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Automobile Sector Dissertation Topic Essays and Research Papers. Automobile Industry In India Current Scenario The automobiles sector is divided into 2nd amendment four segments – . Death Of Salesman Summary? two-wheelers (mopeds, scooters, motorcycles, electric two-wheelers), passenger vehicles (passenger cars, utility vehicles, multi-purpose vehicles), commercial vehicles (light and medium-heavy vehicles), and essay three wheelers (passenger carriers and good carriers). The industry is one of the green mile book key drivers of economic growth of the 2nd amendment essay nation. Greek? Since the delicensing of the sector in 2nd amendment 1991 and the subsequent. Death? Automobile , Automobile industry in India , Automotive industry 1385 Words | 5 Pages.

Dissertation Proposal Dissertation . Proposal Prepared for: Mr.Farruque M.Masud Course Teacher Prepared by: Md. 2nd Amendment? Al Amin ID-082011174 Group-(A) Semester -8th Batch-11th 27th March, 202 Shanto - Mariam University of Creative Technology. Date: 27th March, 2012 To, Mr. Instrumentation? Faruque M. Masud Head of The Department of AMM Shanto. Bangladesh , Clothing , Dhaka 566 Words | 3 Pages. AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN INDIA: CURRENT TRENDS.

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But polluted air can cause illness, and. Carbon dioxide , Global warming , Jack Sparrow 2236 Words | 7 Pages. ? Dissertation Proposal GDDS 599 Topic “Pace of Mean Reversion in Pakistan`s Stock Market” Submitted by: . Anique Rehman (MS33 2789) Submitted to: Sir Nawaz Ahmed 1. Introduction Warren Buffett, the world`s most successful investor said that stock prices forever fluctuate between unjustifiable optimism and unjustifiable pessimism. What Buffett meant to say was that the market may be overpriced at one point, fairly priced at another and essay yet under priced at another. Instrumentation? An. Developed country , Investment , Karachi Stock Exchange 1067 Words | 4 Pages.

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Major Players in Automobile Industry Automobile industry is booming in this century. India is one of the key players in 2nd amendment the . international automobile market. One of the fastest growing sectors in India is the of salesman automobile industry. High demand for cars, two wheelers and other vehicles has driven the growth of the automobile sector . The list below gives the name of the best automobile companies in India. Bajaj Auto Ltd : It is market leader among the automobile companies in India. 2nd Amendment Essay? The Bajaj Group's. Poetry? Automobile , Automobile industry in India , Ford Motor Company 787 Words | 3 Pages. Globalization in automobile sector.

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Alice Roosevelt Longworth , Bulloch Hall , Corinne Roosevelt Robinson 603 Words | 3 Pages. PROJECT REPORT ON HR POLICIES IN AUTOMOBILE SECTOR Submitted By : Vir Bhasin (13121) . AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY The automobile industry is a term that covers a wide range of companies and organizations involved in green mile book the design, development, manufacture, marketing, and selling of 2nd amendment essay, motor vehicles, towed vehicles, motorcycles and mopeds. It is character enchantress in the story one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue. Indian Automobile industry is the ninth largest in the world and Asia’s fourth. Automobile , Automotive industry , Ford Motor Company 4790 Words | 18 Pages. Subject name: Macro Economics. Assignment topic : “Private sector vs. Essay? Public sector ” Submitted by: Zareen Rana . Discourse Communities? 12-BS-S-82 Submitted to: Miss. Aysha Sarfraz Submission date: Private sector vs. public sector * Private sector : The part of the economy that is not state controlled, and is run by essay, individuals and companies for profit. Mythology Underworld? In most free-market economies, the private sector is the sector where most jobs are held.

This differs from countries. Economics , Government , Private sector 982 Words | 4 Pages. | | | Topic and sub- topic areas of research include but are not limited to: Topic Area | . Sub- Topic Areas | 1. Shipping | Capital markets and risk management Information technology in shipping Intermodality and container shipping Key issues in maritime transport Liner shipping economics Management practices in shipping Maritime business and its economic impacts Maritime investments decision making Revenues and essay costs patterns in shipping Shipping finance Shipping investments. Cargo , Containerization , Logistics 368 Words | 3 Pages. Information School Dissertation Topics List 2014-15 If you are interested in any of the following dissertation . topics then please talk to industries the member of staff listed as the essay contact, to find out communities, more about 2nd amendment essay what might be involved. The following are not exhaustive lists of projects but do serve to mythology illustrate the essay sorts of communities, topic in which staff have expertise. If you are interested in a particular subject area/idea that does not appear anywhere below, then please talk to an appropriate member of academic.

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Automobile , Automotive industry , Chevrolet 880 Words | 3 Pages. Building Dissertation 443 Topic Proposal Assignment BUILDING DISSERTATION 443 TOPIC PROPOSAL . Title: LEAN SIX SIGMA: Analysis of its use within the Supply Chain of Oil and Gas Construction projects in Western Australia Name: Student Number: Unit Name: Email Address: Date Submitted: Daniel Foley 15487960 Building Dissertation 443 d_foley_@hotmail.com 27th March 2014 Word Count: 933 URL (if applicable): Curtin University of Technology By submitting this assignment, I declare. Instrumentation Industries? Lean manufacturing , Six Sigma 1455 Words | 7 Pages. MBA DISSERTATION MODULE PROJECT PROPOSAL Candidate Name……….…………………………………………………………………………….. Enrolment . Date.

Registration number: ……………………… Project Title: “A Critical Evaluation of the role of SDLC in project management at Infosys, Hyderabad (India)” Anticipated Hand in Date of Dissertation ……………………………………………………………….. Project Background: (Rationale for selection including previous work) In 21st century information technology. Data , Data analysis , Project management 2114 Words | 7 Pages. Fundamental Analysis on Automobile Sector. Introduction to 2nd amendment the Indian Automobile Industry Starting its journey from the day when the first car rolled on the streets of Mumbai in 1898, . the Indian automobile industry has demonstrated a phenomenal growth to this day. Today, the Indian automobile industry presents a galaxy of varieties and models meeting all possible expectations and globally established industry standards. Some of the leading names echoing in enchantress rapunzel the Indian automobile industry include Maruti Suzuki, Tata Motors, Mahindra and Mahindra. Automobile , Automobile industry in India , Automotive industry 33371 Words | 113 Pages. Brand Loyalty in Pakistani Automobile Sectors. Essay? ijcrb.webs.com MAY 2012 INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH IN BUSINESS VOL 4, NO 1 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BRAND TRUST, CUSTOMER . SATISFACTION AND CUSTOMER LOYALTY. (EVIDENCE FROM AUTOMOBILE SECTOR OF PAKISTAN) Talat Mahmood Kiyani (Corresponding Author) Assistant Professor Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Islamabad, Pakistan Mohammad Raza Ullah Khan Niazi Assistant Professor Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute. Brand , Brand management , Branding 2050 Words | 9 Pages.

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When considering different topics , you want to be sure that there are enough logical categories for your topic to meet the essay length requirements. Beds, for example, probably wouldn’t be a good topic since there aren’t that. Automobile , Biological classification , Essay 840 Words | 3 Pages. ? Dissertation Title Examining the Effectiveness of the ICSID (International Centre for Settlement in Investment disputes): comme ci comme . ca? Internal Mentor : Mr.Sujith.P.Surendran Asst.Professor UPES Industry Mentor: Ms.Anuradha R.V Partner,Clarus Law Associates Submitted By: A.K.Shivsulabh. Nambiar BBA.LL.B (Hons.) With Specialization in Corporate Laws, Semester IX, 5th Year 2009 - 2014 Batch College of Legal Studies University of Petroleum Energy Studies (UPES), Dehradun . Arbitration , Developing country , International arbitration 1420 Words | 7 Pages. Dissertation Submission Check List. Greek Underworld? DISSERTATION CHECK LIST Format of submission file | | * File format: .doc, .docx, .pdf (any of these 3) | | | * Name format: . Dissertation – Full name of student – ID number of student – Name of the course Eg: Dissertation – Nguyen Van A – 77111111 – MAITF01SG * Module: Dissertation * Full name of student: Nguyen Van A * ID number of student: 77111111 * Name of the course (MAITF cohort 1 in Saigon): MAITF01SG | | Cover page | | * Format of 2nd amendment essay, cover page should be the. 2008 , Academic publishing , Citation 2087 Words | 7 Pages. Impact of Recession on Automobile Industry. proposes to industries investigate the effects of recession on the automobile industry in world specifically in United Kingdom, United States, India and . 2nd Amendment Essay? Japan. This includes its effects on employment sector , advertisement sector , Research amp; Development Sector , Banking Sector and other sectors related to green mile book this, the effect on overall economy and the related terminologies thereof. Essay? Also, the green mile book aim is to the study of effect of recession on 2nd amendment essay downturn in automobile industry due to changes in Trade Agreements between two.

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In view of this, the essay study attempts to estimate the anne bradstreet economic performance of Indian automobile industry in terms of capacity utilization at an aggregate level. It estimates econometrically rate of capacity utilization in the industry at aggregate level and analyses its trend during the post liberalization period from. Essay? Automobile , Automotive industry , Automotive industry by country 2026 Words | 7 Pages. project report on automobile industry. ?PESTLE ANALYSIS OF AUTOMOBILE SECTOR OF INDIA: PESTLE Analysis PESTLE Analysis is a simple, useful and widely-used . tool that helps you understand the big picture of your Political, Economic, Socio-Cultural and Technological, Legal and Environmental aspects. As such, it is greek mythology underworld used by business leaders worldwide to build their vision of the future. PESTLE analysis is concerned with the environmental influences on 2nd amendment a business. Identifying PESTLE influences is a useful way of summarizing the.

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number-RD4004B69 Section-D4004 Regd. No.- 11003811 Course Tutor – Miss Karanjeet Kaur TOPIC -Robotics in vehicles (What is robotics, scope . of robotics in automobiles , existing and future trends) CONTENTS:- 1.Introduction 2.What is robotics? 3.History of Robotics and Robots. 2nd Amendment? 4.Scope of Robotics in various fields. 5.Scope of robotics in automobiles . 6.Current trends. 7.Future of Robotics in Automobiles . 8.References 1.Introduction This is the era of science. We are living. Artificial intelligence , Assembly line , Automobile 1144 Words | 4 Pages.

Introduction to green mile book Automobile Industry AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY Indian automobile industry has grown leaps and bounds . since 1898, a time when a car had touched the 2nd amendment essay Indian streets for the first time. At present it holds a promising tenth position in the entire world with being # 2 in two wheelers and # 4 in commercial vehicles. Withstanding a growth rate of 18% per annum and an annual production of more than 2 million units, it may not be an exaggeration to say that this industry in the coming years will. 1990s automobiles , 2000s automobiles , Automobile industry in India 1484 Words | 7 Pages. An Assignment on Impact of Globalisation on Automobile Industry. and the number of people in poverty declined. Underworld? Globalization and Automobile Industry Even though the automobile industry . is technologically advanced, the increasing integration of low-income countries into the global division of labor has put competitive pressure on 2nd amendment traditional automobile producing countries. New end-producers emerged in Asia, Latin America as well as Southern and greek underworld Central Europe. In addition, the automobile industries of Germany, Japan and the United States engaged in 2nd amendment outsourcing.

Automobile , Capitalism , Globalization 1931 Words | 6 Pages. a graphic designer, cricket would have been my second option. Dissertation is discourse a great platform to explore our interests as it helps in . learning more about our passion. As a cricket player/fan I have always been curious to learn more and more about this game. Therefore, relating that to my academics, I thought of incorporating my passion with my profession by analyzing the essay game of cricket from a commercial perspective. The main topic of my discussion is; To what extent has advertising and merchandising.

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Gun Control and the Second Amendment Essay - 1889 Words…

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Queens College English 110: College Comp. Below is an example of an ethnographic essay I wrote as an undergraduate. Notice the inclusion of 2nd amendment media: please experiment with additional media in green mile book your own essay. They hurt you at home and they hit you at school. They hate you if you’re clever, and 2nd amendment they despise a fool. Till you’re so fucking crazy, you can’t follow their rules. A working class hero is something to be. –John Lennon, Working Class Hero. The history of the working class man is one that has been constantly neglected in American society. The blue-collar worker, because his life does not have the power or wealth of the rich, rarely has the opportunity to tell his story. Instrumentation! Instead, our history books are filled with stories of 2nd amendment essay how he and death summary others like him were conquered by 2nd amendment, the rich and dominant.

And since his life has never much been thought of green mile book as important in essay the grand scheme of things, his existence is discourse, quickly forgotten once he passes on. Essay! The truth of the matter is, however, that his existence and history deserve to discourse communities be known. He’s a working man, a caring man, and a man who sacrifices his life simply to get by. His story is powerful, moving, and even to an extent, inspirational. Robert Alvarez is 2nd amendment, your average, run of the mill American of Mexican decent. He was born in a small, working class mining town.

His father was a blue-collar man, as were his grandfathers. He has worked with his hands his entire life and it is the only kind of green mile book work he has known. He knows what it is like to work hard for poor wages, struggle financially, and to surrender himself for the good of his family. And it is essay, because of all this that he is the perfect specimen of a blue-collar worker who deserves to have his story known to underworld a world that has shunned him and 2nd amendment essay his like in the past. I met with Alvarez at his home in the rural farming town of Safford. Outside the small house are five cars. Discourse Communities! Only two actually run. The other three, a badly oxidized, baby blue 1966 Plymouth Satellite, a rusting, navy 1972 Plymouth Duster, and a severely dinged up, silver and black 1979 Dodge Adventurer pickup, are former family cars that the owner hoped to restore after he retired. Now over two years since his departure, they remain in the same spots where they have sat for the last 15 years. Upon entering the house of the essay retired miner, one is taken aback by the heap of industries landscaping tools lying on his front porch. After 36 years working as a copper miner at Phelps Dodge and serving as his family’s primary source of income, the essay aging man now works as a gardener and takes the back seat as the money earner to his wife, Anna.

She works as a public school bus driver by discourse, day and in 2nd amendment essay the evening moonlights as a custodian. For Anna, an which archetypal character enchantress in the, 11-hour workday is not uncommon. Since Robert’s retirement, however, she no longer has to work alone cleaning the Medical Center of Eastern Arizona, the Arizona State Savings Credit Union, and the Graham County Chamber of Commerce. He willingly lends her a hand. “It gives us a chance to spend some time together,” she says. He greets me as I enter and we adjourn to the dining room table. He offers me a chair next to his. I gladly accept.

I notice that the table has an interesting floral arrangement in the center. It appears to have some sort of action figure emerging from the middle of it. I take a closer look and realize that it is the black Power Ranger. Alvarez catches me taking a peek at the toy and tells me it belongs to his grandson. 2nd Amendment Essay! “He pretty much runs the place,” he tells me as I crack a smile. I later learn that he was unable to be at the birth of his grandson–his first grandson. He was gone on a two-week detail for the National Guard. As I search my book bag for my tape recorder, Alvarez gets up. “Would you like something to drink? Soda, orange juice, beer?” he asks. “No thanks,” I tell him. I chuckle at the offer of beer. I think to myself how entirely inappropriate it would be to drink an alcoholic beverage at a time such as this.

He returns to the table with what appears to be a 40-ounce bottle of beer. I’m not able to distinguish what variety of beer it is; it’s still covered with the brown paper bag from the liquor store. He sets the cap on the table in front of him and I recognize the Budweiser lid. Indeed, a truly American beer. He sits down in his chair and mythology underworld leans back “Okay, now I’m ready,” he says right before he takes a big swig of his drink.

Alvarez is not like the average retired copper miner, if one can argue such a thing exists. No, Alvarez is essay, one of those men who you know has battled life from all possible angles. His dark brown eyes tell the story of a man who has seen many a bleak, cold day. His white hair is an indication of his age and acquired wisdom. His dark, weather-beaten skin exemplifies the many hours he has spent working in the sun and the laborious work he has subjected his body to for the instrumentation industries majority of his life. He lifts up a cigarette and 2nd amendment essay presses it between his lips. I watch with astonishment as he gracefully picks up his lighter and gently raises it to his face. His big, bulky fingers move with the mythology underworld greatest of ease.

They look strong, stronger than, I think to myself, any one of 2nd amendment my arms. It’s almost as if they are performing a perfectly synchronized dance, some sort of warped finger ballet. With his right dancers he grips the red lighter loosely but still firm. Character In The Story Rapunzel! His thumb works as the resistance on the wheel of the lighter and with one stroke, a perfect quarter-inch flame is born. With the cast of his left hand he creates a symmetrical half-dome shield to block any wind from extinguishing the 2nd amendment essay flame. The red glow of the burning tip of the unfiltered cigarette glows in the hand wall he has created and lights up the lower half of his face. He sets the burning Pall Mall down and takes another big drink of green mile book his beer. It doesn’t phase him a bit. Essay! He looks at mythology underworld, me, “Let’s get this started.”

Alvarez was born in 2nd amendment essay Bisbee, Arizona. His father, Francisco Alvarez, a 50-year-old miner and later janitor, married his mother, Maria, when she was 30. Robert was the oldest of his father’s new family (he had five other children from a previous marriage). His two brothers, Jim and which archetypal character enchantress story rapunzel Ronald, were nothing like their elder sibling. Instead of spending most of their time reading classic historical fiction, Jim and Ron were behaving like average adolescent boys their age.

The differences that distinguished Robert from his two younger brothers grew wider once their father died in 1955. I ask Alvarez if he was thrust into the position of male role model for his brothers after the death. “Definitely not,” he tells me. He fails to essay elaborate any more on the subject, and instrumentation I, instinctively, decide not to follow up on it. Something tells me not to press too deep into the subject. Essay! It appears he is not comfortable speaking of it. I’m disappointed in detecting this, but it is obvious there was some sort of clash of personalities between the three. Greek Mythology Underworld! To this day, the brothers seldom speak to 2nd amendment essay each other. Little Robert Carlos Alvarez was born on March 14th, 1943.

From an early age, he was recognizably intelligent. As a young boy he played the violin, excelled in mathematics and science, and death summary read everything he could get his hands on. His favorite tales were those of the chivalrous knights of medieval Europe, but he loved literature from all over the world. 2nd Amendment Essay! The book case near the entrance of industries his house is filled with a diverse collection ranging from Dostoyevsky to Dante to the Bhagavad-Gita . 2nd Amendment! He claims to mythology underworld have read the majority of works by these authors by the time he was 20 years of 2nd amendment age. These authors gave him a view of a world that was much bigger than Bisbee. Industries! And because of 2nd amendment this, they were his passports to the rest of humanity. At the age of 17, Alvarez enlisted in the Army.

His mother urged him not to leave, but he insisted. He needed to see the anne bradstreet world, he told her. All the 2nd amendment essay books he read as a youngster stirred his imagination. From the authors mentioned above, he held the green mile book belief that much of the people in world were suffering, and, for some time, Alvarez was in his heart a socialist. It wasn’t until the fifth grade, however, that he learned of his socialistic tendencies. Essay! “When I was in fifth grade there was a big witch-hunt effort in green mile book the US for communists. Essay! They were looking under every rock for them. Well, one day in class, I asked the teacher why some people had to of salesman summary be poor and others did not. I asked her if there was some kind of government that could make everyone the same. She told me there was and it was called communism. I almost shit! I thought communism was something bad.

It really wasn’t bad. People just didn’t understand it. People don’t understand suffering if they never really see it or experience it.” Once in the military, Alvarez’s idea of suffering changed. “It was like the 2nd amendment essay writers wrote but worse, way worse. The worst thing was the hunger. Starvation is a long, horrible process. I saw people dying in front of me. People living in green mile book these starving countries didn’t care about government or politics. They just wanted to survive.

The ordinary people wished the United States and everyone else would leave them in 2nd amendment peace. Poetry! They didn’t want to be bothered by political things. They were more concerned about essay, eating and discourse communities staying alive.” Upon returning to Bisbee from his military escapade, Alvarez found employment at the local Phelps Dodge mine and began his life following in the footsteps of his father and grandfathers. He applied for a position on a whim. “Well, I really don’t know why [I applied]. 2nd Amendment! I just did.” For Alvarez the prospects of communities becoming a laborer for the mine increased when he learned that the essay man in charge of employment knew his father. Green Mile Book! “He said ‘I’ll take your application and give you a call. Don’t even bother coming down.’ A couple of days later he called me at home. ‘Come on down here and we’ll get the paperwork’. Easy as that.”

The next day, November 21st, 1963, was Alvarez’s first day of his 36-year mining life. I’m careful not to say career when I describe his years of service to the mining industry because he claims it not to be a career. “I just thought of essay it as a job,” he explains as he takes yet another drink from his beverage. “All my life I never worked at a place where I thought of which archetypal is the enchantress rapunzel it as a career. I just worked and made the best of it. A job’s a job. As long as they keep paying me, I don’t give a care.” And Phelps Dodge did continue to pay him.

At 20, he was earning close to $500 a month. This was a dramatic increase for him considering he only made $173 a month in the military. The increase in 2nd amendment essay money prevented Alvarez from re-enlisting in the army and green mile book it kept him for the time being in Bisbee. The $500 a month wages he received, however, came at a price. 2nd Amendment! Alvarez worked underground for ten years in Bisbee. “It’s the dirtiest work you ever seen,” he tells me. “There’s mud, heat, water. It’s hot.” After hearing this, I question him further and ask him if he could describe in detail what an average day was like for him. He answers me, “a day in Hell.” I think he’s joking and death summary I giggle. Alvarez’s face is void of 2nd amendment emotion. He takes another drink from his beer. His time as an underground miner has paid its toll on bradstreet his health.

Even today, 26 years after he left Bisbee, his hearing is very bad and he smokes a pack of cigarettes a day. 2nd Amendment Essay! Although the smoking may not be directly related with his work in mines, his hearing definitely is. Greek! Workers underground were not supplied earplugs by Phelps Dodge when they would operate heavy-duty drills. Not that the earplugs would have made much difference. He refuses to wear a hearing aid. He prefers that people speak up to him instead.

Several times during the course of the interview I had to repeat questions so that he could hear them. Twice during the interview I had to speak at very unnatural tones, almost yelling at him. It seemed like my uncomfortableness in doing this humored him. Although Alvarez is not what one would classify as an alcoholic, he obviously enjoys his beer. 2nd Amendment Essay! Again, this can also be contributed to his experience as an underground miner in Bisbee. Everyday, after his shift Alvarez, along with other underground workers, would go directly to the local bar. “The bars would have what they called an after-shift drink, free. You’d go in, and as soon as you got in, they gave you a shot of whiskey . Which Is The Rapunzel! . . Of course, they gave it to you so you would start drinking more. You’d stay in there with the old timers. A lot of us got there at about 3:30. We’d stay there till about 5-6:00.

Except for the die-hard ones, they’d stay there half the night. “The miner’s drink was called a boilermaker. 2nd Amendment! It was a shot of greek whiskey and a beer. We’d have quite a few of those. You had to keep up with the others, no matter how much of a hangover you had the next day. You had to drink like Hell. The next day at work you’d damn near die sometimes. But, if you could keep up with them, you were one of them. Essay! You were a part of them.” Being a part of the underground clique was a major accomplishment for Alvarez. The pride is which archetypal character is the enchantress, evident in his disposition when he speaks of these miners.

His eyes light, and his voice picks up. He produces a smile. He even sets his beer down. It is clear that he cherishes the memories of risking his life working far below the surface with these men. “They were a different breed. They were like the infantry in 2nd amendment the Army. The infantry was supposed to be the discourse communities tough ones who could take anything. That’s what the underground miners were. They could take anything.” As he says this, I feel glad to know that he belonged to 2nd amendment something he considers to be special. Not long after that, though, I come to the conclusion that his inclusion in the group was special because it was the first and only time in his life when he was able to live in his Socialist ideal. Poetry! All the essay men were equal.

There were no rich or poor among them–they were all the same, all trying to live a simple life. Communities! Each person took care of themselves and everyone else. 2nd Amendment Essay! Why it came to be this way, I do not know. Perhaps it was because they saw what he saw and they lived what he lived; they knew each other’s suffering, financial and physical. Maybe it was because they sometimes spent more than 70 hours a week in tight closed spaces together. Who’s to say, but one thing is for sure: They were blue-collar men destroying their bodies for a company that could care less about them as individuals and instrumentation more as a commodity. They were brother-laborers linked together, attempting to essay shield themselves from an overbearing parent company. When I think of underworld it like this, Alvarez’s drinking, smoking, and hearing don’t seem like problems to 2nd amendment essay me. Green Mile Book! I realize that they are only tolls on essay his body; and that they have not affected his mind in the least. They may eventually cost him part of his life, but the life he has lived has brought the kind of discourse wisdom most of essay us can only dream of ever gaining.

He knows life and he knows how the world does and should work. All three are things that many can never find in lifetimes lasting a hundred years. After 11 years in green mile book Bisbee, Alvarez was transferred to a new mine in his present home of Safford. As for the reason for the move, he says, “I got chosen to essay come over here. The big producers got chosen, the ones who put out the most tonnage.” Other than the archetypal enchantress in the rapunzel comradeship of working underground, tonnage was another major part in his life as an underground contract miner. Tonnage is a slang term describing the amount of copper a miner digs out. After working up the ladder from an entry laborer, or mucker, he made his way to the alluring money associated with contract mining. Basically, the essay idea behind contract mining was that teams of men, usually four per greek group, would work in split shifts to 2nd amendment achieve a company set standard. The standard for the group took several factors of anne bradstreet poetry working conditions into consideration.

Things like underground temperature, how far ore needed to be moved, how many times ore needed to be moved, how far underground the mining was being done, and if there was the 2nd amendment essay possibility of the shaft caving in were all accounted for death of salesman summary, by the company in its decision of a standard. For Alvarez, a common standard set for his crews was 80 tons per day. Each man was responsible for 20 tons each. If the essay 80 tons were met, a bonus of 50 cents a ton was awarded by the company for the miners’ hard work. The system seemed reasonable enough for those motivated to work hard and willing to which archetypal enchantress be part of a team. 2nd Amendment! However, problems often did arise in industries the arrangement. “Sometimes you got teamed up with some other crew that didn’t want to work.” When this happened, the outcomes often resulted in 2nd amendment ill feelings between co-workers. “It used to get bad to anne bradstreet poetry where the day shift guys would go into the bar and start drinking and at eleven o’clock they’d be waiting outside for the other guys to get out. They’d start fighting.” The selection of Alvarez for the Safford mine was a wise one. At one point in his work underground, he was pumping out 25 tons of ore a day. This is 2nd amendment, when he says he was making the best money of his young life. “I was making really good money. That in itself was motivating me to work harder,” he says.

The money wasn’t everything, however. During this time, he met his first wife, Alice. He was 24 and ready to settle down. She was 22 and significantly younger in terms of what she had seen in life compared to him. The two were married March 21st of 1967. After eight months of marriage, Alice died during complications in childbirth. Alvarez, destroyed and distraught, was also out of work. A strike began the industries previous July and would continue up until the next April. He remained out of work until then. “It was a bad time in essay my life,” he says as he takes another drink from his beer. The strike ended quickly after and a few years later, Alvarez met his current wife, Anna.

The two instantly fell in discourse communities love. Anna had a child from a previous marriage, and 2nd amendment essay when the two married on March 21st, 1970, Alvarez adopted Gilbert Anthony as his own son. “I always thought of him as my boy. He was born the same day my wife died.” Two years after their marriage, he and Anna had their first child together, Frederick Robert. Anne Bradstreet Poetry! Ironically, Fred was born on Gilbert’s birthday, and the fifth anniversary of Alice’s death. Essay! With his second child, and happy marriage, things were beginning to green mile book look up for Alvarez.

Incidentally, the March 21st wedding of Robert and Anna coincidentally landed on the same day of his first wedding. Essay! Both weddings fell on a Saturday, Alvarez’s day off from work. From as far as Alvarez could remember, strikes were a regular occurrence at Phelps Dodge mines. “When I first started working in Bisbee, every three years there was a strike. Poetry! Every three years, never failed.” He pauses to essay take a drink of his beer. Anne Bradstreet! “Every three years the union would call a strike to negotiate contracts.” The union was something Alvarez never cared much for. He held a stereotype of all union members based on his experiences with them. Part of this stereotype came from his encounters with union representatives who pressured him to join the union. “The union guy would come over there and try to sign you up.

When you signed up, they finally would leave you alone. As long as you sign, they can take that money out of your paycheck. They used to essay take about $10 out. After that, they don’t bother you and you don’t bother them. I never made a union meeting in my life.” Other than the greed Alvarez saw in green mile book unions, the other part of the stereotype he held involved their indolence. Essay! “A lot of the union members were the lazy guys,” he says. He claims the union also prevented him from instrumentation industries, outputting tonnage by the number of rules and regulations it set up. “The union used to make up a lot of rules that would keep you from making money.” I ask for an example. “Like at lunchtime. You couldn’t blast more than ten sticks of 2nd amendment dynamite because the union members said the smoke would fill up all over and people couldn’t eat in the tunnels. It would be too much smoke for them.

For a lot of the real workers, the smoke would not bother them. Lunch was to eat not enjoy.” Alvarez’s solution to rules and regulations like this was to not get caught. “At lunchtime I would use 50 sticks of dynamite but only say I used 10. I wasn’t going to get less tonnage and lose my money for them.” Alvarez was turned in death a number of 2nd amendment times by the union and was dealt with by PD. “They just told me to anne poetry stop,” he says. He didn’t stop, however. “I’d just cool it down for a while. 2nd Amendment! Then, the next chance I got, I would do it again.” Alvarez put up with the union for the next 15 years, but in 1983, the shape of greek underworld unions at Phelps Dodge was undergoing a drastic change. More specifically, the company was in the process of essay eliminating them.

When Alvarez first started working in instrumentation Safford in April of 1975, a union did not exist at the mine. “They didn’t have a union in Safford. PD didn’t want a union, so there wasn’t one. The union was still around and real strong in Morenci, though.” Indeed, the union in essay Morenci was strong and of salesman summary held a considerable amount of influence in the company. Morenci is a 45-minute drive east of Safford. Essay! The town was, and still is, completely controlled by Phelps Dodge. The overwhelming majority of people who live there work for the mine. The union had to be strong in industries such circumstances. Employees would fight not only for working conditions but also living conditions. Essay! Often times, or more accurately, every three years, clashes between the two factions arose. The most heated clash, and the strike which drew enormous national and world attention for its government-aided striker loss, began July 1, 1983. It eventually ended led to green mile book the fall of the essay union in Morenci.

At the time of the strike, Alvarez had moved from the Safford mine, which had been closed in 1982, to greek underworld a division of small mines being prospected by PD. 2nd Amendment! However, for death of salesman summary, the two weeks preceding the strike up to the first day of the strike, he was working in Morenci as a loan from small mines. “I was loaned by small mines to 2nd amendment essay Morenci to clean copper out of a furnace. There were a few of us. We had to drill and blast it out. The first day of the death strike was the last day I worked in Morenci. Essay! They asked me if I wanted to stay there after the strike started but I said no. I left the mine, and outside thousands of people were lined up.

I didn’t get out of work until 7AM, but they left me alone because they knew I was leaving. Mythology Underworld! If they thought I was a scab, they probably would have killed me. I didn’t want to be a scab. I just wanted to 2nd amendment go back to small mines.” Alvarez did go back to small mines, but did not stay there long. “With small mines, PD was trying to look into little, old mines, mining claims all around that had been closed for decades. They were leasing them looking for ore.

The first place I went was Gallup, New Mexico. Discourse Communities! We went around looking in the hills looking for ore. PD thought that the old time prospectors had missed a lot of ore.” PD was wrong. The old prospectors of the area, using only hand tools, cleaned the hills surrounding Gallup of nearly all the ore. “The old miners dug out every little ounce of what there was,” recounts Alvarez. After PD decided small mines was a flop, Alvarez was asked to 2nd amendment work in Morenci. By this time, the strike was over a year old. He started in August of 1984. “By that time, there were a lot of openings, and lots of miners from all over the state were taking the [positions] over.” Demonstrators still lined the gates of the mine, and they continued to yell and spit at scabs entering the compound, but Alvarez paid no attention to them. Initially, Alvarez felt compassion for the strikers. Bradstreet! “When the essay strike first started, I felt sorry for the people, that’s why I didn’t stay to work there instead of small mines. I didn’t want to take their job away. They were just ordinary workers fighting for their cause.” After he says this, I ask him what caused the relapse in his judgment when he decided to work there a year later.

To this he replies, “the people changed. I didn’t feel sorry for them anymore. Anne Bradstreet! A lot of the pushy, union strikers ended up going back to work a year later. The one’s who made the most noise were some of the 2nd amendment essay first ones to come back. The strikers were outnumbered. Most of greek mythology underworld them went back to work, and they weren’t as solid. They got hungry.” He takes another drink of his beer. Alvarez was called a scab but it did not disturb him a bit.

People never approached him during his time off from 2nd amendment, work or threatened him like they did to other scabs. “I don’t give a damn about people or what they think of me. The strike was broken for all practical purposes and which character is the enchantress in the story rapunzel when I went in, I never had anybody come up to 2nd amendment essay me.” Alvarez’s family, however, did feel some anxiety from others in the community. One of Anna’s closest friends told her over the telephone one day that she no longer wanted to associate with her ever again. Debbie, Alvarez’s next child after Frederick, claimed to discourse be threatened on the playground many a time at essay, school by children of archetypal character in the story rapunzel strikers. Gilbert said his Catechism teacher, a wife of essay a demonstrator, harassed him. All this did die, however, as the strike came to an end and his life amid the is the enchantress story strike that was famous for failing went back to normal. Reflecting back on 2nd amendment essay the strike, Alvarez takes another drink from communities, his bottle and says this, “The union was going to break PD. Essay! It was too strong.

No one was able to work because there were so many rules and anne bradstreet regulations. That’s why they got rid of 2nd amendment it, and anne bradstreet poetry they went into a lot of debt to get rid of it. Looking back on it, though, I think PD had it all planned out for essay, years. They do need some kind of union, but they don’t need one no near as powerful as that one. Under the new PD, it’s to the point to which is the enchantress in the where they can’t form a union. The still need someone to stick up for the ordinary worker. Essay! It was just too powerful at industries, that time. “PD more or less dictates everything now for the worker.

But, I think this was planned a long time ago. One thing about PD, and that’s always been that way, is 2nd amendment, that they’re going to do what they want to do. It’s take it or leave it. You don’t like it, tough. Character Enchantress! You either keep working and not like it or you find another job.” Alvarez was able to raise five children and support his wife with his job at Phelps Dodge. He was also able to send three of his kids to 2nd amendment essay college and is planning on sending another next fall. He bought a house, 14 cars, and never missed a payment. He built a life with the money he earned at Phelps Dodge.

He sacrificed his hands, his lungs, his hearing, and more especially his liver for a company that paid him poorly for all he gave. Alvarez never complained about his job and still doesn’t. “I made a living off of death of salesman it. If they go broke tomorrow, I don’t care. 2nd Amendment Essay! If they went broke when I was working there, I would have found a job somewhere else. I never thought of it as a career. I’m not the type of person who is ambitious. I’m not trying to come out ahead. I’m just trying to make a life, that’s it.” After Alvarez tells me this, he takes another drink of his beer. As I watch him, I’m left breathless.

I think to communities myself that the man sitting across from me is the essay living quintessence of what the beaten up workingman is. He’s been dealt a less than average hand by life, but has been able to make the best of it. He’s a fighter who refuses to give up. Anne! He’s independent and never depended on a union or anyone else to stick up for him. He’s a family man who sacrificed himself to provide. The more I reflect on 2nd amendment this, the mythology underworld more I realize that he’s more than just the good guy who has been wronged by life. He’s a hero. But he’s a hero for more than just the workingman. He’s a hero for anyone who knows what it is like to work hard and get paid softly. He’s a hero for anyone who knows what it is essay, like to combat life from mythology, all directions. Essay! He’s a hero for communities, all those who can relate to the education life gives.

I realize that this man deserves to have his story recorded even if he is not as rich as Bill Gates or as powerful as Jess Jackson (both of whom will be remembered in history). His story needs to be shared, and I’m not just saying that because he’s my father. He’s my hero too.

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The Mozart effect: a review of literature. The mozart effect: a review of literature. The 1990s were given the name, “the decade of the brain” due to the numerous widespread advances made in understanding neuroanatomical and neurophysiological mechanisms. One particular topic that has received much attention is the effect of music on a person’s cognitive abilities. Several articles and 2nd amendment, news segments have focused on the relationship between students with formal musical training (having previously sung or played a musical instrument) and improved performance on standardized exams such as the green mile book SAT’s[1]. Such claims have been an impetus for many researchers to investigate the link between music and intellectual capacities.

Shaw suggested that listening to or learning to play a musical instrument enhances how humans process information[2]. Need essay sample on The Mozart effect: a review of literature ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. Whether it is surgeons who carry out 2nd amendment, their procedures while listening to music or pregnant mothers who place headphones on their stomach and play music to a fetus, researchers have explored the relationship between the greek mythology underworld context in which one listens to music and cognitive abilities. It has been suggested that playing a musical instrument and 2nd amendment, listening to music are as cognitively complex as speaking and reading since both require perceptual processing and quick sequencing of enormous amounts of information. In 1991 when French Researcher Dr. Alfred A. Tomatis coined the term Mozart Effect to of salesman summary describe the 2nd amendment influence of green mile book Mozart’s compositions to an individual’s cognitive abilities. But this term was popularized by Don Campbell in essay, his 1997 book The Mozart Effect. The Mozart Effect soon became media hype due to everyone’s desire to summary become smarter and Mozart effect promises to make you one[3]. However, the Mozart Effect theory was first heard about in essay, a more detailed fashion in 1993, when Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky demonstrated a relationship between listening to complexly composed music (that is, limited number of musical motives that appear in symmetry) and cognitive processing in the brain. They found that after college students listened to a particular musical piece (Mozart’s Sonata for anne bradstreet poetry Two Pianos in 2nd amendment, D Major; K. Archetypal Is The Enchantress In The. 448) for 10 minutes, it led to enhanced spatial reasoning lasting for about 10-15 minutes compared to controls.

Their findings engendered local and 2nd amendment essay, international interest seen in various ads suggesting that listening to Mozart CDs would make on smarter. The aforementioned results led to the development of in state-sponsored programs in underworld, Georgia and Florida that encouraged “parents to have their very young children listen to classical music in order to improve their thinking abilities”[4]. Talk about the huge market of this phenomenon, Campbell is not the only one exploiting it. The “Baby Mozart” “Baby Einstein” video Trend, parents buying all these products for smarter kids. In their groundbreaking study illustrating how listening to sophisticatedly composed music such as Mozart’s Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major (K.

448) could enhance spatial reasoning, Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky needed to demonstrate that the subject’s arousal rates were not solely responsible for 2nd amendment essay this effect. Though there are several denotations of arousal, for greek their paper, it has been defined as a condition that results to extreme effort or intense excitement. Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky wondered whether the simple introduction of noise (the classical musical selection) might have acted as a catalyst in augmenting one’s arousal. Manipulations of somatosensory input such as noise and light have been shown to increase arousal[5]. This question was particularly important to Rauscher, Shaw, and 2nd amendment essay, Ky’s findings because the data in the current literature suggested that arousal itself may have been beneficial effects upon the detection, storage, and utilization of information. Arousal is frequently assessed through recording physiological measurements such as heart rate, EEG, and green mile book, skin conductance. In Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky’s 1993 study, the essay subjects’ pulse rates were taken before and after each listening condition. An absence of significant alterations in the subjects’ pulse allowed Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky to exclude arousal as an obvious cause of any memory effects. It appears that the particular piece of Mozart mentioned earlier does not act as causative agent of arousal as supported by Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky (1993, 1995) in their preeminent study and follow-up investigations.

Rauscher, Robinson, and of salesman, Jens demonstrated that arousal characterized as enjoyment and musical appreciation were unlikely the basis of 2nd amendment essay beneficial outcomes whether it was a decrease in epileptiform activity in greek mythology, a comatose patient when Mozart’s sonata was played or improved performance with rats navigating through a maze after repeated exposure to Mozart’s sonata, these results cannot be attributed to 2nd amendment emotional stimulation[6]. In an effort to green mile book understand higher brain function, Vernon Mountcastle proposed a neuronal paradigm of the cerebral cortex that is based upon what he recognized as the columnar organizational principle[7]. Each minicolumn has three firing states, which Shaw called a trion and held is the source of higher brain functioning. Essay. These spatial-temporal firing-patterns are triggered by volitional and innate mechanisms which occur in families related by various symmetries and evolve in natural time sequences such as circadian rhythms. The development of these inherent patterns into specific temporal sequences allows for which archetypal character is the story the more complex spatial-temporal reasoning as they have the built-in ability to recognize, compare and find relationship among objects using symmetry operations to perform spatial recognition.

Building on this paradigm, Leng and Shaw suggested that music acts as a catalyst stimulating these inherent firing patterns associated with memory[8]. Shaw conjectured that higher brain functioning evolves from both learned and innate capabilities that can be remarkably refined when exposed to 2nd amendment complexly written music. Since neuronal development is communities, significantly impressionable during early childhood, recent research concerning the Mozart Effect has targeted this stage of development. Krumhansl and Jusczyk further supported the influence of the Mozart Effect in infants as they demonstrated that four-month-old infants have a remarkable preference for 2nd amendment essay hearing Mozart sonatas as they were written as compared to anne ‘unnatural’ versions[9]. Specifically, these infants listened significantly longer to the natural version of the Mozart minuets as compared to the unnatural versions. Shaw indicated that the 2nd amendment infants’ predilection toward the death of salesman unadulterated Mozart selection provided support for the claim that this music mimics an inherent neural language common throughout the mammalian cortex.

If Shaw’s postulates hold true, then that active involvement with music at an early age fosters development of essay long-term neural circuitry and, in-part improves other higher order neurological capabilities. Industries. Therefore, the introduction of music at such a critical point in development may actually enhance the physiochemical through which leaning takes place and in essence increase one’s capacity to retain information. 2nd Amendment Essay. With this line of industries reasoning in mind, it would seem quite plausible to suggest that the essay Mozart Effect may indeed improve memory function, particularly in instrumentation industries, early childhood. Although the scientific evidence is clearly supportive, there has been considerable debate regarding the preeminent findings of 2nd amendment essay Rauscher, Shaw and Ky that suggest a causal enhancement of reasoning by music. The widespread challenge of their conclusions prompted further investigation that not only focused on replicating the findings of their initial study, but broadening the green mile book scope of their claims as well. Subsequent investigations included further variation of essay subject age, length of exposure to green mile book this Mozart selection, and the level of involvement with music. This re-parametrization allowed for an examination of the 2nd amendment essay impact on younger participants as well as assessment of any relationship among exposure time, musical activity, and the resultant duration of the Mozart Effect. Rauscher designed a study that involved providing piano keyboard lessons to preschool children since the playing of this instrument relies heavily on spatial-temporal abilities (the group of skills theoretically enhanced by death of salesman summary the Mozart’s music)[10]. These abilities would be assessed and compared to 2nd amendment essay other conditions after a set period of green mile book time. Results from the preschool study demonstrated that children receiving six months of piano keyboard training improved on spatial-temporal reasoning by 30% more than children in [other conditions. Recognizing the significance of these findings, it may be argued that the duration of the Mozart Effect is not exclusively short-term.

Furthermore, enhancements in cognitive abilities are not restricted to those who learn to play a musical instrument and additional evidence supports such a claim. That is, Rauscher, Robinson, and Jens demonstrated that long-term listening to 2nd amendment essay the Mozart Sonata (K. 448) by rats led to improved learning performance in green mile book, a spatial maze relative to 2nd amendment essay the other listening conditions and that this enhancement was present after a four hour period had elapsed[11]. Results of this study were fourfold. First, it lent support that one does not need to which character is the enchantress story be proactive (that is, learn to play a musical instrument) in essay, order to benefit from the Mozart Sonata as there are benefits to character is the enchantress in the rapunzel be reaped by simply listening to 2nd amendment essay this music.

In addition, the other auditory conditions did not prove to bradstreet be advantageous for the rats in 2nd amendment essay, those settings. Thus, it provided evidence that the beneficial residual effects are exclusive to the Mozart Sonata. Moreover, these significant effects were unlikely due to elevations in anne bradstreet, arousal since other similar stimuli were used. 2nd Amendment. That is, as stated earlier, it is unlikely that the augmented spatial-temporal skills seen with those rats in the Mozart condition were a result of a sense of pleasure and green mile book, admiration for the selected musical piece. Finally, the influence of listening to this music continued beyond what is deemed as short-term.

Yet, even with the data available to support the Mozart effect there has been great difficulty generalizing these findings. In their effort to replicate the Rauscher et al. 1993 study, Kenealy and essay, Monsef found no significant difference in spatial task performance for those participants who listened to the identical Mozart musical selection using the same dependent measure (Stanford Binet’s Paper Folding and Cutting exercise)[12]. In addition, Cartens, Huskins, and Hounshell work through the use of a different dependent variable (the Revised Minnesota Paper Form Board Test). Cartens et al. randomly assigned subjects to two conditions, listening to Mozart’s K. 448 sonata and a silent condition[13]. However, they found no statistically significant difference in the performance between the instrumentation industries two conditions. The lack of consistency in replicating the Mozart effect by other scientists has limited the external validity of essay Rauscher et al.’s widely published study in 1993 and consequently resulted in some doubts. Discourse. The clear lack of ubiquitous empirical support has caused some to view their findings as highly questionable. Despite these inconsistent findings, further investigation of this relationship is warranted because of the potential practical and essay, clinical applications of the utilization of music as a therapeutic intervention in a diversity of settings[14]. Based on green mile book empirical data prior to Rauscher et al., Wolfe and Horn commented that the adjustment for children entering an academic environment might be difficult due to their lack of exposure to the structure activities needed for apprehending new skills[15].

For this reason, the accompaniment of music during a school activity may assist children in 2nd amendment essay, focusing on scholastic tasks. These findings suggest that children with short-term memory difficulties, whether due to hypoarousal, anxiety or personality may benefit from exposure to music prior to certain tasks that require memory. In addition to the educational arena, on-going research is examining the impact of the Mozart Effect as a medicinal intervention. One such area that has been investigated is its application with persons who have epilepsy[16]. According to Hughes, Fino, and Melyn, the Mozart Sonata can reduce brain seizures. The Mozart effect may also have some efficacy in bradstreet poetry, treating people who have Alzheimer’s disease. According to Johnson, Cotman, Tasaki, and essay, Shaw given that Alzheimer’s disease is recognized as a neurodegenerative disorder that impairs memory, spatial orientation, and language, the which archetypal is the in the aforementioned study provides empirical data indicating that listening to the identified Mozart selection may have a positive residual effect on higher-order brain processes[17]. Yet, it is important to 2nd amendment essay note that Johnson’s study provides limited external validity since its sample size was so small (one individual).

All things considered, if information processing may be enhanced by complexly composed music, then there is clearly a potential strategic role for music in educational and therapeutic settings. The value of a music-enhanced memory capacity is obvious and it is natural to remain hopeful. The prevailing literature has demonstrated that learning is a joint relationship between biochemical reactions and one’s environment. Death Of Salesman. It is 2nd amendment, postulated within the scientific community that when our brain is challenged we learn more and communities, such claims find support from many studies as shown here. Accordingly, listening to complexly written music may enrich our immediate environment and serve as a catalyst in essay, fostering development of green mile book our neural circuitry. The Mozart Sonata has been shown to prime cortical regions of the brain and has been implicated in activating specific structures with memory.

Based upon theoretical paradigms along with empirical data, researchers purport that the essay benefits of the Mozart effect art an increase in the ability to concentrate and focus one’s attention, improvement in the ability to follow directions and increase in the ability to listen attentively. If you give your children the anne bradstreet poetry gift of music, you are giving them an activity, hobby, avocation, or vocation that involves the greatest accomplishments of mankind. 2nd Amendment. The works of beauty created by composers throughout the centuries elevate a person’s spirits to a plane similar to deep meditation or prayer. Music allows you to transcend your surroundings and explore your emotions whether you are listening, performing or composing. Underworld. Scientists will debate the existence of the Mozart Effect without resolution, but that seems entirely appropriate given the many other mysteries that surround the life of essay Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Azar, B. “Music Is Instrument for Research on Cognition.” APA Monitor 23 (1996). Campbell, D. The Mozart Effect. Toronto: Avon Publishing, 1997. Cartens, C.B., E. Huskins, and G.W.

Hounshell. Green Mile Book. “Listening to 2nd amendment essay Mozart May Not Enhance Performance on the Revised Minnesota Paper Form Board Test.” Psychological Reports 77 (1995): 111-114. Hughes, J.R., J.J. Fino, and M.A. Melyn. “Is There a Chronic Change of The “Mozart Effect” On Epileptiform Activity? A Case Study.” Clinical Electroencephalography 30 (1999): 44-45. Jenkins, J.S. Instrumentation Industries. “The Mozart Effect.” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 94 (2001): 170-172. Johnson, J.K., C.W. Essay. Cotman, C.S. Tasaki, and G.L. Death. Shaw. 2nd Amendment Essay. “Enhancement of Spatial-Temporal Reasoning after a Mozart Listening Condition in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Case Study.” Neurological Research 20 (1998): 666-672. Kenealy, P., and A. Monsef. “Music and Iq Tests.” The Psychologist 7 (1994).

Krumhansl, C.L., and P.W. Jusczyk. “Infants’ Perception of mythology Phrase Structure in 2nd amendment essay, Music.” Psychological Science 1 (1990): 70-73. Leng, X., and G.L. Shaw. “Toward a Neural Theory of Higher Brain Function Using Music as a Window.” Concepts Neuroscience 2 (1991): 229-258. Linton, Michael. Death Of Salesman Summary. “The Mozart Effect.” First Things 9 (1999): 10-13. Rauscher, F.H. “A Cognitive Bases for the Facilitation of Spatial-Temporal Cognition through Music Instruction.” In Ithaca Conference ’96: Music as Intelligence: A Sourcebook, ed. 2nd Amendment. V. Brummet, 31-44. Archetypal Character Story. Ithaca, NY: Ithaca College, 1997.

Rauscher, F.H., K.D. Robinson, and J. Jens. “Improved Maze Learning through Early Music Exposure in Rats.” Neurological Research 20 (1998): 427-432. Rauscher, F.H., G.L. Shaw, and K.N. Ky. “Music and Spatial Task Performance.” Nature 365 (1993): 611. Revelle, W., and D.A. Loftus, “Handbook of Emotion and Memory: Research and Theory” http://pmc.psych.nwu.edu/revelle/publications/r191/rev_loft_ToC.html (accessed November 23 2007). Shaw, G.L.

Keeping Mozart in Mind. New York: Academic Press, 2000. Wolfe, D.E., and C. Horn. “Use of Melodies as Structural Prompts for Learning and Retention of Sequential Verbal Information by Preschool Students.” Journal of Music Therapy 30 (1993): 101-118. [1] Campbell, D. The Mozart Effect. Toronto: Avon Publishing, 1997. [2] Shaw, G.L. Keeping Mozart in Mind.

New York: Academic Press, 2000. [3] Linton, Michael. “The Mozart Effect.” First Things 9 (1999): 10-13. [4] Shaw. 2nd Amendment Essay. Keeping Mozart in green mile book, mind. [5] Revelle, W., and D.A. Loftus, “Handbook of Emotion and Memory: Research and Theory” http://pmc.psych.nwu.edu/revelle/publications/r191/rev_loft_ToC.html (accessed November 23 2007). [6] Rauscher, F.H., K.D. Robinson, and J. 2nd Amendment Essay. Jens. “Improved Maze Learning through Early Music Exposure in Rats.” Neurological Research 20 (1998): 427-432. [7] Shaw. Keeping Mozart in poetry, mind.

[8] Leng, X., and G.L. Essay. Shaw. “Toward a Neural Theory of Higher Brain Function Using Music as a Window.” Concepts Neuroscience 2 (1991): 229-258. [9] Krumhansl, C.L., and P.W. Jusczyk. “Infants’ Perception of Phrase Structure in Music.” Psychological Science 1 (1990): 70-73. [10] Rauscher, F.H. “A Cognitive Bases for the Facilitation of Spatial-Temporal Cognition through Music Instruction.” In Ithaca Conference ’96: Music as Intelligence: A Sourcebook, ed. Which Archetypal Is The In The Story Rapunzel. V. Brummet, 31-44.

Ithaca, NY: Ithaca College, 1997. [11] Rauscher, Robinson, and Jens. Improved Maze Learning. [12] Kenealy, P., and A. Monsef. “Music and Iq Tests.” The Psychologist 7 (1994).

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Essay: Listening comprehension in the EFL environment. LISTENING COMPREHENSION – THEORY OVERVIEW. This chapter contains an overview of essay, theory related to listening comprehension in discourse communities EFL environment. First, the importance of listening comprehension is discussed. Second, difficulties in listening comprehension for EFL learners are illustrated. Third, listening comprehension processing is discussed. 2nd Amendment. Fourth, evidences from previous related research that listening instruction could lead to improvement, as measured by pre-tests and post-tests, were discussed. Fifth, nature and characteristics of children’s learning are reviewed.

Lastly, research questions of the present study are stated. 1. The Importance of greek mythology underworld, Listening Comprehension. The increased importance of listening comprehension in language learning may be attributed largely to the development of communicative language teaching approach, which attempts to prepare learners to transfer their classroom skills to real-life context, over the past three decades (Asher, 1977; Krashen, 1982; Omaggio Hadley, 2001; Vande Berg, 1993). Essay. There has been a shift from non-teaching listening comprehension in the audio-lingual period to teaching listening comprehension in a strategy-based approach (Mendelsohn, 1998). Before World War II, the teaching of bradstreet, reading was given the most attention while that of listening comprehension was the essay, most infertile and greek underworld the least understood language skill (Winitz, 1981). Under the predominant audio-lingual approach in the 1960’s and the early 1970’s, the 2nd amendment, teaching of listening comprehension was still minor.

With the increasing interest towards communicative language teaching approach, several researches revealed the importance of bradstreet poetry, listening comprehension (Brown #038; Yule, 1983; Faerch #038; Kasper, 1986; Feyten, 1991; Long, 1985). Listening comprehension has ever since received a lot more attention in language teaching. On the 2nd amendment essay, one hand, technological advances and the growing awareness of the importance of listening in the world have made listening even more important in the communication process (Mendelsohn, 1998). In current globalized society, with universal and massive exposure to radio, television, satellite broadcasts, and instrumentation industries internet, individuals are expected to be increasingly prepared to receive information through listening and speaking, more than ever before (Dunkel, 1991; Vande Berg, 1993). On the 2nd amendment essay, other hand, some scholars (Nord, 1981; Wintiz, 1981) considered proficiency in listening comprehension as a necessary condition for acquiring production language skills, specifically speaking and writing. The comprehension-based teaching approach supports that students at the beginning level should be allowed to keep silent until they feel safe and ready to produce the target language. Thus, it can be reasonably concluded that students are probably engaged in listening before they are able to speak and write in the target language, which means that second language instruction at a beginning level should focus on discourse, developing learners’ listening comprehension ability. Still, other scholars (Dunkel, 1991; Long, 1985; Rost, 1990; Vogely, 1999) stressed that listening is important because it provides input as the raw material for learners to essay, process in of salesman language learning. 2nd Amendment. Without correctly understanding the input, any learning simply cannot begin (Rost, 1994). Furthermore, the failure of death, listening comprehension of the 2nd amendment, target language is an impetus, not merely an which, obstacle, to language learning as well as to 2nd amendment, communication interaction (Rost, 1994). The recognition of the communities, importance of listening comprehension has resulted in essay an increased number of death of salesman summary, listening activities in students’ textbooks and even in comprehension-based methodology texts designed specifically for teaching listening (Anderson #038; Lynch, 1988; Rost, 1990; Underwood, 1989; Ur, 1984).

Several studies have found that through the essay, use of effective pre-listening activities, instructors can increase students’ understanding of the listening passages, which in turn develops their listening proficiency and contributes to greek mythology, their mastery of the target language (Herron, 1994; Richards, 1983; Rubin, 1994; Teichert, 1996; Vande Berg, 1993). 2. Difficulties in Listening Comprehension for EFL Learners. The first difficulty in listening comprehension for EFL learners is that they are less likely to share the same schema with native speakers (Ur, 1984; Harmer, 2001). As Kant (1781/ 1963) claimed, new information, new concepts, and new ideas can have meaning only when they can be related to 2nd amendment essay, something the individual already knows. This applies as much to second language comprehension as it does to comprehension in one’s native language. The empirical research in the related field has come to which archetypal is the in the story rapunzel, be known as schema theory and has demonstrated the truth of Kant’s original observation and of the opening quote from 2nd amendment essay Anderson et al (1977). Schema theory research has shown the importance of background knowledge in language comprehension (Bartlett, 1932; Rumelhart, 1980; Rumelhart #038; Ortony, 1977). According to schema theory, a text provides directions for listeners or readers as to of salesman, how they should retrieve or construct meaning from their own previously acquired knowledge.

This previously acquired knowledge is called the listeners’ or readers’ background knowledge, and 2nd amendment essay the previously acquired knowledge structures are called schemata (Bartlett, 1932; Adams #038; Collins, 1979; Rumelhart, 1980). The prior knowledge, or schema, that a L2 listener brings to the listening task plays a vital part in interpreting the material, and is the enchantress in the rapunzel should be considered in 2nd amendment essay the evaluation of green mile book, learners’ listening comprehension (Long, 1990; Raphan, 1996). Based on schema theory, the process of 2nd amendment essay, interpretation and comprehension is guided by the principle that every input is instrumentation industries mapped against some existing schema and that all aspects of that schema must be compatible with the input information (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). Efficient language comprehension requires the ability to relate the textual input to one’s own background knowledge, which means that understanding words, sentences, and entire texts relies not merely on one’s linguistic knowledge but also the 2nd amendment essay, knowledge of the world (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). According to Richards (1983), much of our knowledge of the world is organized around scripts, which is our memory about industries particular situations, the goals, participants, and procedures commonly associated with them, and the information needed to understand is therefore not explicitly present in the utterance but is provided by the listeners from 2nd amendment their repertoire of scripts.

This means that the connections between events need not be specified when we talk about them, since they are already known and can be inferred. Discourse Communities. Without the right kind of pre-existing knowledge, or relevant script, comprehension may become very difficult (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983). Non-native speakers may have a different shared knowledge of cultural reference and discourse patterning in 2nd amendment their own language and culture; their individual scripts may differ in instrumentation certain degree and content from target language scripts, and 2nd amendment essay that poses additional problems for some foreign language learners who have to work twice as hard to understand what they hear. (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983; Underwood, 1989). The second difficulty is that EFL learners are usually much less familiar with different accents and that they sometimes have considerable problems when they encounter a new accent in the listening process (Kennedy, 1978). Accent is potentially an important variable in listening comprehension (Buck, 2001).

Many foreign-language learners who are used to the accent of their own teacher are surprised when they find they have difficulty understanding someone else (Ur, 1984). An unfamiliar accent can cause problems in communication and may disrupt the whole comprehension process (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991). Native speakers are generally used to listening to a variety of accents while EFL learners are less exposed to bradstreet, different accents (Buck, 2001). Besides, learners who have more experience in listening to and understand a number of different accents are more likely to be able to cope successfully with listening tasks than those who have only heard one or two (Ur, 1984). 2nd Amendment Essay. Therefore, it seems reasonable to discourse communities, conclude that it generally takes a L2 learner much longer to essay, adjust to the voice if the which archetypal is the in the story rapunzel, accent is essay very different from any with which he is familiar than a native speaker (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991).

The third difficulty is that EFL learners are less capable of perceiving prosodic features in English speech which have a direct impact on how listeners process and discourse interpret discourse segments (Buck, 2001; Lynch, 1998; Rubin, 1994). 2nd Amendment Essay. The rhythmic pattern of spoken English is one of communities, its distinctive features (Richards, 1983). Unlike many languages in the world that are syllable-timed, which means that the length of time required to pronounce an utterance depends upon the number of syllables it contains, English is a stressed-timed language (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). What this means is that the time between stressed syllables is reasonably constant in any utterance, and the remaining syllables in the utterance, no matter how many there are, must accommodate to 2nd amendment essay, the rhythm established by the stressed syllables (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995). As a stressed-timed language, the following English sentences would take about the same amount of time to articulate, even though the number of syllables contained in each sentence is very different (Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995):

The CAT is communities INTerested in proTECTing its KITTens. LARGE CARS WASTE GAS. The result of the stress-timed language is that the essay, words between the instrumentation industries, stressed syllables are pronounced very quickly, with no stress or mild stress, and if there are more words they are pronounced even quicker to fit in 2nd amendment essay the short time, subjecting to considerable phonological modification (Buck, 2001). Also, Vanderplank (1988) argues that perception of stress is an important factor in rapid and efficient listening comprehension. Death Of Salesman Summary. This adds another dimension to the listener’s task, since listeners must learn the complex set of rules that determine the essay, pronunciation of connected speech and be able to death of salesman, identify words according to the rhythmic structure within which they occur (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). 2nd Amendment Essay. Any lack of anne bradstreet poetry, such phonological knowledge can pose comprehension difficulty (Buck, 2001). In the research of Henricksen (1984), most native speakers had little difficulty understanding words in their modified form in essay an utterance whereas the presence of phonological modification significantly reduces comprehension for bradstreet poetry, second-language listeners. In addition, Vanderplank (1985) found interesting differences in 2nd amendment essay native speakers’ and non-native speakers’ ability to perceive stress by which archetypal character is the in the story rapunzel addressing that ‘native speakers were in general agreement as to 2nd amendment essay, sentence stress location, while only a small number of non-native speakers agree with native speaker judgments as to stress location, and the ability to perceive stress location was not significantly linked to death of salesman summary, level of English ability in learners’ (p.

38). Still, Bond and Garnes (1980) agree that speech perception is also subject to what they call ‘heuristic strategies’ such as paying attention to stress, intonation patterns, and stressed vowels. Therefore, listeners need to know how the sound system works in English speech, in essay order to be able to process natural listening task in real time (Buck, 2001). The fourth difficulty is that hesitation and pausing could cause perceptual problems and thus comprehension errors for non-native speakers (Voss, 1979). In his study, 22 non-native speakers of industries, English were asked to listen to a passage of spontaneous speech, about 210 words long. Results indicated that nearly one-third of all perception errors were related to hesitation phenomena. These errors were due to 2nd amendment, listeners’ either misinterpreting hesitations as words, or parts of words, or to misinterpreting parts of words as hesitations (Voss, 1979). Discourse. In contrast, some researches indicated that hesitation and pausing help listening comprehension (Blau, 1990; Blau, 1991; Dunkel, 1988; Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). However, Voss is the only one among these researchers who used real and 2nd amendment essay spontaneous speech.

All of the other studies used a written text read aloud. Voss (1979) suggests that native speakers are usually not bothered by hesitation phenomena since they possess strategies to recognize and process such phenomena while focusing on underworld, meaning, and non-native speakers get stuck in bottom-up processing of phonetic utterances that do not affect meaning, while native speakers discard these utterances in favour of 2nd amendment, top-down processing. There are indications that in underworld some cases hesitation and pausing can help listening comprehension, and in others they may cause problems (Buck, 2001). 2nd Amendment. In the researches of Friedman #038; Johnson (1971) and Johnson #038; Friedman (1971), pauses inserted at meaningful syntactic boundaries can benefit comprehension, whereas random pauses do not. When one-second pauses were introduced into a text at the juncture between clauses, comprehension improved, while pauses inserted randomly into the text resulted in lower levels of comprehension (Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). Death. Consequently, the ability to understand spoken English must include the 2nd amendment essay, ability to deal with hesitation and greek underworld pausing (Buck, 2001). Hesitation and pausing also affects our impression of the pace of speech (Richards, 1983). The impression of faster or slower speech generally results from the 2nd amendment, amount of pausing that speakers use (Richards, 1983). Communities. Stanley (1978) suggests that when speech was faster, language learners ‘constantly failed to perceive individual phonemes and hence words with which they were already familiar’ (1978: 289). Comprehension declines as the speakers talk faster, and the weight of the evidence suggests that the decline in 2nd amendment comprehension is rather slow until a threshold level is reached, at which time an increased speech rate leads to green mile book, a much more rapid decline in comprehension (Buck, 2001).

Griffiths (1990) found potential evidence that speech faster than two-hundred words per minute (w.p.m.) is difficult for lower-intermediate learners to understand. He found that this level of 2nd amendment essay, students perform best at 127 w.p.m. Moreover, Griffiths (1992) investigated the effects of three different speech rates (127, 188, and 250 w.p.m.) on listening comprehension of second-language learners and concluded that comprehension was significantly better at the slowest speech rate and worse at the higher rates. On the other hand, Blau (1990; 1991) found that speech ranging from 145 to 185 w.p.m. did not significantly affect listening comprehension of intermediate- and advanced-level L2 learners. As for mythology, the general concept of speech rate, Rivers (1981) cites the following figures: Fast: above 220 w.p.m. Moderately fast: 190-220 w.p.m. Average: 160-220 w.p.m. Moderately slow: 130-160 w.p.m. Slow: below 130 wpm.

Besides, Sticht (1971) quotes a normal speech rate of 165 to 180 words per minute for native speakers of 2nd amendment, English. Based on the researches abovementioned, speech rate is one of the variables that affect listening comprehension, which may relate to text variables, such as vocabulary, syntax or topic, type of text used, and amount of green mile book, background knowledge required (Buck, 2001; Rubin, 1994). The fifth difficulty is that learners tend to think they have to completely understand what they hear, consequently causing anxiety (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984). Most foreign-language learners run into a psychological problem: they have a kind of obligation to essay, understand everything, even things that are not important, and they feel discouraged and may even completely give up listening if they encounter an incomprehensible word (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984). Foreign language beginning learners have to understand all when they hear only single words or short sentences. However, when listening comprehension passages get longer, they still assume that total comprehension is discourse communities successful comprehension, and find it very difficult to get used to the idea that they can be competent listeners with less than one hundred percent comprehension (Ur, 1984). From the anecdotal evidence in the research of essay, O’Malley et al. (1989), it is found that ”effective listeners seemed to which archetypal is the enchantress in the story, be aware when they stopped attending and made an effort to redirect their attention to 2nd amendment essay, the task’ (p.

428) and ‘ineffective listeners reported that when they encountered an unknown word or phrase in a listening text, they usually just stopped listening or failed to be aware of their inattention’ (p. 428). Foreign-language learners have this difficulty probably because their receptive system is overloaded (Ur, 1984). They have to work much harder at decoding than native listeners and try to interpret every detail as it comes up instead of relaxing and anne poetry taking a broader view. Compared with reading and 2nd amendment writing, listening is more stressful for learners since it involves serious time constraints on processing, which cause learners’ anxiety (Ur, 1984). 3. Listening Comprehension Processing. Most models of listening perception in death of salesman language learning include what is usually referred to as top-down, bottom-up and interactive processing. 3.1.

Top-down processing. In top-down processing, the 2nd amendment essay, listeners need to use their pre-existing knowledge to interpret or get a general view of the listening passage and to create appropriate and plausible expectation of what they are about to come across (Harmer, 2001; Goodman 1967; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991; Smith 1971). Top-down processing occurs as the perceptual system makes general predictions based on general schemata, or prior knowledge, and then searches the anne poetry, input, either visual or auditory, for information to fit into, or verify these predictions, and thus top-down processing is conceptually-driven or knowledge-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991). In the essay, study of Shohamy and Inbar (1991), it was reasonably hypothesized that listeners who employed a knowledge-based approach first made predictions about the passage they were about to listen to, basing their predictions on the questions they previewed prior to listening. In the first listening listeners might have checked their hypotheses and only afterwards, in a second listening, may have filled in the information gaps by supplying the local cues. Bacon (1989) and green mile book Vande Berg (1993) found that appropriate pre-listening activities could benefit learners’ comprehension for 2nd amendment essay, various listening exercises. Advance organizers, such as brainstorming (Vande Berg, 1993), illustrations and key words (Teichert, 1996), picture prediction (Harmer, 2001) and making inferences after listening to a series of sentences (Brown, 2001), can be used to communities, facilitate learners’ top-down processing and essay help them be engaged in listening tasks. 3.2.

Bottom-up processing. In bottom-up processing, the listener focuses on individual words and phrases by decoding the linguistic input rapidly and is the accurately to refute implausible interpretation, and 2nd amendment achieves understanding by combining these detailed elements together to build up a whole view of the bradstreet, listening passage (Harmer, 2001; Carrell 1983, 1988; Carrell #038; Eisterhold 1983; Rost 1990). Thus, bottom-up processing is data-driven or text-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Rubin, 1994). There are two types of essay, comprehension strategies identified by Van Dijk and Kintsch (1983): one is local strategies which require learners’ attention to relations and links between the facts denoted by local clauses and instrumentation industries sentences, and essay the other is archetypal enchantress in the story rapunzel global/ macro-strategies which require a focus on the overall coherence, gist or topic of a text. 2nd Amendment Essay. Based on the statements above mentioned, it can be concluded that the local strategies are related to bottom-up processing while the enchantress in the rapunzel, global/ macro-strategies are related to top-down processing. Kelly (1991) proposed that in the early stages of foreign language learning, learners rely very much on bottom-up processing when listening and only when they consider that they are making progress to the proficiency and 2nd amendment essay skills in the foreign language, they bring into semantic and other knowledge related to top-down processing. Some bottom-up pre-listening activities were proposed by several researchers to make listening comprehension easier. Providing listeners with key vocabulary before listening proved valuable in Raphan’s (1996) and Rost’s (2002) studies. Harmer (2001) mentioned a bottom-up processing activity of finding differences between a written text and a recorded account of the same events that can be implemented in teaching listening. Death Summary. Another bottom-up activity for essay, beginning listeners is to listen to a series of sentences and then circle one (out of three) verb form contained in the sentences (Brown, 2001).

3.3. Discourse Communities. Interactive processing. Listening comprehension is 2nd amendment considered by some researchers as an interactive process between top-down and bottom-up processing and as a continuous modification of a developing interpretation in response to incoming information and green mile book pre-existing knowledge (Brownell, 1996; Buck, 1991; Harmer, 2001). Perception occurs when sufficient information has been provided both from the expectations set up by top-down processing and 2nd amendment essay from linguistic input by of salesman summary bottom-up processing (Kelly, 1991). According to 2nd amendment, Kelly (1991), if the sound signal is weak, obscured or incomplete, the listener will probably make greater use of top-down processing; similarly, it is when the listener’s expectations are low or not sensible that he will need to rely more on the sensory level and to hear clearly what is being said by bottom-up processing, and such view of is the enchantress in the, perception processing would probably fit in with almost all current models of auditory speech perception. Similarly, some studies have indicated that effective listening comprehension takes place when the listener can successfully monitor their interpretation by constantly checking it against 2nd amendment the incoming linguistic cues and to modify their hypotheses accordingly (Tyler #038; Warren, 1987; Buck, 1990).

In his research, Buck (1990) indicated that a number of listeners monitored the of salesman, incoming information with what they had already heard before or with their background knowledge to develop their interpretation of the essay, listening text. Death Of Salesman Summary. Further, there were instances in his study that serious comprehension problems had occurred when listeners failed to 2nd amendment, notice their developing interpretations were incompatible with the green mile book, incoming information. In addition, O’Malley, Chamot, and Kupper (1989) indicated that bottom-up processing is only fragmentary for efficient EFL listeners; they activate more L1 knowledge in the form of schemata and use both top-down and bottom-up strategies to construct meaning. Hildyard and Olson (1982) found that efficient listeners and readers use the knowledge-based interactive mode of text processing, while low level students relate mostly to local details. According to Rumelhart (1980), both top-down and bottom-up processing should be occurring at all levels simultaneously: bottom-up processing ensures that the 2nd amendment, listeners will be sensitive to information that is new or contradictory to their ongoing hypotheses about the discourse, text; top-down processing helps the listeners to resolve ambiguities or to select between alternative possible interpretations of the incoming data. 3.4. Effectiveness of top-down and bottom-up processing. There is 2nd amendment essay continuous discussion about the role of top-down and bottom-up processing in listening comprehension, but little could we conclude whether top-down or bottom-up processing is anne poetry more important to a listener. Some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension depends more on top-down processing. 2nd Amendment Essay. In the researches of Carrell #038; Eisterhold (1983), Conrad (1981, 1985), Hildyard #038; Olson (1982), Kelly (1991), Meyer #038; McConkie (1973), Rumelhart (1983), Shohamy #038; Inbar (1991), Van Dijk #038; Kintsh (1983), it is found that skilled listeners, like proficient readers, use a knowledge-based mode of text processing, namely top-down processing, whereas less-skilled listeners and discourse communities readers both attend mostly to local details as in the bottom-up processing. Similarly, Voss (1984) found that ‘successful speech perception depends on an active reconstruction process applying top-down strategies to 2nd amendment, the acoustic input, i.e., assigning ultimate values to segments and other lower-order units on mythology underworld, the basis of hypotheses about a larger stretch’ (p.

148). In Weissenreider’s (1987) study, schemata which are crucial in top-down processing were found to be beneficial in listening comprehension. 2nd Amendment Essay. Her results show that both textual schemata (knowledge about the newscast processing) and content schemata (topic familiarity with specific news) help the mythology underworld, listening comprehension of non-native speakers, particularly when participants are capable of essay, incorporating cognitive strategies. Lund (1991) provides evidence for top-down processing in his study by comparing listening and reading of first-, second-, and third-semester university students of German. He concluded that participants relied considerably on top-down processing in listening tasks. Wolff (1987) worked with twelve- to eighteen-year-old German students of character enchantress in the rapunzel, English and found that while students appeared to make a simultaneous use of bottom-up and top-down processing with an easy listening text, they used more top-down processing strategies for more difficult texts. In addition, some researches indicated that beginners rely very heavily on background knowledge and hardly use other cues in essay listening comprehension while learners with better linguistic proficiency use their greater linguistic knowledge and discourse experience to 2nd amendment, help them understand a text (Mueller, 1980; Vandergrift, 1997). Thus, providing background information and archetypal is the enchantress in the story rapunzel previewing are particularly important and 2nd amendment effective for the less proficient language student to comprehend a text (Hudson, 1982).

Nevertheless, some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension relies more on bottom-up processing than on top-down strategies. Schemata in which archetypal is the story rapunzel top-down processing can also have dysfunctional effects on listening comprehension (Long, 1990; O’Malley et al., 1989). In Long’s (1990) study, participants completed a survey of their background knowledge of two topics used, namely, gold rush and rock groups, and 2nd amendment he found that participants overextended their gold rush schemata onto a set of data that were clearly incompatible. It is green mile book clear, then, that schemata can hurt, as well as help listening comprehension and it can also be inferred that linguistic knowledge plays a prominent role in comprehension when appropriate schemata are not available to the listener (Long, 1990). 4. Evidences from 2nd amendment Previous Research Related to Listening Comprehension.

Results from previous research that instruction can lead to of salesman summary, listening improvement, as measured by pre-tests and post-tests, are inconsistent. On the one hand, there was no significant improvement in the studies of Johnson and Long (2007), O’Malley et al. (1985), and McGruddy (1995). Johnson and Long (2007) assessed listening competency of college students through the Watson-Barker Listening Test (Watson #038; Barker, 2000). There were no significant differences between the scores of pre- and post-test after listening instruction, indicating that listening instruction did not influence performance-based listening ability. O’Malley et al. (1985) found differences, but not statistically significant, in the scores at 2nd amendment essay, the post-test of EFL learners who received different types of listening instruction. In the research of McGruddy (1995), significant differences in mythology underworld pre-test and 2nd amendment post-test were observed merely in a non-standardized listening test rather than in a standardized test. On the other hand, some studies revealed more success in terms of listening instruction. In the study of Nichols, Brown and Keller (2006), the instrumentation industries, trained group of 31 freshman students made significant gains in scores during the period of listening instruction.

In Kohler’s (2002) study, 70 learners of Spanish at essay, a university received listening instruction. Their listening comprehension significantly increased, compared with the green mile book, non-intervention group. However, there does not appear to have been a pre-test of learners’ listening comprehension, without which it is difficult to conclude Kohler’s claim of significant improvement in listening comprehension of the experimental group. In addition, in the study of Graham and Macaro (2008), 151 senior high school students of French as a foreign language in essay England were targeted, and a positive impact of listening strategy instruction was noticed. Students who underwent listening instruction significantly outperformed those who did not receive such instruction, and greek students reported that they themselves recognized this improvement. 5. Characteristics of Children’s Learning. Based on the theory of Piaget and Inhelder (1969), there are four phases of children’s cognitive development, which are sensory-motor period, preoperational period, concrete operation period and formal operation period. The period of concrete operation generally represents the elementary school students, ranging from 7 to 12 years old. Children in the concrete operation period begin to think logically. Operations are associated with personal experience and 2nd amendment are in concrete situation, but not in abstract manipulation. Children’s learning in anne bradstreet poetry this period relies heavily on operational activities, such as objects, pictures and physical experiments.

Another theory concerning children’s learning is the scaffolding theory (Wood, Bruner, #038; Ross, 1976) which was developed based on the concept of zone of proximal development proposed by Vygotsky (1978). Zone of proximal development refers to the differences between the level of actual development and the level of potential development; the level of actual development means children’s actual independent problem-solving competence while the level of essay, potential development means children’s problem-solving competence developed either through the leading or guidance from adults or instructors or through the collaboration or cooperation with more competent peers (Wertsch, 1984). The zone, or the difference, of proximal development does not mean a fixed distance or concrete space of learning; rather, it refers to death summary, the possible, learnable scope created by the interaction between people and its changes with the development of individuals (Cole, 1985; Moll, 1990). Scaffolding, when applied in essay teaching practices, generally refers to the development of learners’ gradual comprehension of green mile book, knowledge through the interaction between the instructor and 2nd amendment the learners. In such interaction, teachers, as assistants in poetry children’s learning process, provide necessary assistance to 2nd amendment, foster learners’ cognition with the consideration of greek mythology, learners’ development level. The interaction which is the scaffolding in the teaching process generally follows the pattern of 2nd amendment, question asking from the teacher, replying from students, specific guidance of asking further questions from the teacher, and then replying from discourse students. According to 2nd amendment, Harmer (2001), young children learn differently from adolescents, and adults in many ways. Children tend to respond to meaning even if they do not understand individual words. They learn from is the enchantress rapunzel everything around them rather than only focusing on the precise topic they are being taught.

Their understanding comes not just from explanation, but also from what they see and hear and, crucially, from what they have a chance to touch and essay interact with. In addition, children have a limited attention span, unless activities are extremely engaging or interesting they can easily get bored, losing interest after around ten minutes. In the light of these characteristics, teachers at this level need to provide a rich diet of anne poetry, learning experiences which encourages students to get information from 2nd amendment a variety of anne bradstreet, sources (Harmer, 2001). In addition, in the process of scaffolding in teaching, it is essential for 2nd amendment, teachers to be skilful in asking questions to instrumentation industries, activate students’ thinking and creativity, which are helpful in deepening and broadening the language development of the students. Teachers are suggested to avoid closed-ended, unimportant or forcing questions, but to provide open-ended, supportive or guiding ones to encourage the interaction between teachers and 2nd amendment essay students. Teachers need to work with their students either individually or in groups to develop good relationships, and need to plan a range of enchantress story rapunzel, activities for a given time period, and to be flexible enough to move on to the next exercise when they see their students getting bored. 6. Research Questions of the Present Study. Listening comprehension is important for EFL learners. 2nd Amendment Essay. Beginning instruction in bradstreet a second language should focus on developing learners’ listening comprehension. In Romania, formal EFL beginning instruction falls in elementary education, a phase in which listening comprehension should be paid attention to.

It is essay likely that listening instruction in greek elementary school puts more emphasis on bottom-up listening processing than on top-down processing. As Kelly (1991) noted, EFL beginning learners rely very much on bottom-up listening processing, it is possible for elementary students to resort more to bottom-up processing when listening. Although some studies have investigated either the effects of different advance organizers on listening comprehension of undergraduate and junior-high school students (Sherman, 1997; Vande Berg, 1993; Herron, Hanley, #038; Cole, 1995) or how to essay, teach high school students listening skills more effectively, little research has been done regarding the teaching of listening in elementary school, which is the beginning level of EFL learners. From the above discussion in green mile book the theory review, little research has targeted elementary EFL learners in terms of listening instruction. The effect of listening instruction, as measured by 2nd amendment essay pre-tests and post-tests, are inconsistent in previous research which mostly involved undergraduate and greek underworld high school students. Although it is apparent that listening involves both top-down and bottom-up processing, most elementary English learners tend to focus on bottom-up rather than top-down processing (Kelly, 1991). Therefore, it would be valuable to investigate the effect of listening instruction as well as the listening processing of elementary EFL learners. The present study focused on three research questions: (1) Do interactive processing teaching activities result in better listening performance than bottom-up teaching activities? (2) Why or why not? (3) When do elementary EFL learners rely on essay, top-down processing, bottom-up processing and interactive processing? To address the which archetypal character enchantress in the story, research questions, comparison of performance between two groups was conducted after the two groups of participants had respectively received a series of listening instruction, namely interactive pre-listening activities and 2nd amendment bottom-up pre-listening activities so that the effectiveness of different pre-listening activities could be evaluated to investigate whether interactive processing activities lead to better performance than bottom-up processing activities. Furthermore, a questionnaire was administered for the interactive group after the post-test to investigate when elementary EFL learners rely on top-down processing, bottom-up processing and interactive processing. Search our thousands of which archetypal character is the in the story, essays:

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This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in essay your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Listening comprehension in the EFL environment . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/education/essay-listening-comprehension-in-the-efl-environment/ [04-10-17]. If you are the character is the in the rapunzel, original author of this content and no longer wish to 2nd amendment, have it published on our website then please click on the link below to greek underworld, request removal: 13-09-17 - Management strategies on learner discipline 27-05-17 - The challenges of essay, trilingual education in Kazakhstan 24-05-17 - Motivation and speaking skills 03-05-17 - Academic libraries 25-04-17 - Clinical education 18-02-17 - Instructional Simulation 21-12-16 - Motivation of teachers - Teaching foreign languages in Romania – the rank of the ESL 11-11-16 - ETHICS FOR LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE (LIS) PROFESSIONALS 26-08-16 - INITIATING IMPROVISATION (USED AND UNUSED MATERIAL) WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF ART EDUCATION PRACTICE.

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essay on duty an essay by James Platt. Forgetting his duty towards God, his sovereign lord, and his country. England expects every man to do his duty. If we do our duty to our own minds, we shall soon come to do it to the world. IT is the duty of every man to consider his relations to God and his fellow-men, and to understand what he owes to both, morally and naturally, as well as legally. 2nd Amendment? Actions that are done from an active conscientiousness urging us to do our duty, are of a higher character than those that are done simply to comply with the discourse, requirements of the laws or social customs of the age we live in. We fail in our duty, in the obligations we are under to essay, the moral laws, if we simply act because it is the custom so to do.

A man with a properly constituted mind will be obedient to his parents or superiors, yield submission to just authority, and do his duty in exposing and stopping any abuse of those in authority, but in a dutiful and constitutional manner. From a sense of duty, a conscientious person performs that which is green mile book, due, or that which law, justice, or propriety requires, and is respected to 2nd amendment, those who have the natural or legal authority to green mile book, require his services. Contrast the manner of a son or employee to his parent or employer when controlled by a sense of duty; the action is done in a way that evidences he is respectful and deferential as an employee acting from 2nd amendment essay a sense of duty will be, and submissive and of salesman summary reverential as a son influenced by essay dutiful affection would be. What a contrast when this sense of duty is absent! To the employer sullen and disrespectful; doing the work, perhaps, allotted, but doing it in death of salesman such a manner as to irritate and annoy; submissive, but only like a beaten hound, who dreads the essay, consequences to himself if he dare disobey the mandate of instrumentation industries, his master. As a son, it is a still more painful sight when, the sense of duty absent, the child rebels, refuses to do as asked, or, if he feels it must be done, does it in such a manner that your only regret is that he is a child of yours. Every rogue has begun by being a bad son. (CHINESE).

Duty is so important in every stage of life--from the child to the parent, the parent to the child; the husband to the wife, the wife to the husband; the employer to the employed, the employed to the employer; the citizen to the State, the 2nd amendment essay, State to the citizen--that their duties require to be brought before the people more prominently than they are done. Duty--how few understand it! The majority will tell you it consists in not daring to doubt what theologians say is truth, or, to make money, to leave those that follow you free from discourse communities want or the necessity of working for a living. Both errors. It is man's highest duty and 2nd amendment essay greatest privilege to think for himself; and to try to make life happier for anne bradstreet poetry, his fellow men whilst here, instead of making money to 2nd amendment essay, leave behind him. It is the industries, duty of every man to 2nd amendment, try his utmost to improve his position in life; but it is greek, a more imperative duty upon every man to lead a life of temperance, and of intellectual and moral improvement. The Blue Ribbon movement is very popular just now, is said to be doing a great good; but its benefit must be transient, because a man, temperate or a total abstainer because a popular custom or public opinion exacts it, has not the virtue of temperance, nor, what is of still greater importance, he is not influenced by that strong self-denial from a sense of duty within him, without which there can be no permanent reliance on 2nd amendment, his temperance habits. Greek? We live in an age of sudden transition; society has broken from many of its old moorings, and is tossed on a restless and essay stormy ocean.

Opinions no longer afford that steady guidance which in former times supplied the place of which character is the in the, private judgment and individual principle. There is no truth which sophistry does not now assail, no falsehood which may not become a party bond, even leading men, from a mistaken idea of duty, to outrage and assassination. 2nd Amendment Essay? Our leaders and teachers have a heavy responsibility in the age we live in. They should not try to attain their views by the temporary but brittle chains of public opinion, but be content to wait the result, and instrumentation use their powers to fix deep, rational convictions in essay individuals, and strive their utmost to awaken man's reason to eternal truth, and his conscience to immutable duty. Bradstreet? A man who does his duty because it is the custom, like the man who abstains because of other men's opinions and 2nd amendment practices, simply reflects what exists around him--it is not his own duteous act or virtue; it lies on the surface, it has not penetrated his soul. The mind which passively yields to public opinion will become debilitated, not invigorated. Instead of this course, I advocate the opposite instrumentation policy--an appeal to each man's moral independence, the moral courage to do what is right, from a sense of duty to their God, their fellow-men, and themselves, that will enable them to withstand public sentiment. One of our greatest social curses is the essay, looking down upon work and workers. The young are made to regard workers with disgust, because at the school they are sent to they dare not say their father is this or that. The son of many a tradesman lives an awful life if it be known what his father is. Why alter your name?

I said to a tradesman. To oblige my son; where he is, they would refuse to mix with him if it were known his father was in business. Why not try and anne poetry eradicate this cancer growing in our midst? Tell men they are born to, and should be trained for, work--that it is honourable to belong to 2nd amendment, workers--that it is a disgrace to be a drone. The following are three specimens of this genteel, do-nothing class. A letter came to us for a small article--only ten shillings--with the green mile book, crest and address of essay, a man in industries a good social position. Therein it was stated, Send the article and the bill, and I will remit. Not getting the money, we write, and find it is a younger son, who had gone abroad, but showing his want of 2nd amendment, honour and duty by not remitting as he had promissed. We write the elder brother, that if he has any respect for the honour of his brother, he will remit us the money, but get no reply. The other, a fair sample of the masher breed, faultlessly got up, his only object in life apparently to be well got up and to lounge about. He called about a dishonoured bill: No use pressing me; if you do, my allowance will be stopped, and my creditors will get nothing.

In the Times, June 1, 1883, in the Court of Bankruptcy, it is reported: The bankrupt,----, of----, Esquire, applied to pass his examination. His statement of affairs returned liabilities of £16,223, with assets of £3 5s. Of Salesman Summary? There was no opposition, and the bankrupt passed. Comment would be superfluous; but what a state of society this indicates, and what a life to lead! Educated, mixing in good society, in debt, never earning a penny in their lives, no sense of 2nd amendment essay, duty or self-respect within them; yet, socially, these parasites are gentlemen! Successful men, as a rule, train their sons unwisely; they over-educate them.

Their boys must go to college; at college, they mix with a class that look down upon discourse, workers; when they leave college, they are too old to begin, where a youth should begin, at the bottom, and work up; their habits are utterly opposed to those of essay, any house of business; their tastes and inclinations and friends render them totally unfit to follow in industries their fathers' footsteps. Society condones the self-made man; his work is considered to essay, be his hobby; could not live unless he went to the City, c.; but society is death of salesman, not so lenient to the son's going to business and doing therein daily work. The young men are not able to rise above the sneers and ridicule of their set, who regard as vulgar the 2nd amendment, man who earns his bread, instead of regarding it as a virtue to belong to the great fraternity of instrumentation industries, working men, to those by whose skill and industry we derive almost all the comforts of life. It requires great moral courage to do what you think your duty when opposed to public opinion. Essay? Mr. Forster is one of the rare men who have the courage of their convictions. Green Mile Book? He refused to 2nd amendment, be under the despotism of the caucus. He told the Government to do its duty towards the nation who had been our friend during the Zulu War--to act up to the Convention, or withdraw it. At Tullamore, March 6, 1882, he had the courage to face the Irish people, and tell them that it was his duty to green mile book, save men from outrage, to prevent their being threatened and essay ill-treated when they are going through their daily work, to green mile book, enable them to earn their living as they choose to 2nd amendment essay, earn it; he rebuked the crowd for maiming people and killing people because they have been doing what they had a perfect right to do, and in discourse some cases for doing, or being suspected of doing, what it was their duty to do--namely, paying their lawful debts.

I saw an eviction thirty years ago, and it had an effect upon me. I went to Tulla, and saw at the workhouse there a poor fellow lying in bed. He was a poor farmer who had paid his rent. Essay? Fifteen or sixteen men broke into his house, and in the middle of the bradstreet poetry, night pulled him our of his bed and told him they would punish him. The wife went to her knees and pleaded for herself and the five helpless children. Will you kill their father? They discharged a gun filled with shot into his leg, shattering it; he is 2nd amendment essay, dead. Do what you will to remedy abuses, but for your own credit's sake, as men, stop such horrible outrages, that are not only a disgrace to Ireland, but to mankind. Death Of Salesman Summary? The leaders of the Land League may have acted from a sense of duty, but the time must come when they will feel a remorse and shame at the horrible brutalities that by their instigation have been committed.

Great is the responsibility of essay, those who have an influence upon, and direct public opinion; such men ought to act rationally, generously, heroically--not passionately, tyranically, and with the instrumentation, old spirit of persecution. They ought to 2nd amendment essay, be disinterested; their position enjoins on them a regard for the rights of others, and lays on them obligations which they ought to have the courage to discharge. The public man who only studies his own interest is not to industries, be envied, however successful he may be; for 2nd amendment essay, no man, however hardened by selfishness, can deny that there springs up within him a great idea in opposition to interest--the idea of duty; that an inward voice calls him, more or less distinctly, to revere and exercise impartial justice and universal goodwill. Duty and morality have been discussed in all ages, but there can be no doubt that disinterestedness is the very soul of virtue. Discourse? Hobbes taught, in 2nd amendment essay the middle of the seventeenth century, that we approve of virtuous actions, or of actions beneficial to instrumentation industries, society, from self-love; because we know that whatever promotes the interest of society has, on that very account, an indirect tendency to promote our own. Mandeville published in the beginning of the last century, as his theory of morals, that by nature man is utterly selfish; that, among other desires which he likes to gratify, he has received a strong appetite for praise; that the founders of society, availing themselves of this propensity, instituted the custom of dealing out a certain measure of applause for essay, each sacrifice made by green mile book selfishness to the public good, and called the sacrifice virtue. Men are led, accordingly, to purchase this praise by 2nd amendment essay a fair barter; and the moral virtues, to use Mandeville's strong expressions, are the political offspring which flattery begot upon pride. Green Mile Book? And hence, when we see virtue, we see only the indulgence of some selfish feeling, or the 2nd amendment essay, compromise for this indulgence in expectation of green mile book, some praise. Dr.

Paley, the most popular of all authors on moral philosophy, does not admit a natural sentiment of justice as the 2nd amendment, foundation of virtue, but is also an adherent of the selfish system, under a modified form. He makes virtue consist in the doing good to mankind, in obedience to the will of God, and for the sake of character enchantress rapunzel, everlasting happiness. According to this doctrine, the will of God is our rule, but private happiness our motive; which is just selfishness in another form. We owe to phrenology the decision of 2nd amendment essay, that important point in discourse moral science, whether men are so constituted that they can act from essay a sense of duty, without being biassed in their conduct by any consideration of self-interest. Phrenology settles upon bradstreet, a firm basis, that a power or faculty exists, the object of which is to produce the sentiment of justice or the feeling of duty and essay obligation, independent of selfishness, hope of reward, fear of punishment, or any extrinsic motive; a faculty, in short, the of salesman, natural language of which is, Fiat justitia, suat caelum (GEORGE COMBE). This faculty has a large influence upon our lives; it is an important element in constituting a practical judgment and an upright and consistent character. Hence, its cultivation in children is of great importance. Teach them, by example and precept, to do their duty. What a pleasure it is to come into contact with this select band, the rare few one meets with whose conduct is regulated by the nicest sentiments of justice! There is an earnestness, integrity, and directness of manner, which inspires us with confidence, gives us a conviction of 2nd amendment, sincerity.

Train your children to act justly, from a sense of duty, from the discourse, love of justice, unbiased by fear, interest, or any sinister motive. When the sense of duty is strong within a man, his conscientiousness enables him to take a wider range than the merely legal rights of others. It prompts those in whom it is strong to do justice in judging of the conduct, the opinions, and the talents of others. The sense of duty makes us scrupulous, and as ready to condemn ourselves as to find fault with others. It leads to punctuality in 2nd amendment keeping appointments, because it is unjust to sacrifice the time of others; it prompts the payment of debts when due, and to pay the full amount that is due, as a point of justice to whom they are due. It makes an employee act conscientiously, giving to his work a character of duty or obligation; it checks frivolity or waste of time. It makes the employer a strict disciplinarian; to him the business of life is a serious matter, and his soul revolts at inattention or error; but if exact and rigid, such men are just. They could not complain of an employee, to avoid paying him an which is the in the rapunzel advance in salary, depreciate quality to 2nd amendment essay, get an article at a lower price, or demur to quantity supplied, so as to evade full payment of a bill. Duty is reprinted from Platt's Essays.

James Platt . Greek Mythology? London: Simpkin, Marshall, and essay Co., 1884.