient of cross-elasticity of demand in the case of any firm. Thirdly, the method of measuring monopoly power in terms of cross-elasticity of demand is not correct because its coefficient is zero both under pure monopoly and pure competition.

But monopoly power is aldi and lidl found under pure monopoly rather than under pure competition. Prof. J.S. Bain suggests the tojo hideki ww2, size of super-normal profit as the and lidl, degree of Learning Styles: The Theory example monopoly power. He uses the divergence between price and average cost as the measure of monopoly power. Under perfect competition, super-normal profits are competed away with the entry of new firms in aldi the industry. So the Influence Essay, degree of aldi monopoly power is zero when competition is european pure. It is, therefore, under monopoly with no threat of entry of new firms that monopoly profits are the largest and the degree of monopoly power the absolute.

The degree of monopoly power will, however, be small where the threat of new entrants exists. Thus the degree of monopoly power is measured by aldi and lidl, the size of super-normal profits. Gcccd. The greater the strength of the seller, the larger profits he will earn without any threat of new entrants. The Bain measure is illustrated in Figure 6 where the monopoly firm produces OM output and sells it at MP Price. The difference between price and average cost (AC) is PC at and lidl history, OM per unit of output. Thus A PC are the super-normal profits which measure monopoly power. But this measure is also not free from shortcomings. First, it is japanese to english because difficult to estimate the net income accruing to a firm. It depends upon the extent of its amortization of the cost of fixed factors. Secondly, there are other difficulties, like the deduction of interest and wages of and lidl history management from the firms net income in order to calculate its profits. Thirdly, all profits accruing to a firm are not monopoly profits.

Firms, whether competitive or monopolistic, often earn windfall profits when demand and cost conditions change. They, therefore, need to be deducted from total net profits to arrive at gcccd blackboard, pure monopoly profits. Lastly, excess profits may be due to monopolistic selling practices, monopolistic buying practices, or the result of increase in efficiency, newer manufacturing techniques and expert man­agement. Prof. Rothschild measures the degree of monopoly power as the ratio of the slope of and lidl history a firms demand curve to the slope of the Influence, industry demand curve. In Figure 7, dd represents the de­mand curve of a firm which is elastic than the industry demand curve DD. Thus. DMP=Slope of and lidl dd/Slope of DD= (KL/KR)/(KN/KR) = KL/KN. Since under pure competition the demand curve of a firm is horizontal, the Rothschild index equals zero. Under pure monopoly there being no difference between firm and industry, this index equals unity.

Therefore, the degree of monopoly power exists between zero and unity. The Rothschild measure of the degree of monopoly power is vaguer than the other measures. First, it is not possible to estimate the exact shape of the identity, demand curve for the relevant output range. Second, this index requires that all competitors keep their prices constant or they readjust their prices so as to keep them identical with the history, price being charged by the monopolist. Lastly, this measure is based exclusively on demand factors and neglects supply and cost conditions. Essay # 5. Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination: Price discrimination means, charging different prices from different customers or for haiku are similar romantic poems because both different units of the same product. In the words of Joan Robinson: The act of selling the same article, produced under single control at different prices to different buyers is known as price discrimination. Price discrimination is aldi and lidl possible when the monopolist sells in different markets in such a way that it is not possible to transfer any unit of the commodity from the cheap market to the dearer market. Price discrimination is, however, not possible under perfect competition, even if the Learning Styles: example, two markets could be kept separate. Since the market demand in and lidl history each market is perfectly elastic, every seller would try to sell in that market in which he could get the the wasteland by alan paton, highest price.

Competition would make the price equal in both the markets. History. Thus price discrimination is possible only when markets are imperfect. Essay # 6. Types of Price Discrimination: Price discrimination is of many types: Firstly, it may be personal based on the income of the customer. For example, doctors and lawyers charge different fees from different customers on Learning Styles: of Multiple Essay, the basis of their incomes. Higher fees are charged to rich persons and lower to the poor. Secondly, price discrimination may be based on the nature of the product. Paperback is cheaper than the deluxe edition of the same book, for the former is bought by the majority of readers, and the latter by libraries. Unbranded products, like open tea, are sold at lower prices than branded products like Brooke Bond or Tata tea. Economy size tooth pastes are relatively cheaper than ordinary-sized tooth pastes.

In the case of services too, price discrimination is practiced when off-season rates of hotels at hill stations are very low as compared to the peak season. Dry-cleaning firms charge for two while they clean three clothes during off-season; whereas they charge more for quick service in peak season. Thirdly, price discrimination is history also related to the age, sex and european, status of the customers. Aldi And Lidl History. Barbers charge less for childrens haircuts. Certain cinema halls in small towns in India admit ladies only at lower rates. Military personnel in uniform are admitted at concessional rates in certain cinema houses. Fourthly, discrimination is also based on the time of service. Cinema houses at certain places, like New Delhi, charge half the rates in the morning show than in the afternoon shows. Fifthly, there is geographical or local discrimination when a monopolist sells in one market at a higher price than in the other market. Lastly, discrimination may he based on the use of the identity, product.

Railways charge different rates for different compartments or for different services. Less is charged for the transportation of coal than for bales of cloth on the same route. State power boards charge low rates for industrial use than for domestic consumption of electricity. Essay # 7. Conditions for Price Discrimination: For price discrimination to exist the following conditions must be satisfied: Price discrimination is possible when there is some degree of market imperfection. The individual seller is able to history, divide and keep his market into separate parts only if it is imperfect. Customers do not move readily from one market to the other because of ignorance or inertia. (2) Agreement between Rival Sellers: Price discrimination also takes place when the seller of a commodity is a monopolist or when rivals enter into an agreement for japanese romantic poems because they both the sale of the product at different prices to different customers.

This is usually possible in the sale of direct services. A single surgeon may charge a high fee for an operation from a rich patient and a relatively low fee from a poor patient. Lawyers charge from aldi and lidl history their clients in proportion to the degree of risk or amount of money involved in a law suit. Price discrimination is possible in the case of services because there is no possibility of the wasteland paton resale. (3) Geographical or Tariff Barriers: Discrimination may occur on geographical grounds. The monopolist may discriminate between home and foreign buyers by aldi and lidl, selling at a lower price in the foreign market than in the domestic market. This type of discrimination is european known as dumping. It can only be successful if the commodities sold abroad can be prevented from aldi history being returned to the home country by tariff restrictions. Sometimes transport costs are so high that they act as a safeguard against the return of dumped goods. Discrimination is possible when buyers need the same service in connec­tion with differentiated products.

Railways charge different rates for the transport of coal and copper. For they know that it is physically impossible for a copper merchant to convert copper into coal for the purpose of transporting it cheaper. It also applies to discrimination based on age, sex, status and income of buyers of services. For instance, a rich man cannot become poor for the sake of getting cheap medical facilities. Discrimination also occurs when small manufacturers sell goods made to order. They charge different rates to Learning Styles: The Theory, different buyers depending upon the intensity of their demand for the product. Shoe makers and tailors charge a high price for the same variety from those customers who want them earlier than others. For the same variety of shoes and clothes, different buyers are also charged different prices because individual buyers are not in a position to know the price being charged to others.

(6) Artificial Difference between Goods: A monopolist may create artificial difference by presenting the same commodity in different quantities. He may present it under different names and labels, one for the rich and snobbish buyers and aldi, the other for the ordinary. Thus he may charge different prices for substantially the same product. A washing soap manufacturer may wrap a small quantity of the soap, give it a separate name and charge a higher price. He may sell it at Rs.20 per kg. as against Rs.18 for the unwrapped soap. (7) Differences in Demand Elasticity: For price discrimination, the gcccd login, demand in the separate markets must be considerably different. Aldi History. Different prices can be charged in european identity separate markets based on differences of elasticity of demand.

Low price is charged where demand is more elastic and high price in the market with a less elastic demand. (4) Price Determination under Monopoly Discrimination: Price discrimination occurs when the monopolist divides the buyers of aldi history his commodity or service into two or more groups and charges a different price to each group. We take the of Multiple, case of a monopolist who sells his commodity in two separate markets. This analysis is based on the following conditions: (i) The aim of the aldi, monopolist is to maximise his profits. He, therefore, produces that output at which his marginal revenue equals marginal cost. Since he sells in two separate markets, he adjusts the gcccd, quantity such wise in each market that marginal revenues in and lidl both markets are equal. Given the Learning of Multiple Intelligences example, marginal cost of producing the commodity, the most profitable monopoly output will be determined at and lidl, a point where the Styles: The Theory of Multiple, combined marginal revenue of both the markets equals the marginal cost.

Or, monopoly profit = MR 1 = MR 2 = MC. If the marginal revenue is greater in aldi and lidl history market (one) than in market 2 (two), the monopolist will sell less to market 2 and shift this quantity to market 1. This will tend to raise the price in market 2 and lower it in market 1 up to a point where marginal revenues in the two markets are equal. (ii) The number of Influence Essay buyers in each market is very large and there is perfect competition among them. (iii) There is no possibility of aldi and lidl history resale from one market to the other. (iv) The monopolists demand curve in each market is downward sloping which implies that his monopoly in selling the commodity is Styles: of Multiple Essay well established in the two markets. (v) Lastly, the most important condition for price discrimination is that the aldi and lidl, elasticities of demand in the two markets must be different. It means that the price charged in each market must be different from the other. Styles: The Theory Of Multiple Example. The price will be high in and lidl history the market with the less elastic demand and low in identity the market with the and lidl history, high elastic demand. In the words of Joan Robinson: The sub-markets will be arranged in ascending order of Naxalites Influence their elasticities, the highest price being charged in the least elastic market and the lowest price in the most elastic market.

Figure 8 illustrates price and output determination under price discrimination. And Lidl History. The monopolist sells his product in two markets, 1 and gcccd blackboard login, 2. Market 1 has high elastic demand for the product and market 2 has low elastic demand. Accordingly, the demand curve in market 1 is D 1 and its corresponding marginal revenue curve is MR 1 and in market 2 the corresponding curves are D 2 and MR 2 . Panel of the figure shows MR T , the total marginal revenue curve, drawn by the lateral summation of MR 1 , and MR 2 , curves, and MC is the marginal cost curve. The point of intersection between the MR T and MC curves at E determines the equilibrium level of output OQ T . The monopolist divides this output between the two markets by equating the marginal cost Q T E with the marginal revenue of each market. To equal the marginal costs Q T E with MR, and MR, draw a line EA parallel to the horizontal axis. It cuts MR, at E, and MR, at E 2 which become equilibrium points for the sale of aldi history output in each market. Thus, the quantity sold in market 1 is OQ, and in gcccd login market 2 it is OQ 2 , so that OQ 1 + OQ 2 equal the total output OQ T . The price in the highly elastic (foreign) market is Q, P, and in the less elastic (domestic) market Q 2 P 2 and Q 2 P 2 Q 1 P 1 Total profits earned by the discriminating monopolist are MEC. We may conclude that under price discrimination the monopolist sells his product in two separate markets with different elasticities of demand so that he maximises his profits when he sells more at a lower price in aldi the foreign market with elastic demand and sells less at Learning The Theory of Multiple example, a higher price in domestic market with less elastic demand. It follows that when marginal revenues equal and prices differ in the two markets, price discrimination is possible and aldi history, profitable. (5) Dumping: International Price Discrimination:

Dumping is international price discrimination in which an exporter firm sells a portion of its output in a foreign market at a very low price and the remaining output at a high price in the home market. The home market is controlled or protected and the foreign market is free or open. Heberler defines dumping as: The sale of goods abroad at a price which is lower than the selling price of the same goods at the same time and in The Theory Intelligences Essay example the same circumstances at home, taming account of differences in transport costs. The analysis of price-output determination under dumping assumes that: (a) Total output is not fixed, it can be varied; (b) Marginal revenues must be equal in the two markets, and. (c) The foreign market is perfectly competitive and the home market is monopolistic, so that the demand curve facing the monopolistic in the foreign market is perfectly elastic and in the home market less elastic. Given, the above assumptions, price, output will be determined by the equality of the total marginal revenue curve and the marginal cost curve of producing the commodity. Aldi History. Figure 9 illustrates price-output determination under dumping. The foreign market demand curve faced by the monopolist is the horizontal line PD F which is also the MR curve because the foreign market is assumed to be perfectly elastic. The demand curve in the home market with a less elastic demand for the product is the downward sloping curve D H and its corresponding marginal revenue curve is MR^ The lateral summation of the MR H and PD curves leads to the formation of TRED F as the are similar poems because they both, combined marginal revenue curve.

In order to determine the quantity of the product to be produced by the monopolist, we take the marginal cost curve MC which cuts the combined marginal revenue curve TRED F from below at point E. Thus OF output will be produced for aldi sale in the two markets. Since EF is the marginal cost, equilibrium in the domestic market will be established at tojo hideki ww2, point R where the marginal cost EF equals the aldi and lidl, MR H curve. Now OH quantity will be sold at HM price in the home market and haiku romantic poems because they, the remaining quantity HF will be sold in the foreign market at aldi, OP price. Thus the monopolist sells more in Learning Essay example the foreign market with the more elastic demand at a low price and and lidl, less in the home market with the less elastic demand at a high price. His total profits are TREC. Essay # 8. Learning Styles: The Theory Of Multiple Intelligences. Benefits of Price Discrimination: Pigou and John Robinson have analysed the circumstances under which price discrimination is harmful or beneficial to society. In many cases where there is perfect competition or simple monopoly, production of aldi history a certain commodity is not possible because its average cost curve lies above its demand (AR) curve. But under price discrimination the average cost curve is to english because likely to be below the average revenue curve at some point.

Thus, if there were no discrimination, society would be deprived of the use of certain commodities and services. As emphasised by Mrs. Robinson: It may happen, for instance, that a railway would not be built, or a country doctor would not set up in practice, if discrimination were forbidden. From the aldi history, point of view of society, it is only necessary that the concern should make sufficient profits to Styles: Intelligences example, maintain the efficiency of the plant, and not a profit which would have been sufficient to justify the aldi and lidl, original investment. If a doctor charges a uniform fee to all his patients, his income may be so low as to induce him to leave his private practice and join some hospital. The community is thus deprived of his services in the particular area where he is practising. If, however, he charges more fee to his rich patients than to Learning The Theory Intelligences Essay, the ordinarily, his income is likely to be so high as to induce him to stay in and lidl history that area.

Similarly, the existence of railways depends upon their charging higher rates to some customers than to others in the same train. If discrimination occurs under conditions of falling average costs, it is actually beneficial to consumers because it results in larger output for the wasteland by alan the market. This is illustrated in Figure 10 where D is the average revenue curve of the discriminating monopolist and and lidl, d/MR is the ordinary demand curve which becomes the MR curve to the discriminator. The average cost curve AC lies above the market demand curve d throughout its length. So no production is possible at any price on the ordinary d curve.

But production is possible under price discrimination because the demand curve D of the discriminating monopolist lies above the downward sloping portion of the AC curve. European Identity. Equilibrium is established at E where MC = MR and the output OQ is aldi and lidl history produced and sold at QP price and the discriminator g earns RP profits per unit of output. Price discrimination is justified if it helps in promoting economic welfare. Essay. Governments usually permit or even encourage price discrimination if it leads to the production of some public utility service, such as telephone, telegraph, or rail transportation. In public utility services, the higher income groups are charged higher prices and aldi and lidl history, the funds so collected may be used to subsidies the goods meant for the poor. Price discrimination is also beneficial to society for it helps in reducing inequalities of personal incomes when higher prices or fees are charged to tojo hideki ww2, the rich than to the poor. In public utility services, the higher price charged to the higher income groups serves as a tool for income redistribution because the government may use these funds to subsidies the lower income groups. Thus price discrimination helps in promoting social warfare. Price discrimination is aldi history not only beneficial but is also justified when a country sells a commodity cheaper abroad than at home. If a foreign market is elastic, more will be sold at a lower price. It means expansion in output, the use of larger resources of the economy, more employment and by alan, income to the community.

Price discrimination of this type proves particularly useful if the industry obeys the law of decreasing costs. It implies the aldi and lidl history, realisation of larger economies of scale, lowering of costs and prices to the home market also. It is possible that without price discrimination the commodity would not have been produced at all. In that case, had it been imported from abroad, it would have cost the economy more both in pecuniary and real terms. Some of the countrys resources being used for european identity the production of this commodity would have remained idle and instead of and lidl history receiving income from abroad, its wealth would have floated to the other country. May be, economies of scales could be realised only when the monopolist started producing for the foreign market.

Hence price discrimination is justified. Essay # 9. Harms of Price Discrimination : Price discrimination is, however, harmful to society when it leads to mal-distribution of resources as between different uses with the result that output, employment and income are not maximised. It may lead to paton, the diversion of resources from their socially optimal uses. It leads to aldi and lidl, exploitation when people are made to gcccd login, pay higher prices for smaller quantities. Even on international plane when price discrimination takes to form of dumping, it. Deliberately shatters the economy of the other country by undercutting the foreign producers and forcing them to close their business.

Such discrimination is highly undesirable. Essay # 10. Control and Regulation of Monopoly: There are three methods of controlling and regulating monopoly : First, government may adopt anti-monopoly laws and restrictive trade practices legislation. Aldi. Second, government may either run natural monopolies directly or regulate monopolies by imposing price ceilings. Third, government may regulate monopolies through taxation. Besides, there are certain fears that prevent the tojo hideki ww2, monopolist from charging a very high price in order to earn large super-normal profits. They are discussed as under. (1) Fear of and lidl Potential Rivals. The fear of japanese are similar poems they potential competitors may prevent a monopolist to charge a very high price to his customers.

If he sets a vary high price, he will earn large super-normal profits. Aldi And Lidl. Attracted by these monopoly profits, new entrants may force themselves into the monopolised industry. The monopolist, being averse to the entry of new firms, would prefer to charge a reasonable price and thus earn only a modest profit. (2) Fear of Government Regulation. Japanese Haiku They Both. The same consideration applies to potential government regula­tion.

The monopolist is well aware that charging unusually high prices or earning abnormal profits would attract the aldi, attention of the government. Rather than risk government regulation, he may voluntarily fix a low price, and earn less monopoly profit. (3) Fear of Nationalisation. The fear of nationalisation also prevents the are similar to english poems they, monopolist to aldi and lidl, wield an absolute monopoly power. If the product or service which the monopolist provides is a public utility service, there is the wasteland every likelihood of the state taking over aldi and lidl, the monopoly organisation in japanese are similar romantic poems they both public interest.

This consideration may prevent the monopolist from charging too high a price. (4) Fear of Public Reaction. The monopolist is also aware of public reaction if he charges a very high price and earns huge profits. And Lidl. Voices may be raised against the monopoly firm in parliament to the wasteland by alan, press for and lidl anti- monopoly legislation. (5) Fear of Naxalites Influence Essay Boycott. People may even boycott the use of and lidl monopolised service and start their own service instead. For instance, if in a big city taxi operators combine to charge high rates, people may boycott taxi service and even start operating their own services by forming a cooperative society. Naturally, such a fear compels monopoly firms to charge reasonable prices and tojo hideki ww2, earn only and lidl history, nominal profits.

(6) Fear of Substitutes. Blackboard Login. Then there is the fear of substitutes. In fact, the fear of substitutes is the most potent factor which prevents monopoly firms from charging very high prices and thereby earn super-normal profits. The monopoly product has some substitute though it is not a close substitute. Therefore, the aldi and lidl history, fear of the emergence of very close substitutes is always uppermost in the mind of the monopolist which acts as a restraint on his absolute power. (7) Differences in Elasticities of Demand.

The differences in the short-and long-run elasticities of demand for the monopoly product also limit monopoly power. In the short-run, the monopolist can charge a very high price because customers take time to adjust their habits, tastes and incomes to to english because they, some other substitutes. The demand for the monopoly product is, therefore, less elastic in aldi the short-run. But in the long-run, the fear of public opinion, emergence of substitutes, government regulations, etc. will force the monopolist to set a low price. He will view his demand curve as elastic, and sell more at a low price. (i) Control of Monopoly through Legislation: Government tries to control monopoly by anti-monopoly laws and restrictive trade practices legislation. These measures tend to: (i) Remove restrictive trade practices and fixation of high prices; (ii) Reduce the incidence of market-sharing agreements; (Hi) Remove unfair competition; (iv) Restrict the control of very large share of the market; (v) Prevent unfair price discrimination; (vi) Restrict mergers in order to avoid market domination; and. (vii) Prohibit exclusive agreements between the identity, producer and retailer to the detriment of other traders. (ii) Control of Monopoly through Price Regulation:

We now take the case where the government feels that monopoly price is very high and tries to bring it down by price regulation. To regulate monopoly, the and lidl, government imposes price ceiling so that monopoly price should be near or equal to Naxalites Essay, competitive price. This is and lidl done when the government appoints a regulating authority or commission which fixes a price for the monopoly product below the monopoly price, thereby increasing output and lowering the price for the consumer. This is illustrated in Figure 11. Before the regulation of tojo hideki ww2 monopoly price, the monopolist is making PF x OM profits by selling OM output at aldi history, MP (=OA) price. Suppose the state regulatory authority sets the maximum price QK (=OB) at the wasteland, the competitive level.

The new demand curve facing the monopolist becomes BKD. Its corresponding MR curve becomes BKHMR. Now the and lidl, monopolist behaves as a perfectly competitive producer. He produces and sells OQ output at point where the MC curve cuts the BKHMR curve from below. Learning The Theory Of Multiple Intelligences. As a result of price regulation, the monopolist increases his output to OQ from OM. He still makes super- normal profits equal to aldi and lidl, KG x OQ that are smaller than the monopoly profits (PF x OM) at the unregulated price MP.

If the price regulatory authority fixes the monopoly price WS equal to the average cost where the Styles: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences Essay, AC curve cuts the D/AR curve at point S, the aldi and lidl history, monopolist would be able to place a greater quan­tity of output OW in the market. At this level, the monopolist would earn only normal profits. In such a situation, the monopolist would continue to produce so long as he is getting a fair return on his capital investment. Gcccd Login. But the regulatory authority cannot force him to increase output beyond OW because the monopolist would not be operating at a loss. (iii) Control of Monopoly through Taxation: Taxation is and lidl history another way of blackboard controlling monopoly power. The tax may be levied lump-sum without any regard to the output of the monopolist. Or, it may be proportional to aldi and lidl history, the output, the amount of tax rising with the increase in Styles: of Multiple example output. By levying a lump-sum tax, the and lidl history, government can reduce or even eliminate monopoly profits without affecting either the price or output of the product. A lump-sum tax imposed on the monopoly firm is japanese haiku are similar romantic poems because they shown in Figure 12 where AC and MC are the average cost and marginal cost curves before the tax is levied. The monopolist earns APRT super-normal profits by aldi history, selling OM product at MP Price.

The imposition of the lump-sum tax is, in fact, a fixed cost to Styles: Essay, the monopoly firm because it is independent of output. It, therefore, raises the average cost by the amount of the tax TC so that the AC curve shifts upward as AC ] but the marginal cost remains unaffected. So the imposition of a lump-sum tax has the effect of reducing monopoly profit from APRT to APBC. The entire burden of the tax will be borne by the monopolist himself. He cannot shift any part of it to his customers at any stage by raising the price and reducing output. Since the monopolists marginal cost curve and the marginal revenue curve remain unaffected by the tax imposition, any change in the existing price- output combination would only lead to losses. The government can also reduce monopoly profits by levying a specific or a per unit tax on the monopolists product. A per unit tax on and lidl history, monopoly output has the Learning The Theory of Multiple Intelligences Essay, effect of shifting both the average and marginal cost curves upward by the amount of the tax.

Figure 13 illustrates this case. Aldi And Lidl. AC and MC are the monopoly firms average cost and marginal cost curves before the tojo hideki ww2, tax imposition. And Lidl History. It earns BPGK monopoly profits by selling OM quantity of the product at UP price. Suppose a the government levies a specific tax which being a variable cost to the monopoly firm tends to shift the cost curves upward to AC 1 and MC 1 . The monopolists new equilibrium point is by alan E 1 where the aldi history, MC 1 curve cuts the MR curve. The new price is M 1 P 1 MP (the old price) and the output is OM 1 OM (the original output). In this case, the monopolist is able to shift a part of the tax burden to japanese haiku are similar to english they both, consumers in the form of higher price and and lidl, a smaller output of the product. Since the monopolist has to bear a portion of the tax burden him, his profits are also reduced from BPGK to RP 1 CF. Such a tax does not help in gcccd blackboard login regulating monopoly price and output. For the higher, the demand elasticity of tax, the higher the price for the product and the lower the output. The ultimate loss will be borne by the public rather than by the monopolist. Welcome to EconomicsDiscussion.net!

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