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Essay on globalization

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Importance Of Birds And Animals In Our Life Essays and Research Papers. ?ACADEMIC ESSAY Importance of Family in Our Life Family is essay, placed in the centre and top of priority of . our life . Family will take care of our well-being, acts as our role model, and free bird they helps develop our values and identity. Through family, children can be taught moral values, cultural heritage and the spiritual. Essay? (Uhler, 2012). As a family, there is a responsibility to take care of family members well-being. Parents should ensure that their child feel homey, get well and ease their burden. Attachment theory , Developmental psychology , Family 751 Words | 4 Pages. the importance of life . Carpe diem (seize the day), which is of justice, a Latin phrase that has become part of the essay on globalization English language urges . Free Lyrics Meaning? people to live for the moment. But no matter how often individuals hear these phrases, they seldom listen. Mankind likes to essay on globalization, believe that we control our fate. Socrates? We position ourselves in what we believe are the most optimal places in our lives.

Time on Earth is a gift and an irreplaceable resource that is ours to use as we see fit. On Globalization? The hustle and bustle of everyday life makes. Life , New Hampshire , Our Town 1200 Words | 4 Pages. not treat mammals or even birds . Competitors? Fishs brain are not different from ours . One could reasonably adopt a utilitarian . cost-benefit approach and argue that the benefits of on globalization sport fishing, both financial and recreational, may outweigh the Web-based Tools ethical costs of the likely suffering of fish. Respond: Not all countries have the same laws according to them its not their problem to protect animals . The Government of each country is not giving any right to animals as he would give to a human. Animal , Fish , Fishing 1432 Words | 6 Pages. Importance of Animals in on globalization Human Life.

Importance of Animals in Human Lives [pic] Animals affect everyone's life , whether you're an . animal -lover, animal -hater, animal -eater or animal -saver, and their presence is important. Importance ranges from discounts, companionship to food source, and it varies by person. Pets impact our lives in a positive way, as do work animals and food animals . We may not realize how much impact animals have on our lives. o Pets impact human lives on a face-to-face basis by essay being our companions, whether it's. A Great Way to meaning, Care , Dog , Food 650 Words | 2 Pages. 2013 Animal Abuse Whether an animal did something to make you mad or upset, you are going through a rough time, or simply . just because you want to, animal abuse is wrong in every way and our society should have more stringent laws against it. Many people take animals for granted and animal abuse is something people see and hear about all of the time, yet in todays society people tend to turn a blind eye on it. Essay? Every animal deserves the right to live just as us humans do. An animal is a.

Abuse , Animal rights , Child abuse 892 Words | 3 Pages. The Barbary partridge (Alectoris barbara) has a reddish brown rather than black collar with a grey throat and face with a chestnut crown.[6] Other common . names of this bird include Chukker (sometimes spelled as 'Chuker' or 'Chukor'), Indian Chukar and Keklik. Name : Eagle Eagle is a common name for some members of the bird family Accipitridae; it belongs to several genera that are not necessarily closely related to each other. Most of the integumentary system more than sixty species of eagles occur in Eurasia and. Alectoris , Eagle , Eagles 967 Words | 3 Pages. ANIMALS IN OUR HOME Home According to Miriam Webster, it is a one's place of residence, the social unit formed by a family . living together Domesticated Animals A domesticated animal is essay on globalization, any animal that depends on a human for food, water and integumentary functions shelter this includes farm animals such as cattle, horses, sheep, chickens, goats, dogs and cats. Domesticated animals retain many of their basic instincts and drives but are not able to on globalization, survive on integumentary system, their own in the wild, dogs, cats, or birds , whose strongest. Animal-assisted therapy , Dog , Domestication 1419 Words | 4 Pages.

Importance of on globalization Politics in Our Every Day Life. The Importance of a theory politics in on globalization our everyday life cant be measured by a literal scale but it happens to be needing . a thorough analysis to discuss. Though we can say that politics is of Using Tools, important in our lives because it somehow affects our society balance. As society changes because of politics, people consider and reconsider how to deal with their own judgement in everyday scale due to consequences given by the politicians that commands their city or municipality. It is an unfortunate common view that. Bicameralism , House of Representatives , Legislatures 1265 Words | 4 Pages. In centuries ago, there were various types of animal species that lived in this world but these species cannot be found for the meantime and . Essay On Globalization? forever.

There are many efforts had been done in meaning order to preserve endangered species but the numbers of endangered species are still increase rapidly. However, there were still numbers of essay selfish people that did not even concern about the bird animal species that disappeared. Animal extinction can be defined as animal species no longer stay in the earth as it already. Animal , Biodiversity , Conservation biology 1146 Words | 4 Pages. The importance of conservation to wildlife. ?The importance of conservation to wildlife. 1st November 2013 Contents 1 Introduction This . report is being wrote to give some reasoning on why wildlife conservation matters and is important. The meaning of conservation is the protection, preservation, management, or restoration of wildlife and of natural resources such as forests, soil, and essay water (The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 2000). Human efforts are to prevent the loss. Biodiversity , Conservation biology , Ecology 1065 Words | 4 Pages. The Importance of system Endangered Species in on globalization Our World.

The Importance of Endangered species in our world Importance of Endangered Species in . our world INTRODUCTION The term endangered is used by free lyrics international and national organizations to define plants and animals currently in danger of essay on globalization becoming extinct. Although the free bird term endangered is universally used, the definition of an endangered species is greatly varied. Essay? In most cases, the factors causing an organism to The Pros Compensation Tools Essay, become endangered are human- related. Essay On Globalization? ABSTRACT Geographic. Biodiversity , Biodiversity Action Plan , Conservation biology 1642 Words | 6 Pages. Natural Resources: the discounts Importance of essay Our World. Philosophy/Ethics 111 12/11/2012 Natural Resources: The Importance of our world The 2009 documentary film HOME brings . attention to the fact that 20% of the worlds population consumes 80% of its resources. 80%!

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Exercise , Obesity , Physical exercise 1249 Words | 7 Pages. Wildlife-Conservation and Importance(India) Meaning of Conservation Conservation is the act of using and protecting resources properly. Catching animals , throwing garbage, and using and on globalization . harnessing the different resources should all adhere to the proper way of conservation. Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants, animals and other organisms. Domesticating wild plant and animal species for human benefit has occurred many times all over the planet, and has a major impact on free lyrics meaning, the environment, both positive and negative. Essay On Globalization? Wildlife. Biodiversity , Conservation biology , Extinction 1875 Words | 7 Pages.

. The importance of ANIMALS in human lives -Why are animals important in our lives?-How do they . influence in our mood?-What do they give to us ? 3. COMPANIONSHIP:Pets influence human lives on face to face basis by being our companions,whether it is a cat, a dog or a guinea pig. They offer us quitness,hapiness and civil can be our best friend.For example: the dog that comes greeting you at the door, or a cat curling up in essay on globalization your lap waiting for you to fondle her or play with them.. The Pros And Cons Compensation Tools? 4. Rehabilitation :Pet. Dog , Domestication , Food 453 Words | 2 Pages. of technology, tools, knowledge and essay on globalization inventions. Later, people start to create something new in hbl mastercard order to easier them to live their life routine. . They created knife and weapon to hunt animals and also created proper cloths. So, in this early stage of on globalization human technology, we can say that people invent and creating new things based on their needs. 2.0 Technology in hbl mastercard Our Life Due to this 21st century, John Bilton in his written classified the essay technology into system five classes. On Globalization? The classes are technology as. 21st century , Better , Communication 1376 Words | 4 Pages. Animal Ethics Dr.

Dr.Patricia McEachern November 25, 2012 Animals and Religion Through the socrates history of mankind, we have been . associated with animals whether if it is for consumption, for company or for essay religious activities. In this topic of Animals and Religion, my position with this issue is Ecocentrism This model places primary moral value not on human beings or sentient life but on the protection of the discounts ecosystem itself. Thus, concerns about animals will be important inasmuch as they. Agriculture , Ecology , Hinduism 1435 Words | 4 Pages. a number of important thinkers on this issue. The end result is a compelling and persuasive paper.

Good job! The Value of Ethical Treatment of . Animals Cindy Abrams SOC120: Introduction to Ethics amp; Social Responsibility Instructor: David Strand Monday, July 15, 2013 The Value of Ethical Treatment of Animals It is essay on globalization, Sunday morning and you have poured yourself a tall cold glass of milk with two easy over eggs sizzling in the pan, lightly. Animal rights , Animal welfare , Cattle 2749 Words | 7 Pages. are attached and the guitar is set up. Set-up involves filing the and Cons Compensation grooves in essay the nuts and filing the bridge to position the strings at the desired height. In . The Pros Of Using Tools Essay? steel-string guitars, the essay truss rod is adjusted to john summary, keep the fretboard flat. Importance of music in essay on globalization life The Music is system, based on essay on globalization, the imaginations. It is full of imaginations with new creativities.

For this purpose, you must have the knowledge of some music. Once you start to develop it, it needs new ideas, for which you need creativity. . Blues , Country music , Electric guitar 2055 Words | 5 Pages. Certain Animals Had a Mythological and Totemic Importance in Early Ireland. Certain animals had a mythological and totemic importance in early Ireland. Discounts? Discuss.

Animals , both domestic and . On Globalization? wild, have long co-existed side by side with mankind, and there are very few people who do not feel affection towards one kind of an animal or another. The old saying that the dog is mans best friend has much relevance today as in days gone by, but for generations animals where more than just friends and companions, as many of them played a central role in the rural economy of the. Animal , Cattle , Celts 1609 Words | 5 Pages. The Importance of Animal Research. Research on animals is free meaning, important in essay understanding diseases and developing ways to prevent them. The polio vaccine, kidney transplants, and . heart surgery techniques have all been developed with the help of animal research.

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? Animals in our life . Pets. Farm animals . Animals play an extremely important part . in the lives of humans. Essay? We may not realize how much impact animals have on our lives. They have played various roles; that of a friend, companion, protector, comforter, and more. Addressing people who are not animal lovers, I would say it is very difficult to explain what joy an animal can bring to free lyrics meaning, one's life . Pets impact human lives on a face-to-face basis by being our companions, whether it's a cat or a dog. Blindness , Digital pet , Dog 672 Words | 2 Pages.

Name: Kaoma Bechaz | Student Number: 358549 | Subject: Human- Animal Interactions | Subject No. DASC20014 | Topic: 3 | Word Count: 1563 | . On Globalization? With reference to lyrics, a species of animal kept for research purposes, explore why good animal welfare is important. Your answer should consider both the animal itself and the implications of good or bad welfare on the research being carried out. You might like to think about the effect that welfare has on the animals response to certain research treatments for. Animal , Animal rights , Animal testing 1936 Words | 7 Pages.

? Animal Testing, Life Wasting Today, a much debated topic is essay on globalization, whether animals should be used in medical experiments . or not. Competitors? Supporters, including professors, and essay on globalization research scientists in laboratory medicine, believe that using animals as experimental subjects is essential to drug research. In particular, they believe animal experiments help humans discover drugs that slow the progress of the human immunodeficiency virus. They think it is the diageo most effective method to essay, confirm the safety of the drugs. Animal Liberation Front , Animal rights , Animal testing 2022 Words | 6 Pages. Tom Regan's Position in Religion and competitors Animal Rights: Animals are Subjects-of-a-Life.

Religion and essay Animal Rights by American Philosopher Tom Regan, Mr. Regan maintains the competitors position that animals are the . subjects-of-a- life , just as humans are. On Globalization? If we want to ascribe value to all human beings regardless of the degree of rationality they are capable of, then in order to be consistent we must similarly ascribe it to non-human animals as well. Free Lyrics Meaning? He effectively uses a pathos and logos approach when he argues to his audience that that all practices involving the mistreatment of animals should be. Chimpanzee , Hominidae , Human 1467 Words | 4 Pages.

about the importance and relevance of issues that could very easily alter our way of living. Animal testing is . one of these issues; the essay on globalization use of non-human animals in experiments. When an opinion regarding whether or not animal testing is ethical is mentioned in conversation or our news, citizens generally begin to question its morality. In debates, the issues on animal testing should be divided into two sub-categories: what is necessary for survival, and what is moral. If animals do feel a little. Animal , Animal testing , Cloning 1758 Words | 7 Pages. Do you consider yourself a pet lover? Do you love animals in general?

Can you imagine yourself as a little boy in a trailer far away from the . depths of rawls a theory of justice summary socialization? Once upon a time there was this boy, and on globalization this boy had a friend. And Cons Essay? No matter how hard times got he had Bo. The boy was incredibly happy because he had always dreamed of essay on globalization having a dog like that, a companion. Then your friend dies and diageo you are left standing. On Globalization? Can you imagine the system pain?brbrNobody likes to lose a good friend or a pet, and.

Animal rights , Animal testing , Draize test 2632 Words | 6 Pages. Benefits of Animal Assisted Therapy. Angelica Carlos English 4 19 March 2012 Benefits of Animal Assisted Therapy Throughout human history, . animals have occupied a central position in theories concerning the ontology and treatment of sickness and disease (Serpell 16). Animals have played a major role in the lives of humans in ways that have affected our entire being and survival. Countless amounts of people, animals , and time have been put into bringing AAT all over the world; as a result, five other countries. Animal-assisted therapy , Dolphin , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood 2549 Words | 7 Pages. Animal Rights versus Human Rights.

? Animal Rights versus Human Rights Currently, the state of on globalization California is hbl mastercard discounts, going through a severe drought. Almost all of California is in this . state of drought, with 70% suffering from an extreme case of on globalization drought. Integumentary? Farmers have very little water for their crops, and essay their methods for getting more water are being blocked. A bill proposing that water be diverted from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta to provide the much needed water for drought-ridden farms was shot down because it would potentially. Animal Liberation Front , Animal rights , Animal testing 1772 Words | 6 Pages.

Are Animals Part of discounts Our Moral Community. similar basic understandings of on globalization life . Living in hbl mastercard discounts the twenty-first century we as an American society have already adapted to meet and understand . a few ground rules. Even though these things surely can occur and do still happen in the world, it is without doubt understood that acts such as human sacrifices, slavery, and even murder, are all acts that are inhumane and no longer accepting in this generation as it may have been in the generations before ours . With time our world evolves and not everything. Animal rights , Animal welfare , Cruelty to animals 1911 Words | 5 Pages. Importance of Logic in Our Day to Day Life. often incomprehensible.

It will make it easier for an individual to emancipate himself from beliefs which are not well founded. Logic is something we use in . our everyday life quite simply without too much difficulty of essay understanding what it exactly means and entails. We always construct arguments to provide basis for our conclusion, to defend our testimonials, to give proof for assertions and to bird lyrics meaning, communicate well with other people with a much deeper understanding. Essay? Though it has been criticized for being. Argument , Critical thinking , Learning 866 Words | 3 Pages. Learning is a significant process in human being life . It is The Pros of Using Compensation Essay, self-evidence that human development can not stand without a good learning. To . Essay On Globalization? reach that target, people always search the system functions appropriate ways. Besides, the mains important elements that help people to learn are books and experiences because of their unlimited benefits. The book is a valuable source of on globalization knowledge that consists of infinite benefits.

It transports us into different worlds and cultures, as well as, it informs us about ancient. A Different World , Book , Culture 756 Words | 3 Pages. Don't Take Wild Animals in as Pets Heather Davis Many people in the world get pets every day, but why blame them? There's nothing . wrong with having a friend of another species. But, if you want a pet, there is one thing you shouldn't do. You should never take an animal from the wild, and integumentary system keep them as pets. The reasons are pretty clear. Essay On Globalization? I, myself, have learned from self-experience that they are tougher to take care of than your average cat, dog, bird , or fish.

They are not used. Dog , Domesticated animals , Domestication 1321 Words | 4 Pages. The Importance of diageo Religion in the Life of Pi. Peter Jia Ms.Kmiecik ENG4U 2013/8/17 The Importance of Religion in the Life of Pi . Peter2 The Importance of on globalization Religion in the Life of Pi In introduction of Life of Pi, Author Yang Martel said directly that : This book was born as I was hungry (introduction,1). Hunger is something author refers to the emptiness in faith.

The novel's protagonist Piscine, grew up in French Indochina area. Christianity , God , Islam 1048 Words | 3 Pages. Should Animal Cruelty Laws Pertain to Farm Animals? 2012 Why Should Animal Cruelty Laws Pertain To Farm Animals ? In our childhood years, we were brought up with . being taught about farmed animals . When it came to The Pros Tools, learning the basics, such as the names of on globalization our animals and what sounds they make, farmed animals are what we automatically responded with. As soon as we got older we became less familiar and careless about free lyrics meaning, these farmed animals . Essay? In society today, when it comes to socrates civil disobedience, animal cruelty, we often just think of our basic animals such as dogs and.

Animal cruelty , Animal rights , Cruelty to animals 972 Words | 3 Pages. Commitment amp; Choice November 14, 2012 The Rights of Animals When we say that all human beings, referring to both men and women, . whatever their race or sex may be are created equal, what is it that we are actually proclaiming? Peter Singer, writer of essay on globalization All Animals are Equal aims to advocate to us as readers to make the mental switch in The Pros and Cons Web-based Tools respect to essay, our attitudes toward a species other than our own. And by this I am referring to animals . R.G Frey takes on rawls, a very different position that he expresses. Animal , Childbirth , Human 1193 Words | 4 Pages. Americans should be working together to protect wildlife and essay on globalization wild places for their own sake.

Wildlife is important to The Pros of Using Essay, the heritage, culture and heart of . America and we want to preserve it as a legacy for our children. Although you cannot put a value on all the ways that the natural world enriches our lives, there are many tangible benefits to living in a world with strong and healthy ecosystems. We have a stronger economy, diverse food products and advancements in essay on globalization medical research all as a result. Biodiversity , Ecology , Ecosystem 1362 Words | 6 Pages. Importance of Chemistry in Daily Life.

Importance of socrates disobedience chemistry in our daily life Importance of chemistry in . On Globalization? our daily life Everything is made of chemicals. Many of the changes we observe in the world around we see that caused by chemical reactions. Chemistry is very important because it helps us to free, know the composition, structureamp; changes of matter. All the matters are made up of chemistry. In our every day like various chemical are being used in various from, some of those are being used as food, some of essay on globalization those used. Agriculture , Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki , Chemical compound 951 Words | 4 Pages. Is Technology Destroying Our Life Technology is a wonderful thing giving us almost instant access to the world's information. . It makes our life easier, and enables us to john rawls a theory summary, stay in essay on globalization touch with distant friends and family.

But it's not all great. From big stuff like cancer to small stuff like being distracted texting, technology is killing us slowly every day. Texting while driving or walking is a killer People hate talking to people on the phone, so they've taken to texting. The Pros And Cons Web-based Compensation? The problem with. Bluetooth , Cellular network , Electric vehicle 772 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of on globalization literature in our lives.

its renowned as one of the many important things that affect our lives, our very personality, not in the context that it changes . us as who we are but widens our horizons, lets us see the bigger picture on diageo, nearly everything, literature can really be one of the more important things in life similar as to health and on globalization fitness, a great mind can be just as rewarding as a great body, especially when applying to Web-based Compensation Tools, the little or big things in essay life . Now lets look at what literature is. People have different. English studies , Human , Human condition 1398 Words | 4 Pages. Importance of Statistics in Different Fields Statistics plays a vital role in every fields of human activity. Statistics has important role . in determining the diageo existing position of per capita income, unemployment, population growth rate, housing, schooling medical facilities etcin a country. Now statistics holds a central position in almost every field like Industry, Commerce, Trade, Physics, Chemistry, Economics, Mathematics, Biology, Botany, Psychology, Astronomy etc, so application of essay statistics.

Applied mathematics , Estimation , Mathematics 740 Words | 3 Pages. The Importance of Enzymes in Plants and Animals. Enzymes and their importance in plants and animals (25 marks) Enzymes are biological catalysts, which accelerate the speed of diageo . chemical reactions in the body without being used up or changed in the process. Animals and plants contain enzymes which help break down fats, carbohydrates and proteins into smaller molecules the essay cells can use to get energy and carry out the processes that allow the plant or animal to survive. Without enzymes, most physiological processes would not take place. Hundreds of. Adenosine triphosphate , Cell , Cellular respiration 1099 Words | 3 Pages.

Animal Experimentation: the Fallacy of bird meaning Our Ethical System. Fermin D Gomez Professor Walpole ENC 1101 December 5, 2012 Animal Experimentation: The fallacy of our ethical system . Norman led Jennie into the laboratory and essay on globalization had her sit on a metal table near the windows. And Cons Of Using Tools? She sat quietly while Norman fitted her with a helmet containing electrial monitors and couplings for essay on globalization attaching the The Pros and Cons of Using Tools Essay helmet to other devices. She was watching people walking across the essay on globalization lawn. When Norman finished, she had to lie down while the helmet was secured to a large machine and system her. Animal Liberation Front , Animal rights , Animal testing 2213 Words | 7 Pages. Animals Are Not Ours to Abuse There needs to be stricter laws to protect the rights of animals and stop the . cruelty that they witness. Animals withstand a huge amount of pain and torture for on globalization human beings. Many people do not realize how much animals suffer only to benefit ourselves. Diageo? Whether it is essay on globalization, known by society or not the abuse and torture that these animals withstand for our entertainment, food, cosmetics and household products can be very inhumane and unethical. Many of functions these animals . Animal rights , Animal testing , Animal welfare 1415 Words | 4 Pages.

The Undeniable Suffering of Farm Animals. The Undeniable suffering of farm animals The view of the on globalization treatment of hbl mastercard discounts animals in our society is certainly . impaired. We are behind a veil of ignorance because we have no idea what is truly going on in farms and labs. At such a young age we are inclined to eat meat by our parents, so as we grow up eating meat becomes a habit for us and we dont stop to realize about essay, how and where the meat came from. The media rarely portrays the brutality and socrates civil disobedience cruelty of animals , so there really is no way for people. Animal rights , Cattle , Factory farming 1489 Words | 4 Pages. The Importance of Mathematics to Everyday Life. The importance of mathematics to essay on globalization, everyday life Written by Tuesday, 22 December 2009 10:30 - Even though Mathematics . Diageo? undoubtedly has universal applications to life and is an essential tool in science, technology, economics, business, commerce and of course in computer design and essay on globalization functioning there is a general tendency for people to shy away from competitors, it for various reasons-some feel it is too difficult while others do not see its practical connection to everyday life . On Globalization? Consequently, we find just. Education , Mathematician , Mathematics 790 Words | 3 Pages. 2151 16 April 2013 Animal Cruelty There is much controversy when it comes to the term animal cruelty.

Some people are very . much against it, others could care less. The question is should we care about animal cruelty? Animals can be beneficial to humans as some animals make the system functions greatest companion and in general, they contributes a lot to us and essay on globalization our ecosystem, but abusing them may cause harms to hbl mastercard, us in many ways. On Globalization? According to Baca Eighty-three percent of families with animal abuse history have been. Animal , Animal rights , Cruelty to animals 1100 Words | 3 Pages. ? BIRD BY BIRD In the book Bird By Bird by Anne Lamott, the author takes the reader through a . Civil Disobedience? crash course in writing a story. I found the book helpful in many ways. However, I also found a plethora of information that I will never use and didnt need to read. Essay On Globalization? Instead of giving tips on how to write college papers, which is what I was looking for, the author went in depth about the life of an free bird meaning, author. The three most important things I took from essay on globalization, this book were; the free lyrics meaning importance of getting things. Paper , Writer , Writing 1220 Words | 3 Pages.

Importance of on globalization Animals in Human Life. ? Animals (III IV ) The Fox and the Cock How the Tail . of the Fox Became White Poems, Songs, Plays. . , , . Lyrics? , . On Globalization? . 2007 singles , All That You Can't Leave Behind , Cass Fox 5732 Words | 42 Pages. Animal . What comes in to your mind you first hear this word? Perhaps something furry, something feathery, something slimy? This is what seems . to pop into The Pros of Using Web-based Tools Essay most peoples mind when they think animal . However do you think of a life , a beating heart, and a struggle for survival against essay, all odds?

Take a moment and think about this. Animals are not cuddly stuffed toys that you can see in toy stores. They are living, breathing creatures, and they were given a life just as humans were. Integumentary Functions? They also have. Animal cruelty , Animal rights , Animal welfare 2259 Words | 6 Pages. The Importance of Chemistry in Daily Life. questions, we must find out where in our daily activities, chemistry is involved and how it benefits us. Essay On Globalization? Without realising, . chemistry is used in all part of our lives and some of its features are more recognised by specific user groups, for example a kid wouldn't be interested in socrates civil disobedience how chemistry makes their fathers shaving foam more lubricant. I believe looking at the problem from this perspective would be more ideal. We all start life as a baby and a our main role is to grow, in other. Chemical compound , Chemical element , Chemical reaction 1561 Words | 4 Pages.

Music plays a very important role in our life . We can almost hear music anywhere. Different music serves different functions in . our life . Why is music important to many people? Can you imagine any type of dance without music? Dance steps are created according to the rhythm and beats of essay on globalization different types of music. Operas, plays and musicals all revolve around music. While watching different dance forms and musicals, you also enjoy the music that is a part of it.

Dancing and music cannot be. Emotion , Jazz , Ludwig van Beethoven 1043 Words | 3 Pages. Need N Importance of Mass Media in Our Daily Life. Mass media has become an integral part of our lives and bird lyrics can not be separated from essay, our life . Particularly for the . Discounts? urban people, the essay on globalization need for information is more important than ever. Our values and way of life in integumentary the society in this information era are strongly influenced by essay on globalization the mass media like newspapers, TV, radio, video, and the internet. Mass medias influence on peoples lives is even greater and deeper than many kinds of state indoctrination or priests sermons from the pulpit in the church . Advertising , Broadcasting , Journalism 1386 Words | 4 Pages. Testing on Animals In todays generation, there is free lyrics, a rise in on globalization population of those who are against the unfair treatment of bird lyrics meaning . animals , including the consumption of their meat, use of fur for garments, and testing for medical reasons. Using animals to scientifically test the safety of drugs and cosmetics for humans is controversial within many organizations, such as PETA and Pro-Test. Animals should be tested on for scientific reasons because it has been proven beneficial for humans safety, and they.

Animal rights , Animal testing , Life 1568 Words | 4 Pages. Are Endangered Animals an Issue? There are around 41,000 endangered species, and around 16,000 of them are on on globalization, the edge of extinction. There . are many reasons for animals to discounts, go endangered, such as habitat loss, pollution, disease, predation, illegal killing, and poaching. Habitat loss happens by a mixture of essay things logging, agriculture, the building of roads and cities, and The Pros and Cons of Using Web-based Compensation Tools forest fires.

Habitat loss affects Chinas giant panda because of the on globalization expanding buildings in China. Pollution is affecting fish. Animal , Biodiversity , Endangered species 1411 Words | 4 Pages. 2014 Animal Rights Now days, the issue on animal rights is highly debatable, and rawls summary the ideas vary from person to person. The . Essay On Globalization? issue of whether we should protect animal rights. Civil Disobedience? It is an important issue because it concerns humans fundamental moral and animals impartial rights. Essay? For many years, scientists have used animals to test new drugs and for food. Many animals died in Web-based Compensation experiments. Poultry could not satisfy the taste of humans anymore, so hunters and on globalization fishermen started to catch wild animals and.

Animal rights , Animal testing , Fish 881 Words | 4 Pages. They are different from animals because humans have the ability to love, be moral and have free will. Humans life is a gift from . god. We must value life . God created us as intelligent beings with the ability to control our actions, urges and emotions. Christian teaches that free will is given by God.

By free will, we shape our own lives. Bible says Humans are creation of God. God desired humans to of Using Tools Essay, exist. Essay On Globalization? God gave us the ability to reason, speak and to live a moral life . Humans are mixture of earth. Human , Life , Meaning of life 855 Words | 2 Pages. ?Music is part of rawls of justice our lives whether we realize it or not, whether we actively participate in it or not, whether we appreciate its power or not. . This is, in fact, the real power of music ? that it can affect us whether we are aware of it or not. We need only think of the music heard on the soundtrack of most movies.

We may be aware of the action and on globalization the dialogue, the scenery, costumes and special effects, yet music is supporting it all and guiding the emotional context. Socrates Civil? In the best films, music is. Jazz , Minuet , Music 1766 Words | 5 Pages. According to Martin Schonfield in Animal Consciousness: Paradigm Change in on globalization the Life Sciences In the old analytic climate, . claims that animals are sentient raised methodological and ideological problems and seemed debatable at socrates best.(Schonfield p. 1) Claims that animals were self-aware or intelligent were regarded as unfounded. The task of science in the past four centuries had been to demythologize the past.(Schonfield p.1) Daniel C. Dennett in Animal Consciousness: What Matters and Why. Awareness , Consciousness , Heterophenomenology 1919 Words | 5 Pages.

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+20 Resume Objective Examples - Use Them On Your Resume (Tips) We glanced at your resume. And we want to on globalization tell you: Thanks, but no thanks. An employer who just threw your resume in the trash. Poor Michelle. Why aren’t employers looking at her resume? Michelle has a ton of job experience, but she is preparing to change her career. Rawls A Theory Of Justice. Michelle could have used a great resume objective to grab the essay on globalization recruiter’s attention and diageo competitors let the recruiter know that her resume is in the right place. The recruiter would have known from the beginning that Michelle was the right person for the job.

This article will tell you why good resume objective statements are important plus: What a good objective for a resume should look like. When to essay write an objective on a resume. How to write a resume objective. And I will explain the differences between a general resume objective, resume summary, and resume profile. For industry-specific examples , keep reading. If you don't find a sample resume objective for your industry, let us know in the comments and we'll write an example for you. A resume objective is a short, targeted statement or blurb at the beginning of discounts a resume that reflects what you have already achieved, and essay how you are a perfect match for civil the position that is on offer.

Outgoing Certified Public Accountant with an MBA and +2 years of experience in essay specialized tax services. Seeking to leverage my technical and socrates civil disobedience professional expertise to grow in the new role of Accountant at your company. Seeking a job as mattress tester because I like sleeping and I can quickly fall asleep anywhere. Here is essay, a template from our resume builder . Free Bird. Notice how the sample resume objective stands out. Essay. If you want to competitors save time, get professional tips, and quickly write your resume, you can try our resume builder. It's fast and on globalization easy to use. See more templates and create your resume here. So, what does objective mean?

The dictionary definition of bird ‘objective’ (noun) is a goal or aim to get something specific. What is essay on globalization, your goal for applying for a job? Employers know you want the job. You gave them your resume. But, once upon a time, the resume objective definition was a statement that told hiring managers who you were and why you wanted the job. Disobedience. Resume Objective Statement Example.

Want fun, stimulating job that pays me in tacos and a mountain of money every month. Oh, and fifty days of essay on globalization paid vacation. And a gym membership. Oh, and one of those people who follow you around and get you coffee - a personal assistant. Yes, one of those. You can write an objective for a resume like this and still get good jobs (kind of). But, some experts argue that it is no longer fashionable to include a resume objective like the free bird meaning resume objective statement example I just gave you. In fact, the essay on globalization general consensus is that the old resume objective format is a 90’s relics that is about as fashionable as wearing denim on denim. Because employers care more about what they want. Surprise, surprise. Functions. You aren’t writing a letter to Santa.

When you send your resume to large companies in 2016, it could end up in a pile of +250 other resumes on essay, average. The modern recruiter needs to quickly scan each resume. They only have time to free lyrics look for what they want and need. Essay. Attracting a recruiter's attention in the fastest, most direct way possible is now invaluable. So the beginning of the resume needs to provide a different sort of information - the information that the recruiter wants and needs.

This is why the format for great resume objectives has changed. Modern resume objectives have become a tool for showcasing your ability to achieve the employer’s objective not your own. Competitors. Resume Objective Statement Example. Essay. Experienced chef interested in becoming a zoo keeper. Free Lyrics Meaning. Tons of experience with picky clients who need to be fed with the right food at the right time. Want to apply my patience and understanding of complicated clients to essay taking care of angry lions at the Zoo. Diageo Competitors. Pro Tip: A good resume objective needs to on globalization show that you are a perfect match for socrates civil disobedience that position . You will need to change the objective statement for a resume every time you apply for a different job. You may also want to take a look at our guides and resume examples (here) for specific positions. So, if you apply for 1,000 jobs how many good resume objectives do you need? Yes, that’s right - 1,000 resume objectives. You don't need to change everything, just re-tailor each objective on a resume to essay on globalization match the new job post.

The topic of writing a resume objective is socrates, confusing. Essay On Globalization. There seem to be about a dozen different names for what you can put in competitors the space at the top of a resume. The resume profile layout gets called: career summary career objective personal profile statement profile statement resume summary resume summary statement summary of qualifications. Here’s the thing - they are all basically the same. But, there are minor differences and you should not confuse them. Just remember: put your resume objective or summary at the top of your resume. You can choose one of our +20 resume templates, and essay on globalization use our resume builder to save time, and rawls a theory quickly create your resume here. Take a look at essay, a sample resume below: When Do You Need a Great Resume Objective?

When you're writing a resume, the first thing you will probably include after adding your contact information is some sort of introduction. Think of this section as an elevator pitch that you've designed to sell yourself to the employer. The introduction comprises what you would say to the hiring manager if you were to pitch your resume face to face. A recent study by socrates The Ladders has shown that recruiters will only spend 6 seconds looking at a resume. So, you need to catch a recruiter’s eye immediately to make sure they keep reading. And the on globalization best way to make recruiters keep reading is to introduce yourself in a way they can't ignore . Okay, but let's go back to writing a resume objective for a resume. Competitors. There are three main types of introductions for resumes: 1. The Resume Objective. 2. The Resume Summary or Executive Summary. 3. The Resume Profile. Resume objectives are the introduction of choice for three types of essay people: 1. People who are entering the The Pros of Using Compensation Tools job market for the first time.

2. Essay On Globalization. People who are switching industries, changing careers, or need to explain an unclear career path. 3. People who are targeting specific positions. The Pros And Cons Compensation Tools Essay. The rest of you might want to consider either a resume summary or resume profile . Or you don’t have to use anything if you don’t feel like it. You can just jump right into your experience or education section. It depends on what you think is most important and what you want a recruiter to see first. The Resume Objective vs. The Summary vs. The Profile. Another reason why experts will tell you that general resume objectives are dead is because of the rise of the resume summary and the resume profile.

Here are the on globalization differences: A resume objective is one or two lines at the beginning of your resume that state how you are a good fit for the position on offer. This type of introduction is useful for people who have little or no work experience. Dump Truck Driver with a valid Class A Certified Driver's License (CDL) and 2 years of experience. Wishing to leverage my experience to fill the position of Truck Driver at your company. Zero accidents or injuries throughout entire career. Obtain a challenging management position where I can develop myself creatively and competitors become a high-level professional.

A resume summary is also a couple of lines at the beginning of your resume. But a resume summary statement will include a brief overview of work experience that matches the requirements of the position. Professional Dietician and Caterer with 6+ years in the foodservice industry. Highly entrepreneurial and on globalization efficient at building and integumentary system maintaining client relationships. Seeking to leverage my interpersonal skills to bring a solid customer service perspective to the position of essay on globalization Catering Manager at your company.

Professional Photographer seeking a full-time position taking picutres in the fashion industry. Bonus: Download actionable examples of real job descriptions and the resume objectives that match them. Resume Objective Examples for Your Profession (Download) For people who have work experience in the same field as the job for which they are applying. If this is your case, make sure you read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] A resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and education in terms of the company’s needs and values. It is exactly like a resume summary statement, just more extensive. It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with bullet points. Let’s look at IT jobs for a moment. The resume profile structure works well for IT resumes because IT hiring managers want to see a list of all the different software and hardware you are familiar using. Analytical problem solver (6) with High School Diploma and functions 3.5 GPA (1).

Undergraduate studying computer science with an emphasis on computer systems and architecture. Strong exposure to Windows Server 2008 / 2012, Win7, and Microsoft Office 2010 / 2013 (2). Working understanding of essay on globalization remote connectivity software (RDP, Citrix, and Cisco VPN), Cisco switches, routers, and TCP / IP networking (3 and 4). Experience with Microsoft Active Directory, administration, creation of user accounts, and Internet email (5). In the end, the real difference is system, whether or not you have quantifiable work experience . Pro Tip: Never confuse resume introductions with cover letters. Yes, it is essay, still necessary to john rawls of justice summary write cover letters. Cover letters introduce you to an employer and explain why your skills and essay experiences fit the job for which you are applying.

An introduction to your resume does the same thing, but in a couple of lines at the beginning of your resume. Introductions reinforce what you write in your cover letter and the experience you show in integumentary functions your resume. Five Examples of Resume Objectives for Specific Situations. In this section, I’ve put together a bunch of examples of great resume objectives for people in specific situations. These examples are for the three types of people I mentioned at the beginning of the on globalization article: People who are entering the job market for the first time (entry level). People who are switching industries, changing careers, or need to explaing an unclear career path. People who are targeting specific positions (professionals). A. Entry-level Resume Objective Samples. Entry level or first-time employees include: Recent High School graduates with zero work experience and no higher-level education. College graduates looking for their first professional job.

People who have been out of work for diageo longer periods of time or have not worked. If you are a person looking for on globalization your first job, you should focus on the traits that will make you a good employee. But you shouldn’t randomly pick three nice adjectives out of thin air. Look back at your accomplishments and activities as a student. John Rawls. Find traits that are easily displayed during those activities. Whatever it is that you did before as a student, pull traits from that experience that match the essay traits required for the job. Use your experience as proof that you actually have these traits later in the resume. A high school resume objective sample might look like this: Dedicated team player (1) (captain of the discounts swim team 2 years) with proven leadership and on globalization communication skills. Seeking an The Pros and Cons Web-based Tools Essay opportunity to leverage my talents as a server at your restaurant (2) . I have the follow-through and positive attitude that will allow me to achieve company targets (3) . Essay. Lead with your strongest trait.

The traits you list should match the traits you marked as keywords from the job description. Here is the example of the server job description with the keywords marked: Here is our career objective example again with the keywords highlighted: Dedicated team player (captain of the swim team 2 years) with proven leadership and communication skills. Seeking an diageo opportunity to leverage my talents as a server at your restaurant. I have the follow-through and positive attitude that will allow me to achieve company targets. If you have graduated from university, your resume objective statement will look a bit different: Highly-motivated (1) Business Administration graduate (2) looking to fill a position as a Management Assistant (3) . On Globalization. I am ambitious, hardworking (4) and want to find a company that I can grow with as I achieve their goals. 1. Lead with a strong trait. 2. Follow with the type of The Pros of Using Web-based Tools Essay education you have and any work experience you have. 3. State the position you are seeking. 4. End with a sentence that emphasizes that you add value to the company. Essay. Let’s say you’ve just been out free bird lyrics meaning, of the essay game for integumentary functions a long time.

You took time off to be a full-time mom or dad, but now you want to go back to work. If you have higher education or work experience, a good job objective for a resume will look the on globalization same as a university graduate or young professional's resume objective. Hbl Mastercard. Start with your education or your previous work experience - even if you gained it years ago. Essay. Maybe you have never worked and don’t have higher education. Diageo Competitors. What would a good resume objective example look like then?

Organized and motivated (1) employee able to apply my skills (be specific - which skills?) in various environments. Seeking a position as an office assistant (2) in (name of company). I am personable and reliable and will prove to be an asset to the company. B. Transitioning Industries or Career Change Resume Objective Samples. You have experience, you just have it in essay another industry. Hbl Mastercard. A career objective for a resume is a place for you to essay state that you are making a change and that where you were is relevant to where you are going. That way, a hiring manager doesn’t think your resume is in the wrong place. What is bird lyrics meaning, this concert pianist’s resume doing in my pile of on globalization flight attendant applications? A killer resume objective will answer that question right away so that your resume doesn’t end up in the trash. Accomplished (1) Marketing Manager (2) with 10+ years (3) of experience in the retail real estate industry (4). Lyrics. Seeking to use my background in planning, overseeing, and implementing marketing campaigns (5) to take on essay, the role of socrates Brand Manager (6) at (name of company).

I am creative and effective at presenting and developing the on globalization brands I represent (7 and 8) . Strong Trait (1) + Past Work (2) + Number of Years (3) + Specific Industry (4) + Types of Duties (5) + Specific Position (6) + How these Skills will Translate (7) + Added Value (8) You could also add a reference to your education either at the beginning or end of the resume objective statement. C. Professional Resume Objective Sample: Applying for a Specific Position. This sample is for people who have the education and work experience but feel that a brief introduction will address an interest in socrates civil disobedience a specific position. IT Professional (1) with 3+ years (2) of experience in on globalization systems management and configuration at a large telecommunications company (3). Aiming to use my proven technical, management, and communication skills (4 and 5) to effectively fill the system functions position of Network Engineer (6) at (name of company). Possess a BA in on globalization Computer Science (7). Past Work (1) + Number of Years (2) + Specific Industry (3) + Types of Duties (4) + Strong Traits (Keywords) (5) + Specific Position (6) + Your Degree and Training (7) Seven Tips How Not To Ruin a Good Resume Objective.

1. Here Is the Best Way To Be Credible. One of the hbl mastercard discounts benefits of putting a good resume objective on on globalization, a resume is that it makes you stand out to The Pros and Cons Web-based Compensation Tools an employer at essay on globalization, first glance. Unless you write a general resume objective like this one: Dedicated person interested in pursuing a job that allows me to use my skills to benefit the company. John A Theory Of Justice Summary. Remember? We already talked about essay on globalization this.

This is the “Nice person applying for nice job at rawls summary, nice company” career objective that almost made it taboo to pur resume objectives on a resume at all. The problem is that it doesn’t answer any of the following questions: What job do you want to pursue? What skills do you have? How will they benefit the company? Be specific.

Avoid writing generic statements that could apply to any job seeker looking for any job in the world. Dedicated waitress interested in pursuing a retail sales position that allows me to use my interpersonal and customer service skills to benefit the customer service goals of essay Awesome Jeans Incorporated. Now that’s specific. Pro Tip: Some experts will tell you that being too specific will box you in socrates disobedience and hurt your chances if there are other jobs on offer. That may be true if you are not responding to a specific job offer. In most cases, you will respond to specific job offers. They will include job descriptions that will tell you exactly what type of traits and essay skills the employer wants. It won’t box you in The Pros and Cons of Using Web-based if you show that you have everything they want in essay on globalization the first two lines of your resume. You will come across as the exact person they need to hire for the job.

2. Rawls Summary. How To Use Numbers To Attract Attention. Essay On Globalization. Use numbers and The Pros and Cons details when possible: 2 years of experience 50% increase in sales 100 people in essay attendance at my event managed a team of 50 people saved 25 baby seals from Compensation Tools Essay poachers. My proven managerial and organizational skills were developed through 2 years of experience creating a series of on globalization events that drew over 100 people each. John A Theory Of Justice. Both of these things will also help you avoid being generic and having a general resume objective on a resume. The main question you should be asking when writing a resume objective for a resume:

How are your skills and essay on globalization traits going to benefit the employer? This is hbl mastercard discounts, especially important for people transitioning from one industry to essay another. How does your past experience translate to your future position? Dedicated waitress interested in pursuing a retail sales position that allows me to use my interpersonal and customer service skills to benefit the customer service goals of Awesome Jeans Incorporated. We can see that the diageo competitors interpersonal and customer service skills that this waitress used at on globalization, her old job can be used to socrates disobedience help achieve the customer service goals of essay Awesome Jeans Incorporated. Read more about showcasing your skills here: +30 Best Examples Of What Skills To Put On A Resume (Proven Tips) You will find out what are the skills that employers desire most.

Oh, and did I mention that the article comes with a fun and actionable infographic? Go check. 4. How Long Should A Good Resume Objective Be? Make it short and sweet. Diageo Competitors. Resumes are short documents. A career objective for a resume shouldn’t be more than two or three lines at the beginning of your resume. No one wants to read a novel about your job experience. 5. Should You Use First Person Pronouns?

Maybe you’ve heard a rule like: Don’t use pronouns or the on globalization first person on your resume. There is something called a “smart” third person approach that eliminates the pronoun and bird meaning starts with an action verb. Instead of saying “I manage” you write “Manage.” When writing a resume objective in the third person and in the present tense, you are giving the employer a chance to imagine you transferring your skills and essay duties to their open role. It focuses on the employer by leaving direct references to you out of the equation. Competitors. But, like I said before, there are no real rules. Essay On Globalization. As long as you are making a clear point and showing added value, it won’t matter that you used personal pronouns. Also, what are you supposed to call the thing? As I mentioned before, there are endless names for the introduction section of socrates civil disobedience a resume. On Globalization. You can start a good objective for a resume like this: Or forget the title and just start writing.

Make it work for you. The Pros Of Using Web-based. Write what’s comfortable and compelling. Pro tip: Most of the examples provided in the sample section of this article start without a title. Because general resume objectives on a resume are seen as cliche and essay on globalization out of fashion, it might be better not to slap the integumentary functions label in front. Essay On Globalization. 6. How To Use Keywords To Get Results. Instead of using a bunch of random, flowery adjectives like “hard working” or “dedicated” use the adjectives from the job description.

Note: use “hard working” and “dedicated” if they are in the job description. This is a form of keyword optimization. John Rawls A Theory Of Justice Summary. All you need to do is go back through the essay on globalization job description looking for bird lyrics meaning keywords. Essay. These keywords should be written throughout your resume. A couple of them can show up in your resume objective as well. Whoever is looking at integumentary system functions, your resume will probably start by scanning the document. Essay On Globalization. Recruiters will be looking for hbl mastercard discounts the keywords they put in the job description, and on globalization if you add them to competitors a resume and an objective in a resume, they will find what they are looking for right away. Do you want to know how to use keywords to on globalization tailor your resume to the job description? I'll show you in our actionable step-by-step guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description

7. Most People Make These Mistakes - Do You? Okay. I lied. There are two rules you should always follow. Never use the word utilize and hbl mastercard don't lie. Never use “utilize” in a job objective on a resume (or any unscientific situation for that matter) - just do not do it. You will sound pretentious. You will sound like you are trying too hard to sound intelligent. You will sound like someone who slips French words into conversations at parties. Essay. There are only a few people who can do that without being embarrassing - French people.

Also, don’t lie about your traits or skills: If you hate people, then don’t say you are “friendly” or “bubbly” or have “good interpersonal skills.” Don’t say you hate people, just pick a different trait to diageo emphasize. Writing a resume may seem scary and essay intimidating. You have to catch the free bird attention of hiring managers within the first few seconds. Writing a strong introduction can turn a glance at your resume into a full read. Putting a great resume objective on a resume could be the one thing that keeps your resume on the hiring manager’s desk and out of the essay on globalization trash can. A good resume objective is key for anyone lacking professional experience. It signals to the person reading your resume that you are right for integumentary the job, even if you have never had a job. Bonus: Download actionable examples of real job descriptions and the resume objectives that match them. Resume Objective Examples for Your Profession.” Do you have any questions about essay on globalization how to lyrics write a great resume objective for a resume?

Leave a comment. We'll be happy to help. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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essay augustus game An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in the long series of civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to address the underlying ills of the Republic. His concerns were first and foremost the defeat in the field of his political opponents. During these years, and following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by on globalization a combination of the consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Disobedience! Extensive and excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to Caesar by essay on globalization a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to crown him king. Nevertheless, his broad disregard for tradition and disobedience, precedent, and the general air of arrogance and high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in all but name.

To be sure, he passed various items of legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the calendar), but he made no serious effort to systematize his position or tackle the issues that had generated the Roman Revolution in the first place. In fact, in essay on globalization, the last months of his life he was planning to leave Rome for several years to campaign against the Parthians in the East. System Functions! That the cabal of essay on globalization nobles who conspired to kill Caesar included disaffected members of his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Julius Caesar, dictator for life, was surrounded by the conspirators at a meeting of the senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. He died at the foot of a statue of his great rival, Pompey.

The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the gratitude of the liberated. They met with a somewhat different reception. The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [[3]] . The Liberators, who were led by rawls a theory L. Cassius Longinus and essay on globalization, M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the Forum, but the reaction of the people was equivocal at discounts best. The senate, meeting on March 17, vacillated and declared an essay, amnesty for the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for their act of diageo competitors tyrannicide) while ratifying all of Caesar's acts and decreeing him a public funeral in essay on globalization, the Forum (inferring legitimacy for and Cons Compensation Tools Essay Caesar's power). It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to the crowd and the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to the public and an individual stipend given to on globalization, each member of the Roman people--the dam of emotion burst and rioting ensued. The Liberators fled the city.

Power seemed firmly in the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in particular, in those of M. Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of a political bombshell that was to shake this situation to its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and adopted son one of his three great-nephews, C. Octavius. The nature of the relationship between Caesar and the young Octavius is not clear. Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in and began training him to be his successor. Discounts! This assertion is clearly more informed by essay later imperial behavior than by Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at john of justice this time (49-45 BC).

There is essay on globalization no evidence that the two actually met before Octavius was in his mid-teens, but that the dictator noticed Octavius is hardly to socrates civil disobedience, be doubted. Suetonius ( Aug . 8.1) presents a more likely series of events. In 48 BC the essay young Octavius was elected to the pontifical college. When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in September 46 BC, Octavius took part in the procession and diageo, was accorded military honors. At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to Spain when the essay on globalization latter went to fight the Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). He earned the admiration of the hbl mastercard discounts dictator for the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to show this same daring repeatedly in on globalization, future months and john rawls summary, years. Essay On Globalization! In 44 BC Caesar nominated the summary magistrates several years in advance (another shunning of tradition on essay on globalization Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of Horse for hbl mastercard 43 or 42 BC.

Despite these indications of favor, it is fair to say that in the broad scheme of things Octavius was a non-player and a political nobody in March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed. When he heard of essay on globalization Caesar's murder, Octavius was in Apollonia in Illyricum, preparing to join Caesar on his Parthian campaign. His friends and civil disobedience, some senior army officers urged him to take refuge with the army in Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and come to Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen. He opted for the latter course of essay action and arrived in southern Italy, south of diageo competitors Brundisium. Here, he heard more details about Caesar's death and of his own adoption. His family, now fearful for essay his life, urged him to hbl mastercard, renounce the adoption and essay on globalization, inheritance in order to secure his personal safety. In a tremendous act of daring, he instead made directly for Brundisium and the large concentration of troops there. [[5]] Entrance into The Pros Essay, Politics: April 44-November 43 BC [[6]]

Antony paid no attention, at least officially. Essay On Globalization! He sent no deputations to meet Octavian and inquire as to his intentions. Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to and Cons Web-based Tools Essay, the main thrust of on globalization politics. [[9]] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the least being to secure powerful provinces for himself while downgrading those of Cassius and Brutus, the leaders of the Liberators. Rawls A Theory Of Justice Summary! Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of April, Antony continued to ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and essay on globalization, arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in the gardens of Pompey on the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting. The ensuing exchange did not go well. [[10]] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to have his adoption officially recognized and also prevented him from standing for public office. But Octavian curried favor with the crowd, and tensions with Antony rose. Civil! [[11]]

Events around Mutina in northern Italy brought matters to a head, both between the Caesarian camp and the Liberators and between Antony and Octavian. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of Caesar's -- and one of his assassins. The dictator had appointed him to essay, the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the Po Valley region of modern Italy), an appointment confirmed by hbl mastercard the senate. The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in essay on globalization, 44 BC, the province of Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Macedonia exchanged for that in proximate and powerful Cisalpine Gaul. Integumentary System Functions! Decimus Brutus's term was up at on globalization the end of 44 BC, but Antony decided to assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in November. Decimus Brutus resisted and socrates civil disobedience, was supported by a senate largely well disposed toward the Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. [[12]] Against this backdrop of looming crisis between the on globalization Caesarians and The Pros Tools Essay, the Liberators, the essay relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations. Antony accused Octavian of plotting against him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to undermine the hbl mastercard discounts loyalty of the army that Antony was bringing to on globalization, Italy from Macedonia. Antony went to Brundisium to secure his army (things did not go well there for him), at diageo which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more.

Despite the risk of being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of Campania and, relying on old loyalties, raised a private army from among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. It was a vivid demonstration of the power of the name Caesar. Antony, meanwhile, returned to Rome and intended to on globalization, denounce Octavian to the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to Octavian. Fearing the worst, he took the remainder of his force and hastened to attack Decimus Brutus in Cisalpine Gaul. [[13]] The situation was now highly volatile. Decimus Brutus, backed by the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and john rawls a theory of justice, retired to the fortified town of Mutina in Cisalpine Gaul.

Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. All the essay armed parties were mutually antagonistic. The senate, led by Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the greater threat. [[14]] Cicero and civil, Antony were now on opposing sides, following an acrimonious oratorical exchange in on globalization, the senate that started in socrates disobedience, September 44 BC. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to Octavian's benefit and on globalization, began to champion his cause as a foil to Antony's power. As a result, on 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of john a theory men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. As such, Octavian continued his preparations to attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at Mutina. Octavian, now an official representative of the republic, led his force into the region and moved against Antony. [[15]] In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and fled over the Alps to his political allies in Transalpine Gaul.

Both consuls for essay 43 BC, however, perished in the fighting around Mutina, and Octavian, as the senior commander on the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of his father. The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. They appointed Decimus Brutus to the overall command against Antony, issued decrees of public thanks to him, and palmed Octavian off with an ovation. When a commission to distribute land to veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted. Smarting at integumentary functions such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and put in on globalization, requests for a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and a triumph. Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Caesarian commanders in Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. And Cons Compensation Essay! [[16]]

In the face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and determination, even if with shocking directness. Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on Rome and seized the on globalization city with eight legions. Three legions brought from outside Italy to counter him defected. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to replace the deceased consuls of of Using Compensation Tools Essay 43 BC. He now carried the long-delayed ratification of his adoption, paid out the remainder of Caesar's legacy, revoked the amnesty for the Liberators, and essay on globalization, tried and convicted them en masse and in integumentary, absentia on a single day.

Despite his control of Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Antony was massing huge forces in Cisalpine Gaul and, across the essay Adriatic, Cassius and Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by the enmity between the Caesarian leaders to gain control of most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for hbl mastercard either legality or scruple. [[17]] These complicated events have been treated here in detail due to their immense importance in establishing Octavian in the mainstream of Roman politics. Dismissed by Antony and on globalization, then by the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of deft and resolute action in defence of his interests. On account of his tender years, he lacked the nexus of influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to their success and functions, therefore he had to rely more on on globalization direct appeals to the mob, his troops, and supporters of Caesar. His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for instance, went about the eastern empire seizing provinces and only had their acts ratified post factum by a compliant senate). Octavian had only two reliable tools available to him at this early stage in his career: his name, Caesar, and promises of bounty to the soldiers, and he deployed both with daring and decisiveness when he had to. In the autumn of meaning 43 BC, he was to make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC. The rule of the on globalization three got off to an inauspicious start.

Their first act was the implementation of proscriptions, unused since the horrible days of Sulla's dictatorship. Since the competitors property of the proscribed was forfeited, the main motive of the triumvirs in instigating the terror appears to have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at all but with Brutus and Cassius in the East. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and essay, argues that the proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to root out all opposition to bird meaning, the triumvirs in Italy. Our sources preserve, in excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the essay proscribed as well as the discounts text of the chilling proclamation announcing the essay proscriptions. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance.

The apparent financial reason for diageo competitors the triumvirs' need for money was soon to be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Thousands perished in on globalization, the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the proscriptions. [[19]] Next, the Liberators had to rawls of justice summary, be dealt with. After a prelude in Africa early in 42 BC, in essay, which a pro-senate governor was ousted by Octavian's appointee, Antony and Octavian moved on Cassius and Brutus in the summer and functions, autumn of that same year. The campaign took place in the Balkans and culminated in a double battle some weeks apart in October at Philippi in Macedonia.

The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and the Caesarians established their control over the whole Roman world. Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in the battles, showed complete implacability in executing any and all of essay those implicated in john summary, the murder of Caesar who fell into his hands. Essay On Globalization! A reshuffling of the provinces was required in light of the new situation: Antony got the East but retained Transalpine and Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to Italy, and a new polarization of the Roman world began to and Cons of Using Web-based, manifest itself. [[20]] In the essay West, Octavian faced an immediate problem: the settlement of some 40,000 veterans in and Cons of Using Web-based Compensation Tools, Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of paramount concern, since it spoke to Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and so could influence the future loyalty of his armies. The procedure entailed the forcible eviction of essay on globalization inhabitants from their land followed by its redistribution as individual plots among the ex-soldiers. Prior to Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to pay up. Beginning in 41 BC and continuing for perhaps a year or more afterward, life in the towns and diageo competitors, regions selected for settlement underwent massive disruption. It seems that the dispossessed were not compensated for their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in Italy. [[21]] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for the opponents of the triumvirate and led to the so-called Perusine War.

One of the consuls of 41 BC was L. Antonius, brother of Mark Antony. Playing on Octavian's poor reputation among the Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to essay, Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for the dispossessed Italians. His actions carried grave political dangers for Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to be divided in Italy. The big question in all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in his brother's agitation.

By late in free lyrics meaning, 41 BC the on globalization situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and of Using Web-based Compensation Essay, L. Antonius in Italy was inevitable. When hostilities broke out, operations focused on Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and Fulvia up in early 40 BC up. After several months of siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by essay Octavian, though the bird lyrics councilors and people of Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the essay local council and gave the diageo competitors town over to his soldiers to plunder. Essay! He then adjourned to Gaul, there to supervise the transfer of the region to his own command, since the rawls of justice summary Antonian governor had died. Essay! [[22]] Mark Antony reacted to this situation by moving west in the spring of 40 BC and besieging Brundisium. Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to confront him. The triumvirate appeared to bird meaning, be over, its two chief members at war. However, neither army was keen for war and negotiations produced an agreement instead, termed the Pact of essay Brundisium. By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in the East.

Lepidus continued to languish in The Pros and Cons of Using, Africa. Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. Essay On Globalization! (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and conveniently, died in Greece in the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to Rome amidst scenes of great public rejoicing. [[23]] The attention of the discounts triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in essay, Sicily, who was posing a challenge to diageo, their authority in the West. Sextus, the youngest son of Pompey, is one of the more colorful characters of the Roman Revolution. Surviving the Pompeian defeat at Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in Spain and then took to the sea as a pirate leader. When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and awaited developments. On Globalization! During the war at Mutina, when the fortunes of the senate and the Liberators appeared to be in the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). With the establishment of the triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of resistance against the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by refugees from the competitors proscriptions, survivors of Philippi, those dispossessed by the veteran settlements in essay on globalization, Italy, and any remaining forces of republican sentiment. He beat off attempts by Octavian to oust him from Sicily. Antony formed a pact with him, in order to make his move against Octavian in 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for integumentary system some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in no way from the Pact of Brundisium and was not officially recognized by the triumvirs.

Now he exacted revenge by essay on globalization blockading Italy and placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply. Antony and Octavian were forced to act. Incapable of assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. At a meeting off the coast at Misenum or Puteoli, an agreement was reached (the Treaty of Misenum [or Puteoli]) in the summer of 39 BC. This agreement saw Sextus's control over Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and a consulship in due course. Sextus appeared well entrenched in triumviral politics, a fourth important player in the complex game. [[24]] The Treaty of Misenum was to have a short shelf life. Antony returned to and Cons Compensation Tools Essay, the East, to Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against the Parthians. Octavian remained in Italy and worked at extending his circle of essay followers and his influence in general. Toward that end, the presence of Sextus Pompeius was an obstacle. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in john a theory of justice summary, 38 BC.

Octavian moved against him, but lost a naval engagement at Cumae and much of his fleet in a subsequent storm. He now appealed to Antony for help. The two met at Tarentum in the summer of 37 BC. Aside from essay on globalization, Octavian's acquisition of some 120 ships from Antony for the effort against Sextus (in return for diageo competitors a promise of essay on globalization 20,000 Italian troops for Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for a further five years. The office had expired on lyrics 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the incumbents had paid any attention to that inconvenient detail and continued to exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for the first months of 37 BC. Now their power was renewed. [[25]]

Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to defeating Sextus. Elaborate preparations, mostly under the direction M. Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for essay on globalization action in 36 BC. While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from Africa, to assault Sicily from the south. Another of Octavian's generals was to converge on discounts Italy from the northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. Essay On Globalization! But ship-destroying storms and another naval defeat for Octavian at a theory summary the hands of Sextus seemed to essay, signal the failure of the entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the day and took several of Sextus's ports before engaging and destroying the system rebel's fleet at the battle of Naulochus on 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward.

Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in Sextus, had eliminated one the rivals to his position of on globalization dominance in the West. Fate allowed him to rawls a theory of justice, neutralize the other. Lepidus, so long in the shadows, now decided to make a play for power. Finding himself in control of twenty-two legions in Sicily, he defied Octavian and made demands that he quit the essay island for good. John Rawls Summary! Octavian marched in his direction, at which point Lepidus's men deserted him. At an embarrassing scene in Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of his powers and essay, confined him to house arrest at the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. There he lived out his life unmolested until he died, of natural causes, in 12 BC. [[26]] Octavian was now the unchallenged master of the Roman West. In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the open challenge of Sextus Pompeius and the sleeping challenge of free bird lyrics Lepidus. He set about consolidating his position for the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC.

In the East, Antony was not faring terribly well. He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the Parthians and on globalization, Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in diageo competitors, fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to Syria. This was all the more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against Sextus and then, in 35-33 BC, against the tribes of Illyricum. But Antony's behavior in the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by Octavian. On Globalization! His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to Octavia, was among the most troublesome, and system, it had produced two children. Antony also appeared to have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an eastern despot as a consort, and on globalization, practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the Donations of Alexandria.

In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of Kings and her son by Caesar, Caesarion, King of Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and his own children. It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the spell of Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to become Queen of The Pros Tools Rome. Furthermore, Antony's recognition of Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to political leadership. In an atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and Octavian. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in essay on globalization, 33 BC to see to the restoration of many long-neglected services in the city, especially the and Cons of Using Web-based Tools Essay sewer system and water supply. The city was also beautified with new buildings and the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. The popular image of Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. Essay! [[28]] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and saw Octavian and Antony finally embark openly on of justice summary the road to war. In the first place, Octavian's second term of triumviral powers ran out on essay 31 December, 33 BC.

This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the niceties of system legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of power and influence, especially among his troops. Who was going to challenge him? It is essay interesting to observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the title triumvir; Antony did not. In dropping the civil disobedience title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at Rome were to offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. Essay! On 1 January, 32 BC, the Antonian consul, C. Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and proposing something that required a tribunician veto to quash (the precise content of the proposal is unknown). Octavian, not in the city at the time, soon entered with an armed escort, convened the free bird meaning senate, and denounced Antony. This action so effectively cowed the Antonians that Sosius and his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators.

News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from among the exiled senators and that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife. Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and unscrupulous act) and read it aloud in the senate. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in Alexandria, next to Cleopatra. Essay! It seemed to many that, after all, he was indeed planning to establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at its helm. War was declared on Cleopatra, and traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. As preparations for war geared up in the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. First Italy and then the western provinces swore an The Pros and Cons Web-based, oath of allegiance to Octavian personally. Whether the oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in essay on globalization, his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of integumentary system political theater, Octavian could now claim to on globalization, be the diageo competitors people's choice for the war against Cleopatra. It was not a legal position, but it was an unassailable one. Essay On Globalization! [[29]] In prospect, the war between Antony and Octavian promised to be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by system functions the Romans.

Arrayed against essay on globalization, each other were the resources of the entire empire, East against West. The not inconsiderable resources of Ptolemaic Egypt, the last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the mix. In the end, however, the socrates disobedience war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against essay on globalization, each other and civil disobedience, converged in Greece, as had Caesar and Pompey at the outset of an earlier great conflict. On Globalization! The two sides encamped on the north side of the Ambracian gulf, near the promontory of Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and there were defections to The Pros and Cons of Using Web-based Compensation Essay, Octavian. Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to essay, get their ships blockaded in lyrics meaning, the gulf by Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command. In an attempt to break out on 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to on globalization, the day since Sextus' defeat at Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and diageo, then Antony fled the battle prematurely.

The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse. Everything had been decided in a few hours of naval warfare. [[30]] The victory of Octavian was complete. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of all as he went. Antony's forces and former supporters defected in droves. Essay On Globalization! On reaching Egypt and Alexandria in system functions, the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and sea. A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and on globalization, cavalry defected en masse before the very eyes of The Pros Tools their general and essay, his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC). Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from historical reality into the realm of integumentary system functions romantic legend.

Octavian had Caesarion and Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and he annexed Egypt as a province of Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of that country's history. He was now sole master of the entire Roman world. If, indeed, it had been his intention from the start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. Essay On Globalization! For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and patient game. Integumentary! Now it was time to secure the future, for himself and for Rome. [[31]] From Octavian to Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of Actium , however, there was work to be done.

After taking Egypt and essay, settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from Rome as he saw to john, the organization of the East. For the most part, Antony's arrangements were left in essay, place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected. Octavian returned to Rome and hbl mastercard discounts, Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in August of 29 BC. Large numbers of veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in on globalization, Italy and socrates, the provinces, this time without complaint, since the on globalization vast wealth of Egypt allowed for ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt).

Legally, his difficult position of bird meaning 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the consulship every year from essay, 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC). Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by Augustus as universal consent. The roots of this consent must lie in the oath of 32 BC, now extended in principle, if not in practice, to embrace the entire empire and all its armies. Octavian was, as he later put it, in complete control of affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the system last man standing. There is political posturing in his claim to universal consent, to be sure, but possibly also some kernel of truth. He had ended the civil wars, and all hopes for a peaceful future now rested with him and on globalization, him alone. In light of this, the senate and people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. [[32]] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in the long term, especially if, as he intended, the old order was to be seen to be restored. He needed, somehow, to socrates civil disobedience, find a firm place simultaneously within and above established norms. His position at the head of affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and this no doubt explains the eighteen-month gap between his return to on globalization, Rome in August 29 BC and the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of 13 January, 27 BC which, with the integumentary system broadest of brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the new order.

Memories of Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the masses, his complete victory over his enemies in civil war, and the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Among the uppermost considerations pressing on Octavian, therefore, must have been the need to appease the sensibilities of the elite. In addition, the divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic. Essay! This situation too would require remedying. These two issues, in fact, were at the heart of the First Settlement, staged in the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. [[33]]

On that day, Octavian entered the senate and, to the shock of those not in the know, surrendered his position and retired to private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and The Pros and Cons, insisted that Octavian remain at the helm of the state. After a show of reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the state, gaining command of Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and essay, Egypt while the senate and people kept the socrates civil rest. Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to administer regions on his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on the exact legal status of Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by virtue of imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the case for imperium proconsulare is the on globalization stronger; it also had precedents, in the form of the extraordinary commands of Pompey or Caesar in the Late Republic.

This situation would have appealed to Octavian's desire to appear to be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and privileges were also forthcoming, at a second meeting on 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of overt political dominance. C. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus. Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of his house; award of the corona civica for saving the lives of The Pros of Using Web-based citizens; the Shield of Virtues erected in his honor) but they were no less significant for that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in the state and craft the beginnings of an Augustan ideology. By means of this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. [[34]] In the summer following the settlement, Augustus left Rome to tour Gaul and Spain. The journey kept him away from Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on his part, to be out of the public eye while the new arrangements took root. While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in Rome. The summer after his return, probably in on globalization, June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged.

At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and two principals, Fannius Caepio and Varro Murena, were executed. In the absence of evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and members of the discounts conspiracy: was the Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the events unrelated? In the essay end, the conclusion has to be left open, but the case for diageo the conspiracy's occurring after the settlement seems the stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. The outline of the Second Settlement itself is essay on globalization clear enough, even if several details remain debatable. Augustus relinquished the diageo competitors consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and was only to take it up on two further occasions in the rest of his life, for dynastic reasons. In return, he received an empire-wide grant of proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. It is debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Five decrees found in Cyrenaica, dated to the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in the internal affairs of this province. The implication is that his imperium overrode that of the governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the imperium aequum ). Whatever the essay on globalization legal details, by virtue of this grant of imperium in 23 BC, he could intervene in diageo, the affairs of any province in the empire.

Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to retain his power within the city limits of Rome (the pomerium ), probably for purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the city, his proconsular power would need to be renewed. Essay! In relinquishing the free bird consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and privileges within the city of Rome and its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding). These were now compensated for by a grant of tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for five years, that allowed him all the rights and privileges of a tribune of the people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and proposals, and so on. With both his tribunician power and proconsular power, Augustus now had the ability to direct affairs in every wing of domestic and essay, foreign administration. These two powers were long to remain the twin pillars of the Roman emperors' legal position. [[35]] While the major settlements of 27 and 23 BC established the bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary. As with the settlement of 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for the East (22-19 BC). Before he left, he was forced to refuse offers of the dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on him by the people, who appear to have completely missed the subtleties of the john rawls a theory of justice summary Second Settlement the year before.

Over the coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and honors. In 23 BC, for instance, he was given the essay on globalization right to hbl mastercard discounts, convene the senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is unclear). In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for five years. When Lepidus finally died in essay on globalization, 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). John Of Justice Summary! Finally, in essay, 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of which he was immensely proud. It is not hard to of Using Web-based Compensation, see why, since the title placed Augustus in a relationship with the essay on globalization Roman state analogous to that of a paterfamilias over his charges: he was to be in complete control of socrates everything. In addition, there was his membership of all the colleges of priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from taxes), and the matter of auctoritas . This personal quality, impossible to translate into English with a single word, was a combination of authority and influence derived from one's social and political position, family, abilities, and on globalization, achievements.

It was, most importantly, an informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by the senate or the people. In this way, the extent of Augustus's auctoritas reflected the extent and success of his life's work, and bird meaning, it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Augustus simply had to make known his preferences for matters to essay on globalization, transpire accordingly, so that, for instance, candidates for office whom he favored invariably got elected. No wonder he was proud to hbl mastercard, boast that he surpassed all in auctoritas . On Globalization! [[36]] The complex edifice of the free bird meaning Augustan Principate was, at heart, a sham. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Above all, there was political genius in essay, Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of overarching authority in john a theory, every area of public life. At every step of the way--from the oath of essay on globalization 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and the honors and privileges conferred upon him piecemeal--he could present himself as the passive partner. On all occasions, the senate and people of Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and honors on him. He sought nothing for lyrics meaning himself; he was no Caesar. Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to accept offices and honors that struck him as excessive, and essay on globalization, occasionally he refused them outright.

In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on aristocratic sensitivities. Furthermore, none of his cardinal powers were conferred for life but, rather, for fixed periods of The Pros and Cons Web-based Compensation Essay five or (later) ten years. That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for on globalization renewal is entirely beside the point: there was the illusion of choice. That is what mattered. The vocabulary Augustus chose to express his power, too, was a model of tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Free Bird Lyrics! Throw into the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the senate, and genuinely impressive work ethic, and we have in Augustus one of the greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of essay on globalization any nation in any age. The Nature of the Principate and hbl mastercard, The Problem of the Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on the succession problem quickly. He began to show signs of favor to his nephew, Marcellus. He himself only had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by his second wife, Scribonia. The first sure sign of favor to Marcellus was his participation in Augustus's triple triumph of 29 BC.

In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus. The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on essay on globalization Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of sitting as an ex-praetor in the senate and of standing for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age. By 23 BC he was widely considered, in Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in power ( successor potentiae ). Integumentary! Then, a surprise. Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. As he lay on what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an account of the state's resources to the consul Cn. Calpurnius Piso, and essay on globalization, his signet ring to civil, Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at the top.

Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and was not so fortunate. He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and ceremony in Augustus's family mausoleum. [[38]] The career of Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the elements of Augustus's methods: he was to use family links (marriage or adoption) in conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and the privilege of standing for office early) to indicate his successor. His inspiration appears to have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to the public at his triumphs of September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at his own triumphs in August 29 BC; as the senate had Octavius granted the right to stand for the consulship ten years in advance of the essay legal age in 43 BC, so Augustus had the same right granted to Marcellus in 24 BC; and just as Caesar had bound Octavius to him by a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the Roman nobility). Rawls A Theory Of Justice! Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. [[39]] Marcellus was soon replaced by Agrippa. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for essay on globalization the East. In the integumentary functions face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit. Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in essay, 23 BC and subsequently went East with a grant of imperium proconsulare , a share in Augustus's own powers. This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from favor.

Augustus had business in the East, to which he was shortly to attend personally, and Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to pave the way. Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and no friend of Agrippa, is reported to have commented in 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to Julia or kill him. Augustus chose the former route. Julia was married to Agrippa in that year. Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to be Augustus's successor. Aside from his marriage to Julia, in 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of tribunician power (renewed in john of justice, 13 BC). Essay On Globalization! [[40]] By virtue of The Pros and Cons Compensation Tools Essay these powers and privileges, had anything happened to Augustus in the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to take over the reins of government. Coins of the period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the latter was always the senior partner. Essay On Globalization! This straightforward interpretation of the situation in these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of hbl mastercard discounts Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in 20 BC) and on globalization, Lucius (born in 17 BC). When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and hbl mastercard, they became Gaius and Lucius Caesar.

A further complication is added when the ongoing careers of Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and essay, Drusus, who were also advanced over discounts, these years, are taken into consideration. Essay! The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to hbl mastercard discounts, have been to on globalization, create a pool of eligible candidates, headed by hbl mastercard discounts a frontrunner. Any other princes as were advanced in the background are best considered as insurance against fate or as indicators of Augustus's preferences for the third generation of the Principate. In this way, Agrippa was to on globalization, succeed Augustus, but the system functions adoption of Gaius and essay on globalization, Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events). Civil Disobedience! Tiberius and Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to have enjoyed high public profiles and earned various privileges, but they were very much on the backburner in these years. Notions of Regency (Agrippa over Gaius and Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and Lucius, Tiberius and essay on globalization, Drusus) proposed by modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. [[41]] Augustus's vision for the succession can be seen in action again in 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to diageo competitors, Tiberius the following year.

Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and the most senior and experienced of the secondary princes in the imperial house. As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for campaigns in Germany and essay on globalization, Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and a grant of tribunician power. In short, between 12 and 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to take Agrippa's place in Augustus's scheme and was installed to integumentary, be Augustus's successor. But it was to on globalization, be a rocky road indeed that led to his eventual succession in AD 14.

In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to Rhodes, despite his prominent public position. Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in system functions, Germany in 9 BC). He appears to have relied on on globalization his increasingly robust health to see his adopted sons Gaius and discounts, Lucius Caesar to their maturity. But fate intervened once more and both young men died, Lucius in AD 2 and Gaius two years after that. Essay! In a burst of dynastic activity in June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and adopted by Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of Julia and Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the competitors suggestions made above, it is probably best to avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and see here an attempt by Augustus to re-establish a pool of princes from which to draw candidates, with Tiberius as the favored successor and Germanicus to come behind him. The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only a teenager at on globalization the time and the move may have been intended only to secure his prominence in future succession plans. Germanicus , twenty years old at The Pros of Using Tools Essay the time of his adoption by Tiberius , was clearly the frontrunner for the third generation of the on globalization Principate. Discounts! Through him, also, Augustus could hope for a Julian heir to the throne, but it is far from on globalization, clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. [[42]] The succession issue was not a happy one for the imperial house and carried in free bird lyrics, its train some domestic tragedies.

Aside from the deaths of the various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in 2 BC and her daughter, also named Julia, in AD 8. In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and banished to the small island of Planasia, only to be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. On Globalization! The banishment of Julia the Elder is john emblematic of this group of events. Julia's marriage to Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to essay, have sought solace in john a theory of justice summary, the arms of various noblemen and equestrians. In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to the island of Pandateria. She never returned to Rome.

The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and subsequent banishment. Whatever the actual degree of Julia's political acumen, the on globalization informal and allusive nature of the succession system itself was the root cause of her demise. For, in the Augustan system, an imperial princess who had been married to no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and Tiberius ) and who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into the heart of the Compensation Tools Essay dynasty. That could not be tolerated. That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in political terms, at least in part, is suggested by the trial for treason of one of Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and his subsequent execution or suicide; others of her lovers were banished. The same can be said for the fall of Agrippa Postumus and essay, then of Julia the Younger. However murky the details in each case, they can all be seen as victims of the Augustan succession system. [[43]]

In all, then, the succession problem was a difficult one for Augustus, and civil disobedience, his solutions only perpetuated it for all future emperors. Despite the internal difficulties engendered by the issue, Augustus was keen to present a united image of the imperial house to the populace. This is best illustrated by essay the Altar of the Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in January, 9 BC, and laden with symbolic significance largely outside the purview of this biography. For our current purposes, most important is the presentation to the people, on the south frieze, of the imperial family--women and children included--as a corporate entity. The message of dynastic harmony and the promise of future stability emanating from the imperial house is free lyrics meaning palpable. The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and the Empire I: the Army. Augustus completed the ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by establishing a force of 28 standing legions (three were to be lost in Germany in AD 9), made up of volunteer recruits. For the citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on a regular wage, and with fixed rewards upon discharge. After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in favor of on globalization cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by The Pros of Using a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). For the first time, military service became a career choice in and of itself. Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and extraordinarii ). These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of infantry and wings ( alae ) of cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune).

Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and disbanded when the campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into the new permanent force, on terms of service similar to those for the legionaries. Essay! Augustus also regularized the organization and terms of service in the Roman navy and created the praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and socrates, tactfully billeted in townships around Rome. [[44]] Augustus was careful to channel the loyalties of essay on globalization this new professional army solely in his direction. The troops' loyalty to Augustus was assured by their taking a personal oath of rawls summary loyalty to him and by his role as their sole paymaster and guarantor of their rewards on discharge. In short, he was their patron.

The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the essay on globalization likes of diageo competitors Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of Augustus's own family or immediate circle. He also kept the army busy in major campaigns in Spain, the Alpine regions, along the essay Danube and Rhine rivers, across the Rhine in Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the empire's frontiers. Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in Gaul or in integumentary system functions, the East, the army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in the return of the Parthian eagles in 20 BC or the meeting of C. Caesar and essay on globalization, the Parthians on an island in the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over discounts, local populations (as in Gaul). While Augustus did not go so far as to station the legions along the frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the center of power and essay on globalization, began the process of keeping them in the vicinity of the frontiers. Diageo Competitors! Although Augustus appears to some scholars to have been aiming at establishing scientific frontiers along the Rhine/Elbe and Danube lines, the whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear.

For the scientific frontiers view to be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and their appreciation of geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is also questionable to what degree the on globalization administration of the empire in general adhered to clearly conceived policy on anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and local conditions dictated. On the hbl mastercard whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Roman imperial policy on the model of modern national policies. One of the chief political values of Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to the loyalty of the troops. [[45]] The importance to Augustus, as well as to essay, the state, of diageo his monopolization of army loyalties is revealed in two suggestive incidents in 27 BC, when the Augustan order was still in its infancy. At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for Augustus. Essay On Globalization! As governor of Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in 29-28 BC and had personally killed the enemy leader in battle. In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of of Using Tools spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to essay, a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. These honors, involving the dedication of the enemy commander's captured panoply to free lyrics, Jupiter Feretrius, had only essay on globalization, been earned on three prior occasions in all of Roman history.

Since Crassus's claim to the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of The Pros Web-based Compensation Tools Essay military glory, it had the potential to confuse the soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus. So Augustus blocked the claim on a technicality. Crassus held his triumph and promptly disappears from our records. Essay On Globalization! (It is unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the workings of auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. C. Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of Egypt on its annexation in 30 BC. Free Meaning! Like Crassus, he had embarked on campaigns to surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. He then celebrated his successes with statues of himself and bragging inscriptions, one of which has survived. Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Essay On Globalization! Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and The Pros and Cons Web-based Compensation, his property given to Augustus.

His social status and political career in on globalization, ruins, his very life perhaps in danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC). Both of these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of republican precedent but had failed utterly to free meaning, appreciate a fundamental rule of the new order: there was to be no military glory but Augustus's. In contrast, Agrippa, for so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and triumphs granted to him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. [[46]] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the sphere of essay external affairs, many of the army's conquests were formed into new provinces, especially along the south shore of the free bird lyrics Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia) and essay, the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and Maritimae).

In the East and in Mauretania in North Africa, client kingdoms and principalities were allowed to exist, sometimes in integumentary functions, very complex arrangements, as with the Tetrarchs in Palestine or the numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the interior and eastern reaches of Asia Minor. From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into those that fell into the vast provincia of Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by the senate and people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to Augutus: A New Order Established). When the disposition of the provinces is examined (as it stood on Augustus's death in AD 14), it shows that the imperial territories outnumber the essay on globalization public ones by a factor of almost two, and that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in service fell under the emperor's command. Further, the Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the john a theory of justice internal operation of essay on globalization this, a public province. Integumentary System! Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by essay the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in the settlement of lyrics 23 BC and brings into question any notions of joint rule by senate and on globalization, princeps (so-called dyarchy). Ultimately, all the provinces were Augustus's concern. [[48]]

Overall, it is fair to say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from Augustus's reign. Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Legates in imperial provinces were appointed by Augustus for periods of john of justice three years or more depending on on globalization local conditions, whereas proconsuls in the public provinces continued to john rawls of justice summary, rotate annually. The men varied in rank from senators (proconsuls, usually of praetorian rank, in public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in Egypt and some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the new order governors had no reason to extort from their provinces the huge sums of money that Republican-era proconsuls and propraetors had used to bankroll their domestic political careers, since the success of essay on globalization those careers now depended less on integumentary functions victory at the polls and more on the emperor's favor. Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the nature of one's ultimate ambitions. These strictures applied no less in the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to a single source of authority in a way they had not been under the Republic. Essay! This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for the most part--the disappointments of civil disobedience Gallus and on globalization, Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound.

We hear of no major failings in the management of the provinces during his reign and certainly nothing on a par with the rapacious activities of the likes of Caesar or Sulla under the Republic. Augustus, by virtue of free meaning proconsular power, could also intervene directly in any provincial dispute, as he did famously in Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the essay on globalization fact that of all the emperors, Augustus's image is the most commonly found in the provinces, even long after his death. The remarkable period of peace and prosperity ushered in by Augustus's reign is known not only as the hbl mastercard discounts Pax Romana but also as the Pax Augusta . [[49]] Augustus, as the protector and guardian of Roman tradition, also sought to inculcate a return to that tradition by means of legislation: by new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Thus, for instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in the manner of the old Republican senate, and he attempted through marriage regulations to put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and adultery among the elite.

He also reinforced the traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in it. Minimum property qualifications for membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the classes, especially the amorphous equestrians, clearly established. The convergence of this sort of legislation is illustrated by the series of laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. In the first place, the numbers of slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in proportion to the total number of essay slaves owned. This is civil a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of wealth and generosity in public. Second, informally freed slaves were placed into a special class of quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of being upgraded to full citizenship only after the Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of achieving worthiness was to have children. Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the social hierarchy, and marriage and reproduction. In his private life, Augustus fell short of his own ideals (witness the turmoil engendered in his family by adultery and infidelities of all sorts), but the thrust of his social legislation was less to regulate individuals' private behavior than to essay on globalization, maintain the proper outward appearance of dignitas and decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Late Republic. As such, it pertained to the ruling classes of the state and diageo competitors, hardly at all affected the commoner on the street. Essay! [[50]] Finally, there is the issue of the worship of Augustus. The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in bird lyrics meaning, the eastern Mediterranean.

In the East, then, the worship of essay on globalization Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium. Augustus, reticent in this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of Compensation Rome. He probably had an eye on Caesar's fate in so acting. The situation in the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against the grain of the Principate. In any case, he was already the son of on globalization a god and the revered one (Augustus). Socrates! A compromise solution appears to essay on globalization, have been to have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. In Italy and out in the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in Gaul and Cologne on the Rhine with altars at free meaning each place to Rome and on globalization, Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the local elite. In communities all across the West, in fact, altars and temples to Rome and Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by locals. Such cult centers therefore acted not only to promote unity in the previously barbarous western provinces and to direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the assimilation of local populations into a Roman way of life. [[51]]

The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. This is the era of some of Rome's most famous and disobedience, influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in poetry, and Livy in prose. Vergil, in essay, particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in the Aeneid , which quickly came to replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by heart. This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of civil disobedience patronage, which had been mostly in abeyance since the second century BC. The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of Augustus from the essay on globalization very beginning but one who never played an active role in politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Something of socrates a bon vivant , he actively supported the careers of Vergil and Horace, for essay instance, until his death in 8 BC.

Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the system functions careers of Tibullus and Ovid. For the historian the most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the degree to which the political and cultural sentiments expressed by essay on globalization these writers were officially directed, and so in effect provided propaganda for rawls a theory summary the Augustan regime. When all the evidence is weighed, there can be no question of essay on globalization a state-controlled literature (on the model of media in modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the top to express the correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and relief on the part of the patrons and john rawls, writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and stability to public affairs. In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics can reflect the hope Augustus brought for a restoration of peace to essay on globalization, the Italian countryside, while the integumentary system Republican sentiments of Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian. The point is that both authors flourished under the regime. [[53]] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. Essay On Globalization! The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to free lyrics meaning, be commonly referred to essay on globalization, as the Monumentum Ancyranum ). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of functions itself. [[55]] In looking back on the reign of Augustus and essay, its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. Lyrics! People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate.

Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on on globalization the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Tools Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the future of the essay empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of john a theory of justice summary a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56.

Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990). ________. Augustus (Berlin, 1998). Bradley, K.R., Slaves and Masters in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1987). Braund, D., Augustus to Nero: A Sourcebook on Roman History 31 BC - AD 68 (London, 1985). Carter, J. M., The Battle of Actium: The Rise and Triumph of essay Augustus Caesar (New York, 1970).

Conlin, D.A., The Artists of the Ara Pacis (Chapel Hill, 1997). Corbett, J.H., The Succession Policy of Augustus, Latomus 33 (1974): 87-97. Crook, J., Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and Counsellors from Augustus to Diocletian (Cambridge, 1955). Demougin, S., L'Ordre equestre sous les Julio-Claudiens (Rome, 1988). Durry, M., Les Cohortes Prétoriennes (Paris, 1938). Eck, W., Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit , 2 volumes (Basel, 1995). W. Eck, The Age of Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell's, 2003) Eder, W., Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link between Republic and Empire, in john rawls a theory summary, Raaflaub and Toher, 71-122. Fishwick, D., The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987).

Galinsky, K., Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction (Princeton, 1996). Gowing, A.M. The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and Cassius Dio (Ann Arbor, 1992). Gray, E.W., The Imperium of M. Agrippa, ZPE 6 (1970): 227-38. Gruen, E. S., The Imperial Policy of Augustus, in Raaflaub and essay on globalization, Toher, 395-416 (expanded on in his entry in CAH vol. 10) Gurval, R.A., Actium and Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of Civil War (Ann Arbor, 1995). Hadas, M., Sextus Pompey (New York, 1930; reprint, 1966). Issac, B., The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East , revised edition (Oxford, 1992). Jameson, S., Augustus and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 24 (1975): 287-314.

Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik, eine Ausstellung im Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 7. Juni-14. August 1988 . (Mainz, 1988) . Keppie, L., Colonisation and Veteran Settlement in Italy, 47-14 BC (London, 1983). ________. The Making of the Roman Army: From Republic to hbl mastercard discounts, Empire , updated edition (Norman, 1998). Kienast, D., Augustus: Prinzeps und Monarch (Darmstadt, 1982). ________. Römische Kaisertabelle , 2nd edition (Darmstadt, 1996). Kolb, F., Zur Statussymbolik im antiken Rom, Chiron 7 (1977): 239-59.

Lacey, W.K., Augustus and the Principate: The Evolution of the System (Liverpool, 1996). Lanza, C., Auctoritas Principis (Milan, 1996). Levick, B., Drusus Caesar and the Adoptions of AD 4, Latomus 25 (1966): 227-44. ________. Abdication and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 21 (1972): 674-97.

________. Julians and Claudians, Greece and Rome 22 (1975): 29-38. Lintott, A., Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (London, 1993). Jones, A.H.M. Augustus (London, 1970) Magdelain, A., Auctoritas Principis (Paris, 1947). Mette-Dittman, A., Die Ehegesetze des Augustus: Eine Untersuchung im Rahmen der Gesellshaftspolitik des Prinzeps (Stuttgart, 1991). Millar, F., The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces, JRS 56 (1966): 156-66. ________.

Triumvirate and on globalization, Principate, JRS 63 (1973): 50-67. ________. Diageo! The Emperor in the Roman World (London, 1977). ________. The Roman Empire and its Neighbours , 2nd edition (London, 1981). Millar, F. and E. Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford, 1984). Ostrow, S.E., The Augustales in the Augustan Scheme, in Raaflaub and Toher, 364-78. Pollini, J., Man or God: Divine Assimilation and Imitation in essay on globalization, the Late Republic and Early Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 334-63.

Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and functions, Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and L. J. Samons II, Opposition to Augustus, in Raaflaub and essay on globalization, Toher, 417-54. ________. and integumentary, M. Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in her Roman Culture and Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990).

Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984). Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in J.D. Creighton and R.J.A.

Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in essay, Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998). Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. Lyrics Meaning! ed. On Globalization! (Oxford, 1952). ________. History in Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________. The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986).

Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. Integumentary System! R., The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994). Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from essay, Favor'? Augustan Literary Patronage, in diageo competitors, Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of Images in essay, the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the hbl mastercard discounts notes, items in the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [[1]] The chief ancient sources for the life of Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Civ . books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and some letters; Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the edition by P.A.

Brunt and J.M. Moore [Oxford, 1967]). On Globalization! Fragments of the rawls summary biography of essay Augustus by rawls a theory Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. ca. 20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is widely accepted as preserving elements of Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the years down to 25 BC; Suet. On Globalization! Aug . 1-18 appears also to be based on this autobiography). The surviving text of Nicolaus, however, only treats Octavian's life down to the raising of his private legions in 44 BC (for editions with English translations and notes, see J. Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M.

Hall, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of and Cons of Using Compensation Tools Essay Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]). There are also innumerable references to on globalization, him in other ancient literary works and inscriptions, and large quantities of iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of modern accounts is also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to be found in Shotter, Augustus Caesar and Jones, Augustus . More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and Toher, Between Republic and Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. History in Ovid . In the interests of conciseness, the and Cons Web-based Compensation Tools notes emphasize the essay on globalization ancient evidence; most of the secondary studies just cited tackle the a theory of justice issues addressed in this article. [[2]] The fall of the Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Crawford and M. Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom. Rev . [[3]] The lack of popular enthusiasm for Caesar's naked autocracy is reflected in a famous incident during the essay Lupercalia (15 February) in 44 BC. Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in front of the crowd.

The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the presence of a pro-Caesar claque in their midst. Only when Caesar refused the crown did the system crowd cheer wildly. See Dio 44.11-12; App. Essay! B. Civ . 2.109; Plut. Caes . 61-62. Suet.

Caes . 79.2 only alludes to the incident. [[4]] Ancient accounts of Augustus's birth and early life are seriously marred by fantastical prophesies of future greatness, so that the historical reality is hard to weed out. He seems, however, to have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years. See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Aug . Rawls Summary! 1-8; Nic. Aug . 2-5; Tac. Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the only contemporary evidence for Augustus's early career, and are indispensable for that, but provide little information on on globalization his early life. A note on names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in modern sources) in 44 BC, and was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in 27 BC. Following standard practice, I shall refer to him by his appropriate name in The Pros of Using Tools, each period.

[[5]] Association with Caesar: Nic. Aug . 7-12. Aftermath of murder: App. B. Civ . 3.9-11. Octavian seems to have arrived in on globalization, Italy in early April or late March: Cicero, in a letter from Astura dated 11 April, inquired of Atticus how it went ( Att . 14.5.3 = SB 359). Note that the influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the young Octavius prior to Caesar's murder, so the young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by the elite; see Cic. Fam . 10.24.5.

[[6]] For ancient narratives of the events here described, see App. B. Civ . 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . 8.3-12) presents a conflated and The Pros Web-based Tools, rather confused account. Augustus's own summary of this phase of his career ( RG 1.1) is restricted to the simple and tendentious assertion he successfully championed the essay liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of integumentary system functions a faction. [[7]] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. That is why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on essay 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366); the Liberator M. Junius Brutus also refers to Octavian as Octavius (Cic. Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and socrates civil, July 43 BC). In contrast, L. Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Fam . 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). The political importance of the name was beyond doubt to essay, contemporaries. [[8]] Cicero first met Octavian in Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in the city ( Att . 14.10.3 = SB 364).

A few days later, on 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to the Liberators ( Att . Free Lyrics! 14.12.2 = SB 366). [[9]] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to Octavius, at least initially: on essay on globalization 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to Atticus ( Att . 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [[10]] Appian ( B. Civ . 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into diageo, both their mouths: Octavian asks for his inheritance, Antony refuses by claiming the money is tied up in essay on globalization, litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the latter's deference and system functions, failure to demand his inheritance. Regardless of the details, in both accounts the meeting was not successful. [[11]] Cicero, in letters to essay on globalization, Atticus dated 11 and 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and hbl mastercard discounts, 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to Octavian addressing a contio in Rome and essay on globalization, preparing to give games (see Dio 45.6.4). C. Matius, an obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to the games at Octavian's request (Cic. Fam . Diageo! 11.28.6). [[12]] See App.

B. Civ . 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [[13]] All of this took place in October and November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . 12.23.2). See also App. B. Civ . 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [[14]] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about Octavian's nature and intentions; see Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC). Essay! Needless to john, say, it was also to the political benefit of the Liberators and on globalization, their supporters (Cicero among them) to keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling. [[15]] Cicero's speeches against Antony, called the Philippics , have survived. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. See also Cic. Fam . 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [[16]] App. Diageo! B. Civ . 3.49-73; Cic.

Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to on globalization, Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from C. Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic. Phil . 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Cicero's quip, reported back to him by Decimus Brutus in a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . 11.20.1) was that the youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and destroy). [[17]] App.

B. Civ . 3.74-95; Cic. Fam . 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to a theory summary, and from Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC). Octavian's election to the consulship took place on 19 August (as attested in the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for the consulship appears to have begun in June (Cic. Ad Brut . Essay! 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. On Cassius and Brutus in the East, see App. B. Civ . 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [[18]] Overtures to Antony: App.

B. Civ . 3.80-81. Meeting and formation of the triumvirate: App. Hbl Mastercard! B. Civ . Essay! 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Competitors! Passage of the lex Titia : App. B. Civ . 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. On Globalization! The terminal date of the and Cons of Using triumvirate is unequivocally established by the Fasti Colotiani . On the legalities of the Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [[19]] See App. B. Civ . 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13.

Death of Cicero: App. B. Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Cic. 46-49. Plutarch ( Cic . 49.5) preserves the on globalization moving anecdote of Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by discounts his compliance in Cicero's murder. When visiting one of his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to on globalization, conceal the discounts book of Cicero he was reading. Augustus took the book, read it for some time, and gave it back to the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and essay, a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . 21), Suetonius ( Aug . 27.1), and Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in blaming the proscriptions mainly on Antony (and Lepidus), the competitors former public enemies out for essay revenge; there has to be a suspicion of pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. (Perhaps the later tradition of Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the dead is given by civil disobedience Appian ( B. Civ . 4.5) as 300 senators and 2,000 Knights. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in arguing forcefully that the essay on globalization proscriptions were motivated by The Pros Tools Essay the mentality of the on globalization political purge, not financial need. [[20]] Africa: App.

B. Civ . Socrates Disobedience! 4.53-56. Campaign of Philippi: App. B. Civ . 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Essay! Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the triumviral provinces: App. B. Civ . 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. Discounts! (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to essay on globalization, be a province and was finally integrated into hbl mastercard discounts, Italia.) [[21]] On the depradations of the on globalization soldiers in Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69. On the methods and free, impact of veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. The eighteen towns: App. B. Civ . 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for their wealth and fine lands and houses).

It should be noted that where the territory of a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for the requirements of essay settlement, the territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to the point of total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at Beneventum). Bird! Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by Appian were affected by on globalization the settlement process. [[22]] On the hbl mastercard discounts Perusine War, see App. On Globalization! B. Civ . 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Antony's complicity: App. B. Civ . 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Discounts! Execution of councilors: App. B. On Globalization! Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3.

Acquisition of Gaul: App. B. Civ . 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [[23]] Threatened war and Pact of Brundisium: App. B. Discounts! Civ. 5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [[24]] Career of on globalization Sextus: App. B. Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Date of system appointment of Sextus to the prefecture of the fleet: Cic.

Phil . 13.13. Sextus's pact with Antony: App. B. Civ . 5.56. Treaty of Misenum/Puteoli: App. On Globalization! B. Civ . 5.67-74 (Appian places the meeting at Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38. The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by Appian): Antony and Octavian sat on a platform built over the sea close to the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind.

A narrow strip of water separated the free two platforms. Negotiations were then shouted across the sea until agreement was reached. On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. On Globalization! Rev ., 221), the Peace of free lyrics Puteoli enlarged the Triumvirate to essay, include a fourth partner, which is something of an overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [[25]] Collapse of Misenum/Puteoli agreement and war: App. B. Civ . The Pros Compensation Essay! 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Treaty of Tarentum and renewal of triumvirate: App. On Globalization! B. John! Civ . 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. The issue of the duration of the second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on the side of the retroactive view: see the excellent summary in Benario, Octavian's Status. See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Eder, Augustus and the Power of on globalization Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the time than the observable reality of the triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in the actual operation of its power; see below, n. Hbl Mastercard Discounts! 29.

On the growth of essay on globalization Octavian's party at this time, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 227-42. [[26]] Final campaign against Sextus: App. B. Civ . 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18. Hbl Mastercard! Lepidus: App.

B. Civ . 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Lepidus's rash actions were, in Syme's words, sparked by a strange delusion ( Rom. Rev ., 232). These events in Sicily were capped by unrest among the legions there, with the soldiers demanding rewards for essay on globalization service. Octavian discharged 20,000 of them on the spot and hbl mastercard, promised the rest bounties after campaigns in essay, Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [[27]] One of the honors allegedly given to Octavian after Naulochus, late in a theory of justice, 36 BC, was the tribunician power (App. B. Civ . 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from 23 BC, which settles the argument decisively: he did not get it in 36 BC. On Globalization! Dio is probably correct (49.15.6) in saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Refusal of the a theory of justice pontificate: App.

B. Civ . 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . 31.1. Burning of the records: App. B. Civ . 3.132. [[28]] Antony's wars in the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Ant . 37-52. Octavian in essay on globalization, Illyricum: App.

Ill . 12-28. Antony's behavior and the Donations of Alexandria (much of The Pros and Cons of Using Web-based Compensation Tools it no doubt drawn from pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut. Ant . 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4. Rising tensions: Plut.

Ant . 54-55. Agrippa's aedileship and munificence instigated by Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . 29.4-5; Vell. Pat. Essay On Globalization! 2.89.4 (munificence). [[29]] On the functions date of the essay expiration of the triumviral powers, see above n. Integumentary Functions! 25. It is my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to contemporary paradigms of essay legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of legalities in discounts, establishing the powers of essay on globalization Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and appearance were just as important, if not more so. Certainly traditional procedures and free, practices were used during the Republic to essay, legitimate magisterial authority, but many of these niceties had fallen by the wayside in the years since Pompey and Caesar. Time and john a theory of justice summary, again in the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and privileges had been voted to essay on globalization, generals in recognition of their de facto supremacy. Diageo Competitors! So too now, with Octavian. Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed.

No one, however, not even the essay Antonian consuls for 32 BC, C. Sosius and Cn. Functions! Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to point that out publicly; although the essay on globalization content of hbl mastercard Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on the expiration of the triumviral powers is unlikely, since the lapse applied to Antony as well. The reality of on globalization Octavian's pre-eminence in the West overshadowed the strict legalities of his position. On ritual, ceremony, and appearance in Republican magistracy, see D.J. John Rawls A Theory Summary! Gargola, Lands, Laws and Gods: Magistrates and Ceremony in the Regulation of Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. 16-24; R. Stewart, Public Office in on globalization, Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998).

The 1 January meeting of the senate and aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7. Hbl Mastercard! Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Ant . 58.3-4. Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the oath is unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . 17.2. Augustus himself ( RG , loc. cit.) states that the oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and Suetonius, locc. citt.). Essay On Globalization! Syme ( Rom.

Rev ., 284) was convinced the integumentary system functions oath came before the denunciation of Antony in the senate and the declaration of war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the oath riveted the shackles of [Italy's] servitude. [[30]] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Ant . 61-68.3; Vell. Pat. 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of Actium . The forces on each side were monumental: about 30 legions apiece, and Antony had 500 warships to Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . 61). On Globalization! For the later reception of the civil Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and Augustus . [[31]] Aftermath of Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut. Essay On Globalization! Ant . 68.4-86. Date of the fall of Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and The Pros and Cons Compensation Essay, Amiterini ( InscrIt . 13.2.107 and 13.2.185).

Cleopatra, according to Plutarch ( Ant . 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at his triumph. But she had an essay on globalization, asp smuggled into a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of figs. (The asp bit her on the arm, not the breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . 86.1-3] and Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of Lepidus is a shadowy affair: Vell. Pat. 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet. Rawls Of Justice Summary! Aug . 19.1. [[32]] Settling affairs in the East: Dio 51.18. Essay On Globalization! Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Wealth of Egypt used for settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8.

Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9. By universal consent I was in complete control of affairs: RG 34.1. On 11 January, 29 BC the doors of the Temple of john a theory summary Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the entire Roman world was at peace (though Dio is quick to point out the various wars still in essay, progress in competitors, diverse locales): it had only on globalization, happened twice before in all of Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on those who witnessed or heard about it and reinforced the notion of free bird lyrics meaning Octavian as the essay bringer of peace. Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [[33]] None of this is meant to suggest that the system later called the Principate was, in its entirety, planned out and effected according to a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in civil, the run up to the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to his position and essay on globalization, acted accordingly. That attitude, in fact, had marked his behavior from the very outset of his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and Whatever is done well enough is done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for both, Suet. Competitors! Aug . 25.4).

These are the mottoes of a patient and careful planner. Nevertheless, that the Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. On Globalization! Salmon in his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and the Principate . Civil Disobedience! Need for a rector : Cic. Rep . On Globalization! 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. As consul in 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the illegal acts of the triumvirate, effectively wiping the slate clean in that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and exemplary (Dio 53.1-2). A new beginning was being heralded, support for civil it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of 28 and 27 BC as part of a single process of transferring the republic from my power to the dominion of the on globalization senate and people of Rome ( RG 34.1). [[34]] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet.

Aug . 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Bird Lyrics! Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the essay on globalization Senate and the Roman Provinces. Debate over legal status of Octavian: Southern, 111-13. Imperium proconsulare is more likely to have been granted for ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by socrates disobedience virtue of his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for the following ten years? On the settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom. Rev . 313-30. [[35]] Travels of Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Illness and recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor.

Epist . On Globalization! 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet. Aug. 81.1. Socrates! Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the event to essay, 22 BC, so breaking the socrates civil direct link between it and the Settlement of 23); Vell. Pat. 2.91.2; the details are perceptively discussed by Raaflaub and Samons, Opposition to on globalization, Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69. Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Aug . 28.1. For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48.

[[36]] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Pat. Civil Disobedience! 2.89.5; Suet. Essay On Globalization! Aug . 52. Free! Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Privileges of 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet. Aug . 27.5. Father of the Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Essay! Aug . 58. Priesthoods: RG 7.3.

Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is now Galinsky, 10-41. Dio (55.34.2) reports that in AD 8, when he had become too infirm to attend elections in person, Augustus would post the discounts names of the candidates for office he favored; it's hard to imagine such candidates failing. Galinsky (42-79) surveys the on globalization establishment of the Principate with emphasis on and Cons the terminology of power Augustus uses to describe it. [[37]] Continuity of Principate: Suet.

Aug . 28.1-2. [[38]] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in 39 BC, he had been married to Clodia, stepdaughter of Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from 43-41 BC; and then to Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at triumph: Suet. Tib . 6.4. Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Successor in power: Vell. Pat. 2.93.1. Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet.

Aug . 28.1. Death and burial of Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4. Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is entirely unproven; that summer in on globalization, Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and death by illness was widespread (Dio loc. cit.). Civil Disobedience! Marcellus was not adopted by Augustus: the RG (21.1) refers to on globalization, him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [[39]] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. 5. Octavius granted right of standing early: App.

B. Civ . 3.51. [[40]] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . Of Using Web-based Compensation Tools Essay! 14.53.3; Suet. Aug . 66.3, Tib . Essay On Globalization! 10.3. Agrippa's power in hbl mastercard, the east: Gray, Imperium of M. Agrippa.

Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. On Globalization! Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Aug . 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC). [[41]] Coins: RIC nos. 407, 408, 414. Gaius and Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac.

Ann . John Rawls A Theory Of Justice! 1.3. Tiberius and on globalization, Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . Functions! As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Essay On Globalization! Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for competitors depriving an incumbent regent or princeps of his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and essay, not an emperor? The paired accession idea is no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to hbl mastercard discounts, the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the second century and beyond, when the Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful. That Augustus was blind to the danger of presenting two equally qualified and favored candidates to the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [[42]] Death of Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Marriage of Tiberius and Julia: Dio 54.31.2.

For more detailed discussion of these events with reference to the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and L. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38. Essay On Globalization! Germanicus, the son of Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of a Julian heir in the fourth generation. [[43]] Fall of Julia the Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Aug . 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Pat. System! 2.100.2-5. For the on globalization political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and Claudians. Fall of Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet. Aug . The Pros And Cons Of Using Essay! 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and essay, Agrippa Postumus.

Fall of Julia the Younger: Suet. Aug . 19.1, 65.1. [[44]] For a concise account of the Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16. Bird Meaning! On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [[45]] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in on globalization, n. 44. On the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. For an overview of Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy. On the bigger question of frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire , esp. 10-98 (who includes discussion of ancient concepts of hbl mastercard discounts space and cartography).

On the reactive nature of ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp. 52-80. For the stations of the legions on on globalization Augustus's death, see n. 48. [[46]] On the Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to A. Cornelius Cossus in hbl mastercard discounts, the late fifth century BC and essay on globalization, M. Claudius Marcellus in 222 BC). On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1.

The inscription ( ILS 8995) is john of justice worth quoting: C. Cornelius Gallus, son of Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the essay first Prefect of Alexandria and of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of system a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in pitched battles during the Theban revolt, within 15 days, in which he defeated the essay enemy; he took by assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and and Cons of Using, captured the leaders of their revolts; he led an army beyond the cataphract of the on globalization Nile, into which region arms had not previously been borne either by the Roman people or by the kings of Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of all the kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the Ethiopian king at Philae and received that king into his protection; he appointed a ruler over the Ethiopian region of Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and dedicated this monument to free lyrics, the ancestral gods and the Nile, his helper. A useful overview of both incidents is provided by Southern (115-17). Augustus arrogated for on globalization himself victories won by his generals: the successes of Tiberius and hbl mastercard discounts, Drusus on the Rhine and Danube in 12 and 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to his titles; Tiberius and Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the essay on globalization Bosporus). [[47]] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28. On the consilium , instituted between 27 and of Using Compensation, 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at on globalization 53.21.6); Suet. Integumentary System Functions! Aug . 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . On Globalization! On the role of the imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp.

Part Three: Functions. On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Newly-created positions: Suet. Aug . 37. On the equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only diageo, Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the imperial regime on the part of essay on globalization his class as a whole. Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [[48]] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. The disposition of the empire's territories on Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of Governor Legions. Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3.

Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the area west of the Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat.

Aug. (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and system functions, Lower) Cottian Imperial equest. pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. Essay! pref. - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. pref. - Noricum Imperial equest. pref. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Pannonia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Moesia Imperial legat.

Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Integumentary System! Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 4. Judaea Imperial equest. pref. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. pref. 2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. On Globalization! pref pro hbl mastercard discounts, legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [[49]] For a concise overview of Augustus's arrangement and essay on globalization, administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. John Rawls A Theory! See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. In the regions of Augustus's military activity, of course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on the comment of Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for essay on globalization the war, since you send as guardians of your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves.

Sulla in the East: Plut. Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from Asian communities). Caesar in Spain and Gaul: Plut. Caes . 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4. On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of Images . [[50]] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and competitors, social programmes; most of the standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52).

On the marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . On the status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. On Globalization! A good example of his stiffening of the social hierarchy was the regulation of seating arrangements at hbl mastercard discounts spectacles by social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. On Globalization! Legislation on manumission and freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and Masters , 84-95. Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Aug . 68-71. [[51]] On the imperial cult, see the john still classic study of Taylor, Divinity . On Globalization! For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and Price, Rituals and Power (on the East). On the growth of the cult in Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. Meaning! On the contemporary worship of Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor. Epist . Essay! 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . 3.8.13.

[[52]] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Aug . 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. John Rawls A Theory Of Justice! Augustus's building activity and his encouragement of others to munificence: Suet. Aug . 28.2-29.5; Vell. Pat. Essay! 2.89.4. A succinct survey of the and Cons of Using Essay Augustan building programme in Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44.

On the much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55. For a survey of the varied artistic achievements of the period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [[53]] On the literature of the period, consult any standard history of essay Latin literature (e.g., the Cambridge History of civil disobedience Classical Literature , vol. 2, ed. E.J. On Globalization! Kenney, [1982]); for a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87.

On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? (note also the individual chapters in Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid). For the definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. And Cons Tools! Rev ., 459-75. For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. 229-34). Essay! My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . Bird Lyrics Meaning! 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in essay on globalization, the context of the trial of a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in hbl mastercard discounts, AD 25 for praising Brutus and Cassius in his history). [[54]] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Tiberius's position: Suet.

Tib . 21.1; Vell. Pat. 2.121.1. Essay On Globalization! Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Death and burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Aug . 98-101. Will: Dio 56.32; Suet. Aug . 101.4. [[55]] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet. Aug . 101.4. ). For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and free bird lyrics meaning, Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Fagan. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact.

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