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Marine Plankton of the Pacific Coast. The 411 Media, Are Celebrities Our Business?? Edward F. Program Makes Public? Ricketts. Between Pacific Tides. Robert 'Roy' J. Of The Media, Are Celebrities Our Business? Essay? van de Hoek. Field Biologist Geographer. Wetlands Action Network. I Most tide-pool life depends ultimately on plankton, the most primitive foodstuff in the ocean. Conflict? Marine plankton is basic, the first link in the food chains which culminate in whales, fish, starfish, and humans. But although many of the relationships in these chains are direct, tracing them is another and more difficult matter.
The term plankton is used to include all the living organisms, plant or animal, usually minute, that swim weakly or drift about on or in the water. Large and active free-swimmers such as fish, squid, seals, and of the Media, Really Our Business? Essay whales are never included with the term. The diatoms, microscopic plants of successes of reconstruction, which there are many types, usually are regarded as the most primitive of organisms, and first in The 411 of the Are Celebrities Our Business? Essay the ecological series. Quite recently, however, Atkins suggests that the ultra-minute nannoplankton, organisms too small for nettings - mostly self-nourishing dinoflagellates - make up the greatest proportion of the Program All Schools Essay oceanic biota.* Developing that line of inquiry would be a truly herculean task. The 411 Of The Media, Are Celebrities Really? *Biological Abstracts, 4405, February 1946. The Voucher Program? The erratic nature of the subject matter is chiefly to blam for the fact that so much about diatom production seems to be anomalous. Of The Media, Essay? II Such knowledge as we have is the work of a few groups. Reports? At Friday Harbor, although the gaps are larg, a foundation at least has been laid. Unfortunately, the plankton calendar scheduled. III Students of plankton have devoted a great deal of effort to developing and checking the various sampling technics on which the studies are based.
After the kinks had been worked out of the actual physical samplings at La Jolla, it remained to determine whether or not pier samples taken at The 411 Media, Essay the surface of the Managing Conflict Essay water represented a fair quota. Subsurface collections were reported by Allen (October 1923. IV Much generalized work, essential to an understanding of the whole plantion situation, has becom recently available. In chapters 16 to 19 of Sverdrup, Johnson, and Fleming (1942) there is a very good summary and review, and another in Harvey (1942). Aikawa (1936) has shown in the Aleutions . The 411 Of The Our Business? Essay? societies can be traced seasonally and biogeographically. Diatom systematics have been treated for southern California . The larger and less ephemeral planktonic organisms have been studied . Only one large thesis can be stated with any degree of certainty. The idea of hierarchy is implicit. Rank behind rank, societies stand in mutual interdependence. From the most minute and ephemeral bacteria and diatoms, clear up to the fish, seals, and whales, each rank is supported by the abundance of smaller and more transient creatues under it. Each in turn contributes to the series next above it.
Ascending ranks have each a littlel more leeway in the matter of food storage, a little more resilience, a little more freedom of movement in the environment. Examples Observations? Although the individuals are larger, their numbers are smaller. And their spores - the resting stages - are less significant in the life history. Finally, at the top of the The 411 Are Celebrities Really Our Business? hierarchy, the The Voucher disintegrating body of the Really Our Business? Essay whale supports astronomical hordes of bacteria, busily engaged in breaking down the complex and slowly assembled proteins into simpler units which fertilize the waters for the oncoming crop of diatoms - James Joyce's recorso theme in its original manifestation. Each higher order, instead of ruling the ranks of individuals below, is actually ruled by them. Each rank is Managing Interpersonal Conflict Essay completely at the mercy of its subjects, dependent on their abundance or accessibility. All the schemes which our social order prides itself on having discovered have been in use by societies of marine animals far back into the dim geologic past. The units comprising human society very commonly say one thing and be another. Not the least of the many values of marine sociology is the fact that the The 411 of the Media, Are Celebrities sea animals can be only themselves. Successes? REFERENCES There has been no attempt to make this list complete, even for the Pacific; that would require too much space. The 411 Are Celebrities Really? The aim has been instead to provide a suggestive bibliography, which, followed out, should lead the investigator into a fairly complete list.
Perhaps attention should be called to the fact that the air pollution in malaysia article University of of the Our Business? Essay, California Publications in Oceanography were orginally entitled and demographics issued as Bulletin of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California, Technical Series. Aikawa, H. 1936. On the diatom communities in the waters surrounding Japan, Rec. Of The Are Celebrities Our Business? Essay? Ocean, Works Japan, 8(1):1-159. Allen, W.E. 1923 (June). Some tide-water collections of marine diatoms taken at half-hour intervals near San Diego, California, University Calif. The Voucher Makes Public Essay? Pub. Zool, 22:413-416. Closing Thoughts by Media, Are Celebrities, Robert Roy van de Hoek. 2002, revised with new excerpts and remarks in August 2003 The plankton essay by Edward Ricketts did not appear in observations reports the 1939 first edition of Between Pacific Tides because Ed Ricketts began thinking intensely about plankton in the 1940s.
The plankton essay first appeared in The 411 of the Our Business? 1948 in the second edition, and Ricketts' essay was reprinted in the third edition. In the fourth edition Joel Hedgpeth wrote a sequel essay to the plankton essay, which Hedgpeth called Beyond the Tides: The Uncertain Sea. Sadly, for historical context, Ricketts plankton essay was not printed in the fourth edition of 1968, nor was it printed in the 1985 edition. Rickett's plankton essay is now becoming forgotten, but this republication of excerpts of Ricketts' plankton essay on the internet brings yet another part of Ricketts' fine mind, which influenced John Steinbeck, to the public. Perhaps the sixth edition of Between Pacific Tides, if it is ever written will put Ricketts' and Hedgpeth essay together juxtaposed as two views of science and the environment in Makes All Schools Essay 1948 and 1968. Perhaps a marine biologist of our new millenium will write a new plankton essay with perspectives of what we know now. Perhaps I will write that essay.
Joel Hedgpeth wrote his own footnote at the end of the plankton essay in the third edition of 1952 that is worthy of quotation: In the Really Essay twelve years since this summary was attempted, one of the examples of child observations reports most intensive plankton investigations in history has been conductd along the Pacific coast; some aspects of The 411 of the Media, Our Business?, it are summarized (with bibliographies) in successes the various reports of the Marine Research Committee. Of The Really Our Business? Essay? Also there has appeared Sir Alister Hardy's fine book Open Sea (Part I), The World of Plankton; Part II, Fish and Fisheries; Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1956, 1959). We see that Joel Hedgpeth refers to the Plankton essay as a summary. Demographics Of Russia? Dr. Hedgpeth under Part IV of Ricketts' essay, added three paragraphs on Red Tides. Of The Are Celebrities Really? Here is a brief passage from the Makes All Schools Essay second paragraph that was written by Hedgpeth: The red tides, with their consquent havoc, are only the most spectacular of fluctuations in the sea. Our sardines have been undergoing some sort of fluctuation apparently unrelated to the fishing pressure; following the recent decline, an investigation combining the efforts of the The 411 Are Celebrities Really Our Business? Essay California Academy of Sciences, the California Division of Fish and Game, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and air pollution in malaysia the U.S.
Fish and Media, Wildlife Service was underway in 1949. Perhaps Ed Ricketts' plankton essay could be revisited with additions of new paragraphs inserted between Ricketts' paragraphs as Joel Hedgpeth saw fit to do. The entire text of Between Pacific Tides has new edited inserted passages that were added by Hedgpeth and now also by Phillips' in the fifth addition. Successes? Sadly, the fifth edition has neither Ricketts' essay, nor Hedgpeth essay, nor even a new essay on plankton by David Phillips. The sixth edition, if it is considered by Stanford University Press, must consider a return to a plankton essay, as it would be in the spirit of what Ed Ricketts had in mind and Are Celebrities Our Business? what Joel Hedgpeth recognized by including his essay in the 1952 third edition and by writing his own plankton essay in the 1968 f ourth edition. In summary, with a history focus, I look fondly at the passages where Ed Ricketts remembers to discuss the larger mammals, such as the whales, dolphins, and seals. It is also pleasing to see that Dr. Hedgpeth did not change the plankton essay in 1952, but simply added those three paragraphs. Although at this time, I am only able to provide excerpts of Rickettts' essay and Hedgpeth's additions, I do hope in the near future to scribe the entire essay onto limitations, this web site. Since the second edition is unavailable at used bookstores because as I learned from a Hedgpeth article only 2,500 copies of the second edition were printed, it seemed worthwhile to me, at least, to The 411 of the Are Celebrities Really Our Business? scribe at least parts this plankton essay. If anyone wants to send me portions of the essay after they scribe part of it, I would certainly add them into this web site's pages.
Joel Hedgpeth hints at letting this essay go away because so much has changed and successes it is The 411 Are Celebrities Really not relevant, but I disagree, not just from a scientific view, but also from a historical view. In any event, it is up to of a study you as a reader now to Media, Really make your own determination as to the relevance of reports, Ricketts' plankton essay. Hedgpeth did say in 1978, in The 411 of the Media, Are Celebrities Really Our Business? The Outer Shores, on page 47 (Part 1) that: . the essay on which he [Ricketts] lavished so many hours is now a historical curiosity. Hedgpeth also said: . Study? The conclusion of the plankton essay, however, is interesting for its indication of Ed's way of The 411 Really Our Business?, thinking, his increasing effort to put everything together in his mind and demonstrate the unity of all his knowledge.
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mercator resume Essentially one of a kind. A complete history of the Mercator projection, it includes the down-and-dirty details of the flap that Arno Peters created with his misguided egotism and fringe ideas in the cartographic world.This book might accomplish the The 411 of the Are Celebrities Really Our Business?, impossible: actually get the interested layman to understand the Essay, basics of Media, Are Celebrities map projections. First rate.Keith C. Of Reconstruction? Clarke, author of Getting Started with Geographic Information Systems. Rhumb Lines and The 411 of the Essay, Map Wars. A Social History of the demographics, Mercator Projection.
Gerard Mercator was more than just a mapmaker. Although biographical dictionaries accustomed to single occupations typically treat him as merely a cartographer or a geographer, Mercator distinguished himself at various times as a calligrapher, an engraver, a maker of scientific instruments, and a publisher. No less impressive are his deep interests in mathematics, astronomy, cosmography, terrestrial magnetism, history, philosophy, and theology. Although biographers lament the lack of diaries, account books, and carefully archived personal correspondence, the The 411 of the Media, Essay, historical record reveals Mercator as an introspective and of a study, energetic chap who was competent in science, honest and well liked, technically savvy and clever with his hands, curious about the world around him, successful as an entrepreneur, and well positioned to make a pair of substantial contributions to mapmaking. Mercator’s first biographer was Walter Ghim, his neighbor in Duisburg, the small German city where he lived from 1552 until his death in 1594. A twelve-term mayor of the town, Ghim contributed a short biography to the 1595 edition of Mercator’s Atlas, published posthumously by his youngest son, Rumold. Media, Are Celebrities Really Our Business? Essay? Ghim’s essay is more a long obituary than a critical biography.
The mayor praises Mercator as a “remarkable and distinguished man,” notes his “mild character and in malaysia, honest way of life,” and provides dates and other details for key events in the cartographer’s career. Thus we learn that Gerard Mercator was born at approximately 6 a.m. on March 5, 1512, in of the Media, Really Our Business?, Rupelmonde, Flanders, where his parents Hubert and Emerentiana were visiting Hubert’s brother, Gisbert Mercator, “the energetic priest of that city.” (Flanders is of russia, roughly coincident with the northern part of present-day Belgium, and as figure 3.1 shows, the The 411 Are Celebrities Really Our Business?, village of Rupelmonde is about ten miles southwest of Antwerp.) He died “82 years, 37 weeks, and The Voucher Program Makes Essay, 6 hours” latera remarkably long life for the sixteenth centuryafter coping in his final years with partial paralysis and a cerebral hemorrhage. Ghim offers a detailed description of Mercator’s failing health and last rites but says little about the mapmaker’s early life. Places Mercator lived or visited (larger lettering), with present-day international boundaries and additional cities (smaller labels) as a frame of reference. Various renderings of Mercator’s name invite confusion. Although his German father apparently went by Hubert Cremer, vernacular versions of the of the Media, Our Business?, family name include de Cremer, Kramer, and limitations of a, Kremer. Krämer (the modern spelling) is the German word for merchant or shopkeeper, Cremer is its Dutch equivalent, and Mercator is the Latin version, which the future mapmaker adopted at ’s-Hertogenbosch. (Latin was the language of The 411 of the Media, Europe’s educated elite, and of reconstruction, young scholars routinely latinized their names.) Although Gerhard Cremer and Gerardus (or Gerhardus) Mercator might be more historically correct, American and British cartographic historians prefer the partly anglicized Gerard Mercator. A reasonable compromise, I’m sure, as an obsessive purist would need to write awkwardly about Gerardus Mercator Rupelmundanus (Gerard Mercator of of the Are Celebrities Our Business? Rupelmonde), the of child observations reports, name under which Mercator enrolled at the University of Louvain in 1530 and published his epic world atlas. At Louvain Mercator studied humanities and philosophy, attended lectures by the brilliant mathematician and of the Media, Really, astronomer Gemma Frisius (1508-55), and Conflict, received a master’s degree in 1532. With his religious faith challenged by contradictions between biblical accounts of creation and Aristotle’s writings, Mercator occasionally felt stifled at Louvain, where doubt was akin to The 411 Media, Are Celebrities heresy. He began corresponding with a group of Franciscan preachers living in Antwerp and Mechelen (see fig.
3.1), and visited them several times to discuss theology and science. Of Reconstruction? His confidants included Franciscus Monachus (ca. 1490-1565), a prominent geographer who produced a terrestrial globe around 1520 and is a plausible source of Mercator’s knowledge of northern lands. Although his absences from Louvain aroused suspicion, Mercator eventually resolved his concerns over the conflicting interpretations and, according to Osley, “emerged with strong Christian convictions, which remained with him.” Reluctant to leave Louvain, Mercator pursued an The 411 Media, Are Celebrities Really Essay academic apprenticeship centuries before the modern university gave us postgraduate education. Of Reconstruction? In addition to convincing Frisius to instruct him in astronomy and geography, Mercator and his tutor persuaded Gaspar van der Heyden, a local goldsmith and engraver, to The 411 Are Celebrities Essay let Mercator use his workshop for making globes and scientific instruments. The three apparently collaborated on numerous projects, including maps and surgical instrumentsFrisius was also a physicianand the future mapmaker either contributed to or witnessed all phases, from design to marketing. As Osley observes, by age twenty-four Mercator had become “a superb engraver, an of reconstruction outstanding calligrapher, and one of the leading scientific instrument makers of his time.” And as his later works attest, skill in The 411 Media, Are Celebrities, engraving gradations and labels on brass and copper instruments proved useful in making printing plates for maps and air pollution in malaysia article, globe gores. An energetic learner, Mercator progressed quickly from globes to flat maps and from engraving to full authorship. In 1536 he engraved the italic lettering for Frisius’s terrestrial globe, which was assembled by pasting twelve printed gores onto a spherical papier-m?ché shell nearly 15 inches (37 cm) in The 411 Media, Are Celebrities Our Business?, diameter. His role expanded from engraver to coauthor with the publication a year later of Frisius’s celestial globe, similar in size and manufacture.
In 1537 he also authored and of child observations reports, published his own map, a 17 by 39 inch (43 by 98 cm) cartographic portrait of Palestine engraved on copper and printed as six sheets, which formed a wall-size map when glued together. The 411 Media, Really? Mercator’s enduring interest in religion was no doubt a key motivation. Successes? Although he cites Jacob Zeigler as his principal source, the small map included with Zeigler’s book on Are Celebrities Essay, the Holy Land, published five years earlier, is comparatively sketchy. Cartographic historian Robert Karrow, who labeled the map a “commercial success,” notes that it remained in print for at air pollution in malaysia, least four decades and The 411 Essay, provided the geographic details for Palestine for Mercator’s epic world map of 1569. A modern rendering by John Snyder of the double-cordiform projection used for All Schools Mercator's 1538 world map. Reduced slightly from Snyder, Flattening the Earth, 37, fig. 1.27. Mercator’s next publication was a detailed 34 by 46 inch (87 by of the Media, Are Celebrities Really Our Business? Essay 117 cm) map of Managing Flanders, printed as four sheets in 1540. Prepared at the urging of Flemish merchants, the map was based on precise trigonometric and field surveys. Although some historians attribute the measurements to Mercator, who no doubt engraved the copper plates, others question whether the impoverished artisan had the time and resources for extensive fieldwork during the harsh winters of 1537-38 and 1539-40. A key skeptic is Rolf Kirmse, who observed that the distances portrayed are off by only 3.4 percent on Essay, average and air pollution, that the average error of the angles is a mere 2 20′.
According to Kirmse, the timing of the The 411 of the Really Our Business? Essay, surveys and their high level of The Voucher All Schools Public accuracy point to Jacob van Deventer (ca. 1500-1575), a Dutch mapmaker who lived in Mechelen in the late 1530s and later produced a unique collection of town plans of the Netherlands for the king of of the Our Business? Essay Spain. Whoever the limitations of a study, surveyor, there is no dispute about the map’s success and influence. Among the fifteen subsequent editions published between 1555 and 1594 is a smaller adaptation included in the 1570 world atlas by Abraham Ortelius (1527-98), a genial contemporary of Mercator. In August 1536 Mercator married Barbara Schellekens, and the following year Barbara gave birth to their first son, Arnold. The 411 Of The Essay? The couple eventually had six children, three boys and three girls.
All three sons became mapmakers for a time at least, and Rumold (ca. 1541-1600), their youngest, became his father’s representative in England and supervised publication of the Managing Interpersonal, first complete edition of the Mercator world atlas. Although prosperous and comparatively erudite, sixteenth-century Flanders was frequently engulfed in conflict between Protestant reformers and Catholic traditionalists, who in of the Media, Are Celebrities Really Our Business? Essay, 1544 began a brutal effort to suppress Protestantism. Mercator’s letters to the friars in Mechelen as well as his more recent travels attracted the Managing Interpersonal Essay, attention of religious extremists, who imprisoned him at Rupelmonde in March 1544. The zealots also held forty-two other suspects, including Joannes Drosius, to of the Media, Really whom Mercator had dedicated his 1538 world map. Although protests by the mapmaker’s friends, colleagues, town officials, and The Voucher Program All Schools, a local priest won his release seven months later for lack of evidence, four of his fellow detainees were beheaded, burned at of the Are Celebrities Really Essay, the stake, or buried alive. Mercator’s religion remains ambiguous. Some writers consider him a Protestant (possibly a Lutheran convert), while others insist he remained a committed Catholic. All Schools? Ghim and Osley ignore the mapmaker’s church affiliation altogether, Karrow confesses uncertainty, and the late Richard Westfall, who compiled the The 411 of the Media,, entry on Mercator for the Catalog of the Scientific Community Web site, emphatically states, “I find it impossible to limitations tell.” Mercator was released from his imprisonment into Catholic territory, Westfall notes, but eight years later he left Louvain for Duisburg, in Cleve (a German duchy about fifty miles east of Flanders), which was Protestant. Even so, Catholic patrons continued to sponsor his projects and buy his maps. Although religious unrest or outright persecution might have precipitated the move, the immediate incentive was a job offer from William, Duke of Cleve, who planned to Media, Are Celebrities Really Our Business? Essay open a university in Duisburg.
Although the article, duke’s academy never developed, royal and commercial patrons continued to underwrite Mercator’s globes, maps, and scientific instruments. Especially significant is his 1554 map of Europe, which he started in Louvain. Engraved in copper and printed as fifteen separate sheets, the entire map measures 47 by 58 inches (120 by The 411 of the Media, Really Our Business? Essay 147 cm) and, according to the ever enthusiastic Walter Ghim, a revised edition published in 1572 “attracted more praise from scholars everywhere than any similar geographical work which has ever been brought out.” The 1554 edition’s portrayal of Britain underscores the difficulty of obtaining accurate geographic information about limitations of a, a country that feared invasion. According to The 411 Are Celebrities Really Peter Barber, the British Library’s expert in medieval and early modern maps, Mercator relied heavily on existing maps, including a 1546 map of England published in Rome by George Lily, as well as reports from various unnamed correspondents, including the British astronomer-mathematician John Dee, who lived in Louvain from 1538 to 1540. Although his correspondents helped him add place names and refine coastlines, Mercator’s treatment does not mirror the markedly more accurate geometry of unpublished British surveys of the late 1540s and early 1550s. More surprising is the omission of several bishoprics that Henry VIII had established after he broke with Romesurprising because Mercator, now living in Duisburg, had little to The Voucher Program All Schools Public fear from church authorities. In Barber’s view, the omission reflects either ignorance of the bishoprics or a reluctance to antagonize a generous supporter, Cardinal Grenvelle, to of the Are Celebrities Really Our Business? Essay whom Mercator dedicated the map. More impressively accurate is Mercator’s 1564 map of England, Scotland, and Ireland, printed on Makes All Schools Public, eight sheets, which compose a 35 by 50 inch (88 by 127 cm) wall map.
A curious inscription attributes its content to a prototype mysteriously acquired from an of the Media, Are Celebrities Really Essay anonymous acquaintance. Of A? According to Ghim, “a distinguished friend sent Mercator from England a map of the British Isles, which he had compiled with immense industry and the utmost accuracy, with a request that he should engrave it.” Neither Mercator nor Ghim named the source, whose identity sparked the The 411 Media, Our Business?, curiosity of limitations of a study map historians who, as Barber tells it, eagerly enlisted in a game of Media, Really Our Business? “find the friend.” After analyzing place names, shapes, and other details together and carefully assessing information available to plausible informants, Barber attributed the draft to John Elder, a Scottish Catholic who traveled freely between England and mainland Europe. Elder had access to the Royal Library, where he apparently compiled the map from ostensibly top-secret drawings by English surveyors. According to in malaysia article Barber’s hypothesis, Elder left England in late 1561, amid growing hostility between the Catholic and Protestant supporters of Mary Stuart and Elizabeth I, and gave the map to Cardinal de Lorraine, who persuaded Mercator to make the engraving. Although powerful patrons like the Cardinal no doubt initiated specific projects, serendipitous influences were at least equally important. For example, Mercator’s famous 1569 world map, discussed in Media, Really Our Business? Essay, greater detail in the next chapter, was at limitations, least partly encouraged by The 411 of the Media, Are Celebrities Essay his appointment to of reconstruction teach mathematics, as a part-time volunteer, in The 411 Media, Essay, the gymnasium (high school) established by Duisburg’s city council in 1559. Mercator designed a three-year course that included geometry, surveying, and mathematical astronomy, and The Voucher Program Makes Public Essay, he taught the entire sequence once before surrendering the Media, Our Business?, position to his second son, Bartholomew. A second example is his appointment around 1564 as cosmographer to the Duke of J?lich, Cleve, and Berg.
According to Karrow, this nomination inspired Mercator to limitations of a plan an enormous series of works on geography, cosmography, and history. The first part to be published was the Chronology (1569), an attempt to establish an accurate framework for The 411 Media, Really Our Business? Essay world history. The Chronology included tables of solar and lunar eclipses and a conscientiously researched chronological list of limitations political, cultural, scientific, and biblical events. Committed to completeness, Mercator earned a place on the Church’s list of banned books by including events associated with Martin Luther and a few other heretics. Based on a 1574 portrait, this elegant engraving of Gerard Mercator measuring a globe was first printed in the 1584 edition of Media, Really Ptolemy's Geography. Of Russia? It also appeared in the 1595 edition of Mercator's Atlas. From Averdunk and M?ller-Reinhard, Gerard Mercator, frontispiece. While working on Ptolemy’s Geography, Mercator had started to compile maps for his celebrated world atlas, which would provide the modern geographical component of the massive treatise he envisioned.
Resolving discrepancies between sources and engraving most of the plates himself was a slow process, especially for a seventy-year-old mapmaker. Trading off delay and fragmentation, he published Atlas sive Cosmographi? Meditationes de Fabrica Mundi et Fabricati Figura (Atlas, or Cosmographic Meditations on the Fabric of the World and the Figure of the Fabrick’d) in three installments: a 1585 edition, with 51 maps focused largely on France, Germany, and the Low Countries; a 1589 volume, with 23 maps taking in Italy and The 411 of the Media, Are Celebrities Our Business?, Greece; and the complete, 1595 edition, which reprinted the 74 maps issued earlier and in malaysia, added 28 new maps covering most of the remaining parts of Europe. Because the atlas lacks detailed maps of Spain and Portugal, “complete” is misleading. Mercator no doubt desired a more comprehensive treatment of Are Celebrities Really Europe, but time was running out. Weakened by of child reports strokes in 1590 and 1593, he died on December 2, 1594, leaving completion to his son Rumold and grandsons Gerard, Johann, and of the Media,, Michael. In addition to supervising printing, Rumold authored a world map and a regional map of Europe, Gerard signed regional maps of of reconstruction Africa and Asia, and Michael contributed a map of America. The project also provided employment for local artisans, who hand-colored the Media, Are Celebrities Essay, maps. Like other mapmakers, Mercator relied on colorists, mostly women, to of reconstruction enhance his otherwise bland line engravings.
What took so long? The late Clara LeGear, an of the Media, Are Celebrities Essay atlas authority at the U.S. Library of Congress, identified four impediments: Mercator’s need to support himself with other projects, the difficulty of obtaining reliable geographic details, the slow pace of meticulous map engraving, and a shortage of skilled copperplate engravers. Program Makes? Mercator not only compiled all the Media, Are Celebrities Our Business? Essay, maps for the atlas but also engraved the printing plates, with only occasional help from his grandson Johann and Frans Hogenberg, a skilled artisan who engraved most of the seventy maps for Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Theater of the Whole World), published in demographics of russia, 1570 by Abraham Ortelius, a publisher and map seller living in Antwerp. Although a competitor, Ortelius was also a close friend of Mercator.
So close, according to of the Really Our Business? Walter Ghim, that Mercator deliberately delayed his own atlas. As Ghim tells it, Mercator “had drawn up a considerable number of models with his pen” and could easily have had them engraved. Yet he held up publication until Ortelius “had sold a large quantity of Theatrum and had subsequently increased his fortune with the profits from it.” A nice story, perhaps, but the tedium of map engraving as well as the fifteen years between Theatrum and the first installment of The Voucher Makes Mercator’s Atlas suggests Ghim was spinning a yarn. In pioneering the notion of a consciously organized book of mainly maps with a standard format printed in uniform editions of several hundred copies, Ortelius has a stronger claim than Mercator to the title Father of the The 411 of the Media, Really Our Business? Essay, Modern World Atlas. According to demographics map historian Jim Ackerman, the innovative ingredient was Theatrum ’s structure, not its format. The 411 Are Celebrities Our Business? Essay? After all, bound collections of portolan charts copied by hand had been around for more than a century, and books of printed maps published by Martin Waldseem?ller (1470-1522) and others in the early sixteenth century clearly qualify as atlases. Makes All Schools Public? What is noteworthy is Ortelius’s demonstration of atlas making as a systematic process orchestrated by an editor who selects information, standardizes content, and maintains quality. Ortelius and Mercator had decidedly different views of the editor’s role. Whereas Ortelius relied largely on readily available sources, which he selected for reengraving, Mercator energetically sought new source materials and authored original maps, which he personally designed and engraved. Unencumbered by this spirit of scholarship, Theatrum not only beat Atlas onto the market but was so much more successful at the outset that Akerman considers it “remarkable that Mercator’s name [for a book of maps] should have eventually triumphed.”
The title page of of the Really Mercator's 1595 Atlas honors the mythic Atlas. In the expanded edition of Mercator's Atlas published in 1606 by Jodocus Hondius and of child, his sons, this engraved portrait of Mercator and Hondius signified the merger of two important cartographic trademarks. From Averdunk and The 411 of the Our Business?, Müller-Reinhard, Gerard Mercator, pl. Of Child? 18. An excerpt from Mercator's map of The 411 Are Celebrities Really Our Business? Brabant, Jülich, and limitations, Cleve showing Duisburg (bottom center) and part of Cleve, as portrayed in the electronic edition of his 1595 Atlas published in color by Octavo, Examine Disc, 155. Copyright notice: Excerpt from pages 31-46 of of the Media, Are Celebrities Really Essay Rhumb Lines and Map Wars: A Social History of the Mercator Projection by Mark Monmonier, published by of reconstruction the University of Chicago Press. 2004 by the University of Chicago. All rights reserved. This text may be used and shared in accordance with the fair-use provisions of U.S. copyright law, and it may be archived and redistributed in electronic form, provided that this entire notice, including copyright information, is carried and provided that the of the Are Celebrities Essay, University of Chicago Press is notified and no fee is charged for successes of reconstruction access. Really Our Business? Essay? Archiving, redistribution, or republication of this text on other terms, in any medium, requires the consent of the University of Chicago Press.
2004, 232 pages, 52 halftones, 26 line drawings. Cloth $25.00 ISBN: 0-226-53431-6. For information on purchasing the bookfrom bookstores or here onlineplease go to the webpage for Rhumb Lines and Map Wars . University of Chicago Press: 1427 E. 60th Street Chicago, IL 60637 USA | Voice: 773.702.7700 | Fax: 773.702.9756.
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How to Find Resumes on the Internet with Google. Want to learn how to find resumes on the Internet using Google? You’ve come to the right place! Whether you are new to searching the Internet for resumes or you are a veteran Interent sourcer, I’ve included some tips, tricks, and The 411 Media, Are Celebrities Our Business? Essay observations for the novice and expert alike. When using Google to search specifically for of child observations, resumes, it’s a good idea to begin by searching for Really Essay, the word “resume” in the title and/or the url of web pages. For example: (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume)
Here is a sample result to illustrate how this works – we can see the examples, word “Resume” in The 411 the blue TITLE line, as well as in the green URL line. The first line of of russia any search result is the The 411 of the Media, Really, title of the webpage, and the url is the specific web page’s address. Targeting the word “resume” in the title and/or url is very handy, because for many people, it’s simply common sense/instinct to either title the web page containing their resume with the word “resume,” and/or save their resume using the limitations study, word “resume” in the name of the The 411 Are Celebrities Really, file. Eliminating False Positive Results. A “false positive” result is a search result that contains your search terms, but does not match the “essence” of of reconstruction what you are actually trying to find. Of The Are Celebrities Really Our Business?! For example – if you’re searching for resumes, there are many sites that will be returned in your search results that are in of a study fact not resumes, such as sites advertising resume samples and The 411 of the Media, Essay job postings that mention phrases such as, “submit resumes to…” In order to remove most non-resume false positive results, you can use Google’s version of the successes, Boolean NOT operator, which is the minus sign, to prevent your search from of the Media, Really Our Business? Essay returning results with words such as sample, job, etc. (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) -job -jobs -sample -samples. Other ideas of terms you can try to eliminate that may return false positive results:
-eoe -submit -free -”resume service” -template -”resume service” -“resume writers” -“resume writing” Some people who decide to make their resume available on the Internet also decide to publish a phone number. To find these folks, you can try and include local area codes in your search in attempt to find them. Here is an example of a search using area codes to target people who live in Northern VA: (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) -job -jobs -sample -samples -“resume service” (703 OR 571)
What you’ll notice, however, is that searching for area codes can easily produce false positive results, as can be seen in the screenshot below – which are the first 4 results from the demographics of russia, search. Result #3 and #4 mention the number 571, but it’s not referenced as an The 411 of the Really, area code, so they are false positive, non-local results. To clean up the false positive results that mention 571 or 703 but are not of resumes of people who live in VA, you can add the successes of reconstruction, state and of the Media, Really Our Business? Essay state abbreviation to the search as well as exclude more non-resume terms and phrases: While there are still a good number of non-resume false positive results, this can be expected because we didn’t even search for any keywords/skills. Once we do, we will notice a significant drop off in false positives. Another way to search for local resumes is to target a zip code radius. While Google doesn’t support true zip code search functionality, we can leverage the fact that Google supports searching for numbers within a range, otherwise known as “numrange” search. You can perform a numrange search on any sequential (low to high) set of numbers by typing two periods between the numbers without any spaces. Of Child Observations! This is especially helpful because we can exploit this search functionality and The 411 Media, Really adapt it to examples reports, performing a zip code radius search.
For example, take your target zip code and use this handy zip code radius lookup application, which you can use to search for zip codes in The 411 Are Celebrities a radius and sort the The Voucher Makes Public Essay, zip codes within the radius from low to high. Using a central zip code of Are Celebrities Essay 75201 in Dallas, TX and targeting a 20 mile radius, we can use that zip code radius application to get a range of Managing Conflict zip codes from of the Media, Really Our Business? Essay a low zip code of 75001 to a high zip code of air pollution in malaysia 76155. Using Google’s numrange search syntax, here is an example of a search string targeting people within a 20-mile radius of of the Are Celebrities Really Our Business? Essay 75201 in examples TX: Sample results: you can see the The 411 of the, zip code search worked beautifully: Here are a couple of things to keep in mind when searching for local resumes:
Not everyone will publish a phone number on their resume If they do publish a phone number on successes of reconstruction, their resume, it could be a cell phone with a non-local area code if they relocated from another area – this is why is of the Media, Are Celebrities Our Business? Essay, can be helpful to search for zip codes as well as area codes If they don’t publish a phone number at all, they should at least mention a city and/or state. Targeting Resumes That Are Not Titled As “Resume” Although plenty of people do title their resume or the web page containing their resume with the word “resume,” there are some people who don’t. After searching for all of the demographics of russia, results that DO contain the word “resume” in the URL or title of the web page, you need to try to eliminate them from future search results using Google’s NOT operator, the The 411 Are Celebrities Our Business?, minus sign, to successes of reconstruction, specifically target the results that don’t mention resume in the title or URL. For example: Don’t be tempted to try and write that as -(inurl:resume OR intitle:resume), because Google will not read that search string in the manner in The 411 of the Really Our Business? which you intend. Instead of eliminating results with the examples reports, word “resume” in either the URL or the The 411 of the Media, Are Celebrities Really Essay, title, Google will in fact will do the exact opposite. Click here to of russia, see the The 411 of the Really Essay, sad reality. Sorry Google. Next, you’ll have to think about Managing Interpersonal Essay, words that are commonly found on resumes, such as “objective,” “summary,” “experience,” “employment,” “skills,” “history,” “education,” etc. Then you’ll have to try and reduce false positive results of job postings, resume sample sites and such, and also target local results.
Putting it all together, your search string could look like this: First page results: We can see that the first result is essentially of The 411 Media, Are Celebrities Really Our Business? a resume, yet the person saved their work history as “biodata.” See? Some people don’t use the word resume. Demographics! :-) Looking at The 411 Media, Essay the second result, we can see that the word “resume” is actually highlighted in the url of the second result – which technically should not happen, as we coupled Google’s NOT/- operator with inurl:resume. Yet more proof that Boolean search does not = Internet search. That’s 2 strikes, Google. The third result is definitely not a resume – it is a LinkedIn directory by name, within which is at least one positive hit on our search terms. While there are no doubt resumes on the Internet that do not mention the word “resume,” anywhere within them, I have found that when you stray from targeting the word “resume” in web page titles and URLs, you can quickly find yourself swimming in a sea of false positive results, which is a huge time drain. I believe the The Voucher Makes All Schools Public, 80/20 Pareto principle solidly applies here: You will get 80% of The 411 Our Business? Essay your viable results from targeted resume searches and the other 20% from study searching without targeting the word “resume.” Likewise, you can easily waste 80% of The 411 Really Essay your time trying to sort through the sea of demographics false positives in order to dig up the 20% of resumes that do not mention the term. I’ve provided you with a quick overview of how to effectively utilize Google to search for resumes on The 411 Media, Really, the Internet.
Be aware though – all is not perfect in examples of child observations when hunting for resumes in Google land – if you have not already, please read these 2 posts: The Internet has Free Resumes – So What?and Boolean search does not = Internet search. For those of you who read this post and asked why I: didn’t talk about searching for CV’s didn’t suggest using the The 411 Media, Are Celebrities Our Business?, tilde. operator in conjuntion with the word “resume” didn’t use - job when trying to eliminate false positive results didn’t talk about targeting filetypes didn’t talk about just searching for the word “resume” without using it in conjunction with inurl: or intitle: didn’t mention Google CSE’s. Excellent Article!
Real insight seen in the description and also hands on expertise. I believe this way you could simply recruit using an of russia, internet connection and nothing else. The 411 Media, Are Celebrities! This is very impressive. Also you will be able to examples observations reports, get better candidature as opposed to people using job boards. Thanks Glen! This really was a value addition to my efforts! I have tried the search as ‘site:linkedin.com Java -intitle:resume -inurl:resume (objective OR summary) (experience OR history) education -job -jobs -sample -samples’ which you have mentioned. But I didn’t get any result from of the Media, Are Celebrities Really Essay linkedin site. If I modify the search keyword as ‘site:linkedin.com Java -intitle:resume -inurl:resume -job -jobs’ then I got result from linkedin site but it displays events also along with candidates. I found this article very interesting and appealing as I have been trying to learn ways to do sourcing for air pollution in malaysia, resumes on the internet.
I am trying to learn ways to form such a string on either google or any other tool/site. The 411 Of The Are Celebrities Really Essay! I am new to this and can hardly understand all the requirements.Could you be kind enough to of a, post an article for the same? I have already subscribed on this site. Thanks a lot for your article, i have heard about resume search in google but i dont know how to The 411 Essay, do it. After reading your article i have got an idea to do it.. i will try. please post me the articles related to this search and in malaysia article job search in US. i do appriciate your help… Thank you so much.
Hey, thanks a lot for all the information you are sharing with. Its real cool. How ever I would like to know more about The 411 of the Really, sourcing the resume. Of Reconstruction! Please help me out. I’m really great full about of the Media, Are Celebrities Really Essay, this article. I’m currently new in the field of Human Resource.
And I’m currently using an online subscription based resume search. But unfortunately, it’s not enough to fullfill my search. Limitations! I’m currently looking for of the Really Our Business?, a faster and accurate resume search. Excellent article, with a ton of great search refining information. I have what seems like a dumb question that I must ask. I am searching Google for Android engineers and have used the following string: android engineer OR Mobile Programmer resume filetype:pdf -guide -events -hire -amazon -job -jobs -manual.
I have returned ok results… Here is my question, how do I eliminate European countries and Canada from my results? I look forward to of reconstruction, your reply. Thanks again. Internet Resume Search 2.0 does all the internet search work for you using the major search engines including Google, Yahoo and Bing at: http://www.intelligentsearchagents.com/internet-resume-search.php. Thank you so much for this article.
Can you send me few tips with example to The 411 Media, Are Celebrities Our Business? Essay, my personal gmail id email@example.com. Great article! Thank you for limitations, sharing this knowledge. It’s going to be very useful for my searches. I do have one question though, how do I narrow a search for a SEO expert who needs to have worked on The 411 Media, Really Our Business?, one of the article, top Alexa 100 sites? Basically, how do I add criteria to my search? how to type the keywords for of the Really Our Business?, the need requirment……… Designing was passion so got it worked for, have a look on the new trends of observations Designers.
Hi Glen; I tried your string on Google and of the Media, Really Essay indeed was very helpful i getting resumes in USA, but i mostly work on European requirements, can you please advise how to source if i am looking out for profiles in in malaysia article multiple countries in Europe with Bilingual language option. Thanks. Very informative, that’s exactly what i am looking for. The 411 Media, Are Celebrities Really Our Business?! Specially in finding that quality resume which sometimes tends to be not so inviting after all,. You got a good theme but sometimes fail in editing, that’s sometimes the limitations, sickness of a resume. You’re right. And, are you kiddin’me, i’ve been looking that information for weeks. Great Post plus i like the of the Media, Are Celebrities Really, website’s layout.
I’m going to air pollution article, bookmark this up for The 411 Media, Are Celebrities Our Business?, the reliable information that i think i’m gonna be needing sooner or later. Awesome! I was looking for Boolean for zipcode and radius and got here exactly what I was looking for Program All Schools, plus lot of additional new stuff..Excellent way of putting the concept and explaination..Thanks for the article! I am looking for Are Celebrities Our Business? Essay, guides on recruitment sales techniques such as how to close a candidate or a manager… does anyone can help? Thanks a lot in advance for your help!
I learnt a lot from this article…..thanks a lot…… Finding the resume is easy but finding the good resumes with all the contents is very difficult!! Need job send your resume to resumes@reclutaconsultant, For what type of Position and Company? there is an advanced search in google homepage…u can search for resumes from there in different formats and techniques…try them till u find the right one. thanks. Thank you so much for writing this article! It is by far the most useful and easy to understand introduction to Managing Interpersonal Conflict, Boolean I have found. I have a bit of a tailored question for you, what is your success in using Boolean to find data scientists?
I’ve been having a hard time finding them and was wondering if I was doing something wrong or if they just don’t tend to of the Media, Are Celebrities, post their resumes online. I would greatly appreciate any insights you have to offer! (I didn’t see an examples observations, article about Our Business? Essay, this in your blog but sorry in advance if it is in there and I missed it.) can u please mention the air pollution in malaysia article, strings to of the Media, Essay, search resumese with complete details. oh i need to fix my problem in various ways, how could help me in The Voucher Makes All Schools Essay this situation … Cathey is a sourcing and recruiting thought leader with over 16 years. of experience working in The 411 of the Essay large staffing agency and global RPO. environments (1,000 recruiters and nearly 100,000 hires annually). Starting out his career as a top producing recruiter, he quickly. advanced into senior management roles and now currently serves as the. SVP of Strategic Talent Acquisition and Innovation for Kforce, working.
out of successes of reconstruction their renowned National Recruiting Center with over The 411 of the Media, Really Our Business?, 300. recruiters. Successes! Often requested to speak on sourcing and recruiting best. practices, trends and strategies, Glen has traveled internationally to. present at many talent acquisition conferences (5X LinkedIn Talent. Connect – U.S. The 411 Really! ’10, ’11, ’12, Toronto ’12, London ’12, 2X Australasian. Talent Conference – Sydney Melbourne ’11, ’12, 6X SourceCon, 2X.
TruLondon, 2X HCI) and is regularly requested to present to companies. (e.g., PwC, Deloitte, Intel, Booz Allen Hamilton, Citigroup, etc.). This. blog is his personal passion and does not represent the views or. opinions of anyone other than himself. – See more at: Good afternoon, this seems very interesting. I am a recruiter and trying to search for a position within a certain area – how do I do this?
Maria Gomez. pls tell about a article on web designer that work on the web designer company and also know the method of create websites.
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Nov 10, 2017 The 411 of the Media, Are Celebrities Really Our Business? Essay, write my essay -
all resume submition To: Ira Magaziner (Office of the President) Becky Burr (NTIA) From: Boston Working Group. Date: September 28, 1998. Re: United States Department of Commerce. National Telecommunications and The 411 Media, Are Celebrities Really Our Business? Essay, Information Administration. Management of Internet Names and Addresses. Docket Number: 980212036-8146-02. Please accept the following submission as a proposal in response to the document, Management of Internet Names and Addresses , above described. For sake of simplicity we shall refer to that latter document as the NTIA White Paper. Successes! In the of the Media, Really Our Business? spirit of the successes of reconstruction Internet we are submitting these as a collection of World Wide Web files.
These files are also available online at: Attached are four documents. The first two are our proposed. The second two are a reprise of the first two, except that they also show the differences between our work and that of IANA/NSI: The NTIA White Paper called for the convocation of all interested parties to discuss and formulate an entity to assume management of certain matters involved with the operation of the Internet. Of The Our Business? Essay! In response to successes, this call the International Forum for the White Paper (IFWP) was formed. That body sponsored four meetings: Reston (USA), Geneva (Switzerland), Singapore, and Buenos Aires (Argentina). These were attended by approximately one thousand highly interested people from all walks of life; all kinds of institutions - technical, legal, educational, governmental, and business; and with all kinds of backgrounds and Really Our Business?, points of view.
These meetings were highly focused discussions of the NTIA White Paper and the issues therein. Managing! Mr. Magaziner, one of the persons to whom this submission is addressed, gave the key-note address at the Reston meeting, and, in Geneva, participated in the opening session along with Jon Postel of IANA, Christopher Wilkinson of the EU, Michael Schneider, a German lawyer representing European ISPs, and Dr. The 411 Of The Are Celebrities Really Our Business?! Tamar Frankel of Boston University. As you will note, these meetings were open, focused, well attended, and substantive. The meetings were, without doubt, the most broadly based discussion of Program Makes All Schools Essay these matters in The 411 Are Celebrities Really Our Business? Essay terms of both breadth of coverage and depth of limitations study analysis.
In addition to these meetings, the IFWP sponsored a very lively electronic-mail discussion. From these meetings evolved a set of consensus points. A complete compendium of materials of the IFWP can be found via http://www.domainhandbook.com/ifwp.html. Of The Really Our Business? Essay! The IFWP process itself did not result in air pollution in malaysia a specific proposal in response to the NTIA White Paper. The reasons for this are complex and Media, Really Our Business?, involved. Nevertheless, the of reconstruction IFWP process did create a rich body of thought and of consensus. We, the Boston Group, elected to build upon that legacy. Our work is The 411 of the Our Business?, based on the consensus points reached in examples the IFWP meetings and from the debates on Media, Our Business? the IFWP, Domain Name Policy, and IETF mailing lists. We of the Boston Group are all people who have attended one or more IFWP meetings. Many of us submitted comments to the NTIA Green Paper.
We have all participated in the discussions on the electronic mail discussion lists. We have all read the various proposals made by other bodies. And we are all experienced members of the Internet Community. Among us we have started numerous Internet related companies; we have written IETF standards; we have run IETF working groups; we have designed, built, and operated large networks. And many of us are attorneys with long experience in matters pertaining to the Internet, business, privacy, and Intellectual Property.
In other words, despite the relatively small size of examples observations our working group in Boston, we represent an immense constituency and bring to bear a significant compendium of pertinent knowledge and experience. Our working group includes: Karl Auerbach, Internet technologist since 1974, long time IETF member and IETF Working Group chairman, California attorney, Founder of Epilogue Technology Corporation and Empirical Tools and Technologies Corporation, Chief Technical Officer of InterWorking Labs, also employed as an Media, Our Business? engineer at Cisco Systems (but does not represent to speak for Cisco) Mikki Barry, President of the Domain Name Rights Coalition. Vice President of Corporate Affairs and Chief Counsel of Matrix Information and Directory Services. Former VP Engineering and founder of of russia InterCon Systems Corporation, first commercial Internet applications on the Macintosh platform. Former Editor in Chief of the Georgeotwn University Journal of The 411 Law and Technology.
Peter Dengate Thrush, patent attorney, solicitor barrister, counsel to ISOCNZ (New Zealand) and its subsidiary, the NZ registry, Domainz Patrick O#146;Brien, CEO of Domainz, the NZ registry Milton Mueller, Associate Professor and Director, Graduate Program in Telecommunications and Network Management, Syracuse University School of Information Studies, Author of successes of reconstruction Universal Service (MIT Press, 1997) and numerous other works on telecommunications and Internet policy. Ellen Rony, co-author of The Domain Name Handbook: High Stakes and Strategies in Cyberspace , culminating more than two years of Our Business? online research. She has been writing about and working in the computer industry since 1981. She received a B.A. from Pomona College and an M.A. in Communication from Stanford University. Peter Rony, Professor of chemical engineering at Virginia Tech for 27 years.
He is the author of The Voucher Makes All Schools widely used textbooks on digital electronics and microprocessor interfacing and programming. He is the co-author, along with his sister Ellen, of The Domain Name Handbook; High Stakes and Strategies in Cyberspace . Media,! David Schutt, CIS for a manufacturer/end-user, interested in successes access to resources and electronic commerce Eric Weisberg, principal and general counsel for a rural Texas ISP, Internet Texoma. Our scribe was Diane Thilly Cabell, an The 411 of the Media, intellectual property attorney with Fausett, Gaeta Lund, Boston. She was formerly assistant counsel in MIT's Patent, Copyright Licensing Office. Our meeting was hosted by in malaysia Jorge Contreras, corporate attorney with Hale and Dorr of Boston, originally trained in Electrical Engineering at Media, Are Celebrities Our Business? Essay Rice University and now specializing in corporate and computer law. Please note that Mr. Contreras acted as a facilitator and that the statements and documents set forth here do not necessarily reflect his views or those of Hale and demographics of russia, Dorr. We gratefully acknowledge his contribution and that of his firm Hale and Dorr. It is our claim that our work represents a real consensus of the Internet Community as arrived at through a broad and open process, and represents a true response to the NTIA White Paper. On September 19 we met in open session in of the Are Celebrities Really Boston, Massachusetts. That meeting had a single focus -- to demographics of russia, review and critique the of the Media, Are Celebrities Really Our Business? Essay most recently proposed IANA/NSI document and report back to the community, IANA/NSI, and the US government within the short time allowed for comments.
The review began with a discussion of expectations for the new entity, including prevention of capture by special interests, stable transition to the new authority, fair access and utilization of the root assets, flexibility for growth and user protection. The group identified the new entity's core responsibilities as the rights to (a) edit the root files, (b) assign the address space, and (c) control the operation, assignment and management of The Voucher Makes Public protocol parameters such as port numbers and enterprise numbers. This committee was unanimous in its belief that the The 411 of the Media, Are Celebrities Really Our Business? Essay beneficiary of the Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Nunbers (ICANN) operations should be the end user and not any intermediary or trade group. Enclosed is the result of that effort. We note in passing that we submitted our proposals to IANA/NSI. However, it was, from our perspective a one-way process with no opportunity for discussion, much less any opportunity for a mutually agreed upon successes of reconstruction, result. It was due to The 411 Are Celebrities Our Business? Essay, this apparent unwillingness to openly discuss issues that we felt that we had to proceed and submit our own proposal and The Voucher Makes Public Essay, not to defer to what we consider to The 411 Media, Really Our Business? Essay, be the inferior NSI/IANA proposal. I might say that I (and I believe I speak for all of the Boston Group participants) believe that the September 28 IANA/NSI draft incorporates very, very few of our comments.
We (the Boston Group) do not endorse the September 28 IANA/NSI draft as it does not incorporate matters which we believe to be significant and which continues to reflect an organizational structure that will have vague lines of accountability, limited, if any, means for individual participation, have a high degree of susceptibility to capture by companies and organizations, and finally is of reconstruction, not guaranteed to ever have a membership structure. We are, as a consequence, submitting this proposal directly to the United States as an alternative to of the Are Celebrities Really Essay, other proposals that might also be submitted, such as that of IANA/NSI. This document summarizes our broad conclusions, and we have appended our versions of successes corporate Articles and By-Laws consistent with those conclusions. The changes from the IANA/NSI baseline are relatively few, although the matters are significant, and the overall structure and language has been preserved. We have brought the Are Celebrities Really Our Business? proposal into Interpersonal, alignment with the international consensus. In particular we have streamlined the of the Media, Really structure to emphasize transparency, accountability, and fairness, all of which were prime values, not only of the international consensus, but also of the NTIA White Paper itself. We are prepared to continue this process, and have appointed Diane Thilly Cabell (firstname.lastname@example.org) to in malaysia article, be the coordination point for the group.
Comments and amendments are welcome, and in the event that any suggestion is not clear, the participants would be happy to respond with further clarification. We continue to hope that both NSI and IANA will be receptive to our proposals and incorporate these recommended changes into the current NSI/IANA proposal. However, our proposal does stand on its own merits and is submitted as an independent whole. Before providing a summary of review points, we would like to record our support for the general progress that has been made by Media, Really Essay the contributing parties during this iteration of the Articles and Program Makes Essay, by-laws. The 411 Media, Are Celebrities Really Our Business?! It is successes of reconstruction, clear that significant progress has been made in recent weeks following on the debates and discussions of the IFWP process. Trying to Our Business?, meld the successes of reconstruction myriad of views, comments and opinions into one consistent set of legal documentation acceptable to all is an almost impossible task. The 411 Of The Media, Are Celebrities Essay! The fact that all parties have drafted such an outcome in short order is a significant achievement and the key participants from demographics of russia both organizations deserve full recognition. Added Preamble and of the Are Celebrities Essay, statement of purpose. Removed text that established the purpose of the corporation to be solely for lessening the burdens of government. Mandated that the Initial board create a membership structure, without exception. Defined fundamental assets expected to air pollution in malaysia, be received from the US and added constraints upon what the corporation can do with those assets.
Removed President from the Board of Directors. Re-cast Supporting Organizations to be essentially permanent advisory committees with very strong role in initiating and defining corporation policies. Eliminated Supporting Organizations' ability to appoint Directors to either the Initial or the final Board. Clarified that individuals may be members of Supporting Organizations. Added on-the-record, roll-call voting on matters before the Board. Added additional public access. Media,! Broadened rights to Board Reconsideration.
Eliminated special and unique recognition of contracts between the US and NSI and between the US and University of Southern California. Added a more robust business planning and cost-recovery model. Required that conflict-of-interest statements be made public subject to reasonable privacy limitations. Required that conflict-of-interest provisions be applied to officers as well as to members of the Interpersonal Conflict Essay Board. Recommended the reduction in the number of The 411 of the Media, Are Celebrities officers to the legal minimum. Other minor matters of clarification of language and structure. The Articles currently identify four key functions of the of russia new entity (names, numbers, zones and protocols). We believe they should also state the principles to be followed in the performance of its functions, perhaps by way of preamble. For instance, to perform its functions so as to foster a fair, open, transparent, and competitive environment for the Internet, assuring equal access to essential resources. We also felt it necessary to The 411 Media, Are Celebrities Really Our Business? Essay, more clearly identify the Conflict subject matter over which the new enterprise is to exercise its powers and to clarify the degree to which the new enterprise may pass control to others.
The Articles codify the perceived solution to the not-for-profit status - specifically, a company that meets United States Tax Code 501(c) tax status. We believe that the of the Really Our Business? Essay Articles should record WHAT principles that we aim to achieve (i.e., not-for-profit, no benefits to inure, etc.) as well as HOW this will be achieved. The HOW is currently recorded as a particular way in which it is in malaysia, done in California, and Media, Are Celebrities Really Our Business?, may be the successes most appropriate. As we understand it, the key benefits of a 501(c) company are twofold: tax exemption for the entity, and tax deductions to private donors. We understand that other sections of the Code, such as 501(c) (6), may be more applicable and provide tax exemption. We also believe that gifts and The 411 of the Really, payments to air pollution, (c) (6) organizations are generally tax deductible business expenses. We do not offer a legal opinion as to ICANN's qualification for (c) (3) status in light of its stated purposes, though we do have concerns about such qualifications and the requirement in the Articles that it meet such qualification, including whether the current draft may create an unintended legal impediment to ICANN's continued existence or invalidate its actions if it is of the Media, Are Celebrities, found not to have been performing functions contemplated under that section.
In addition, it is important to Makes, create a company that is financially viable. It should be able to pay any taxes, and it should not have to rely on The 411 Media, Are Celebrities Really Our Business? Essay being gifted goods in order to survive. This company is observations, a crucial piece of the Internet infrastructure. Clearly where the company can get additional benefits this makes good business sense, but we believe the principles should be recorded in the Articles, and not derived from an assumed tax status. Media, Really Essay! There is recognition that a membership structure will evolve, although the document recognizes that it is difficult to determine right now exactly how that might be achieved. This gives some confusion to the reader, as a number of clauses are contingent on whether there is, or whether there is not, a membership structure in article place at any particular time. IANA/NSI draft 4 leaves the issues of if and of the Are Celebrities Really, how a membership structure shall be implemented to the Interim board. The White Paper requires, and limitations, the IFWP reached unequivocal consensus on the IF portion -- the entity MUST have a membership structure in order to guarantee fair representation. This is not an open issue. The only of the Are Celebrities Really questions relate to WHO are members and in malaysia, HOW they shall elect their representatives. We have taken the positive view that a membership structure *will* happen, and made suggestions accordingly.
Our redrafting has a clear flow as follows: The Initial Board is unequivocally charged with creation of a Membership structure (we did not attempt to resolve the issue of whether there shall be a membership of individuals and/or organizations, etc. as that was not resolved in the IFWP process); We would only Are Celebrities Essay allow minimal changes to Articles (by 3/4 majority of the board) until the membership structure is created; Once a membership structure is in air pollution article place, power to The 411 Are Celebrities Really Our Business? Essay, change the Articles should transfer to the members (we provided for a 3/4 majority of the examples observations reports members voting to change the by-laws). Of The Media, Are Celebrities Really Essay! 4. Reports! Role of Supporting Organizations as Policy Advisors. We fully support the creation of Supporting Organizations (SOs) as policy advisory committees to the Board. We see their role as originating proposals and expert advice to the Board in their particular functional disciplines. However, we see conflict in their dual role espoused in The 411 of the Are Celebrities Our Business? the draft -- SOs are seen as both creators of Policy and decision makers on the merits of Policy as Board members. If the supporting organizations are also the primary means through which ICANN will obtain a membership, there is a great risk of politicizing the SOs. This would lessen the ability of the SOs to The Voucher Program Makes Essay, make objective technical and policy recommendations. This real conflict can be avoided by defining the role of SO's as that of advisory committees, composed of representatives from The 411 Media, Are Celebrities Essay new and existing organizations, and we have re-drafted accordingly.
We feel that the SOs must be part of the ICANN structure, created by and responsible to the corporation, rather than independent entities. Making the SOs committees of the of reconstruction entity will assure compliance with ICANN's policies, purposes, and aspirations. We do not believe it appropriate for ICANN to be controlled by The 411 Are Celebrities Really and subservient to independent organizations that can appoint members to demographics of russia, the Board of Directors. This results in Media, Are Celebrities Our Business? Essay reduction of the Board by 9 members. Clearly, if felt appropriate, one could lift the number of At large members to some higher number to compensate. 5. Size of the Company, its Officers, and its Staff. We felt uncomfortable with the number of officers contemplated by ICANN's by-laws.
In our view, the new enterprise will be a small organization, particularly at the outset. The various registries and other external organizations will do most of the actual work. We believe that the new enterprise should start initially with the minimum set of officers required by law. Of course, there remains the ability to add more if required at future points. We see no major benefit in appointing the President as a Member of the Board. A clear separation between the Board (as policy maker) and the President (who as the CEO executes Board policy) removes potential for The Voucher Program, conflict and enhances governance within the new company. Furthermore, we foresee that there could be legal difficulties that arise due to of the Media, Are Celebrities Really Our Business? Essay, the self-extending nature of Interpersonal Conflict Essay allowing the board to designate a non-Board member as President who thereby assumes a seat on the Board. 6. Conflicts of Interest, particularly in The 411 of the Media, Are Celebrities Our Business? relation to staff. The Articles state how conflicts of interest should be handled for members of the Board. Successes! We would like to see similar provisions for Officers and of the Media, Are Celebrities Really Our Business?, Employees too, as there is real potential for conflicts to arise.
For instance, one current scenario has potential to see an employee of the company being, the delegated manager for a country domain a Board member of a regional IP registry the creator of protocol parameters. In Malaysia Article! The company needs to The 411 Media, Essay, constitutionally address these issues to protect its interests as well as those of its employees. 7. Balance between the By-Laws and the Articles. We were both surprised and in malaysia article, troubled by the fact that the by-laws were used to define the basic structure of the corporation rather that the Articles, where we believe the The 411 Media, Really Our Business? more basic and immutable principles must be stated and preserved. Clearly we accept there are different ways of doing things.
One can argue that so long as all of the of reconstruction key points are recorded somewhere, it does not really matter where that is. Changing Articles involves a modification of the basic agreement by which the membership submits itself to governance by the organization and must require general consensus of the members. The by-laws should only involve the details of Are Celebrities Our Business? Essay such governance (or administrivia) and may be subject to change by the board. We would like the Articles to be strengthened by moving major company issues from the By-laws into the Articles. This means that change to the Articles can be effected by a 3/4 majority of member votes cast. This would leave changes to the By-laws permissible with majority vote of the Board. The IANA/NSI draft 4 does not state how the initial board should be chosen. Of Reconstruction! Such board is charged with completing the IFWP process and must represent the IFWP membership and consensus rather than any other set of concerns or compromises. Otherwise, it can not be trusted to of the Are Celebrities, faithfully perform its function.
Furthermore, we believe that the discussion and resolution must be concluded by the people who have been involved in the discussions, understand the issues and Managing Conflict, our consensus, and are representative of and The 411 of the Are Celebrities Essay, feel responsible to our diverse membership rather than to some other set of persons or interests. Essay! Therefore, we suggest and require that the Essay initial board be elected by the IFWP utilizing a system to foster proportionate representation (called Single Transferable Vote or STV).
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college paper guide Journal-Style Scientific Paper. The scientific format may seem confusing for the beginning science writer due to its rigid structure which is so different from Are Celebrities Really Essay writing in of child observations the humanities. One reason for using this format is that it is a means of efficiently communicating scientific findings to the broad community of The 411 Media, Are Celebrities Really scientists in a uniform manner. Another reason, perhaps more important than the first, is that this format allows the paper to be read at several different levels. For example, many people skim Titles to find out what information is available on a subject. Others may read only titles and Abstracts . Those wanting to go deeper may look at the Tables and Figures in the Results , and so on. The take home point here is that the scientific format helps to in malaysia insure that at The 411 of the Media, Are Celebrities Our Business?, whatever level a person reads your paper (beyond title skimming), they will likely get the study key results and The 411 of the Media, Are Celebrities Essay conclusions.
Most journal-style scientific papers are subdivided into Managing Conflict Essay, the following sections: Title, Authors and Affiliation, Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, and Literature Cited, which parallel the experimental process. This is the system we will use. This website describes the style, content, and format associated with each section. The sections appear in a journal style paper in the following prescribed order: Section of The 411 of the Media, Are Celebrities Paper. What did I do in All Schools Public a nutshell? What is the Media, Really Our Business? problem? How did I solve the reports problem? What did I find out? What does it mean?
Who helped me out? Whose work did I refer to? Main Section Headings: Each main section of the paper begins with a heading which should be capitalized , centered at the beginning of the section, and double spaced from the lines above and below. Do not underline the of the Really Our Business? Essay section heading OR put a colon at the end. Example of a main section heading: Subheadings: When your paper reports on more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize the of child presentation.
Subheadings should be capitalized (first letter in each word), left justified, and either bold italics OR underlined . Example of a subheading: Effects of Light Intensity on the Rate of Electron Transport. Title, Authors' Names, and Institutional Affiliations. 1. Media, Our Business? Essay. Function : Your paper should begin with a Title that succinctly describes the contents of the paper. Use descriptive words that you would associate strongly with the content of of russia your paper: the molecule studied, the organism used or studied, the treatment, the Media, location of a field site, the response measured, etc.
A majority of article readers will find your paper via electronic database searches and those search engines key on The 411 of the Media, Are Celebrities, words found in successes of reconstruction the title. The title should be centered at the top of page 1 (DO NOT use a title page - it is a waste of paper for our purposes); the title is NOT underlined or italicized . the authors' names (PI or primary author first) and institutional affiliation are double-spaced from and centered below the Are Celebrities Really Our Business? Essay title. When more then two authors, the names are separated by commas except for the last which is separated from the in malaysia previous name by the word and. Ducks Over-Winter in Colorado Barley Fields in The 411 Media, Are Celebrities Response to. Increased Daily Mean Temperature. Ima Mallard, Ura Drake, and Woodruff Ducque. Department of Wildlife Biology, University of Colorado - Boulder. The title is not a section, but it is necessary and important. The title should be short and unambiguous, yet be an adequate description of the work.
A general rule-of-thumb is that the Program Makes Essay title should contain the key words describing the work presented. The 411 Media, Are Celebrities Really. Remember that the demographics of russia title becomes the basis for most on-line computer searches - if your title is insufficient, few people will find or read your paper. For example, in of the a paper reporting on an experiment involving dosing mice with the sex hormone estrogen and watching for a certain kind of courtship behavior, a poor title would be: Why? It is very general, and could be referring to any of a number of mouse behaviors. A better title would be : The Effects of Estrogen on the Nose-Twitch Courtship Behavior in limitations of a study Mice. Why? Because the key words identify a specific behavior, a modifying agent, and the experimental organism.
If possible, give the key result of the study in the title, as seen in the first example. Similarly, the above title could be restated as: Estrogen Stimulates Intensity of Nose-Twitch Courtship Behavior in Mice. 1. Function : An abstract summarizes, in one paragraph (usually), the major aspects of the entire paper in the following prescribed sequence: the question(s) you investigated (or purpose), ( from The 411 Are Celebrities Essay Introduction ) state the purpose very clearly in the first or second sentence. the experimental design and methods used, ( from Methods ) clearly express the study basic design of the The 411 of the Are Celebrities Really study. Air Pollution. Name or briefly describe the basic methodology used without going into excessive detail-be sure to of the Really indicate the key techniques used. the major findings including key quantitative results , or trends ( from Results ) report those results which answer the questions you were asking identify trends, relative change or differences, etc. Program Makes Public Essay. a brief summary of your interpetations and conclusions . Of The Really. (from Discussion ) clearly state the The Voucher Public Essay implications of the answers your results gave you. Whereas the Title can only Our Business? Essay, make the simplest statement about the content of your article, the Abstract allows you to The Voucher Makes Public elaborate more on each major aspect of the paper. The length of your Abstract should be kept to about 200-300 words maximum (a typical standard length for journals.) Limit your statements concerning each segment of the paper (i.e. purpose, methods, results, etc.) to two or three sentences, if possible. The Abstract helps readers decide whether they want to read the rest of the The 411 Our Business? Essay paper, or it may be the only part they can obtain via electronic literature searches or in published abstracts. Therefore, enough key information (e.g., summary results, observations, trends, etc.) must be included to make the Abstract useful to limitations of a someone who may to reference your work. How do you know when you have enough information in your Abstract? A simple rule-of-thumb is to imagine that you are another researcher doing an study similar to the one you are reporting.
If your Abstract was the only part of the paper you could access, would you be happy with the information presented there? 2. Style : The Abstract is ONLY text. Use the The 411 Our Business? Essay active voice when possible, but much of it may require passive constructions. Limitations Of A. Write your Abstract using concise, but complete, sentences, and get to the point quickly. Use past tense . Maximum length should be 200-300 words, usually in a single paragraph. The Abstract SHOULD NOT contain: lengthy background information, references to other literature, elliptical (i.e., ending with . ) or incomplete sentences, abbreviations or terms that may be confusing to readers, any sort of illustration, figure, or table, or references to them. 3. Strategy : Although it is the first section of The 411 of the Really Our Business? Essay your paper, the Abstract, by definition, must be written last since it will summarize the demographics of russia paper. To begin composing your Abstract, take whole sentences or key phrases from each section and put them in a sequence which summarizes the Essay paper.
Then set about revising or adding words to air pollution make it all cohesive and clear. As you become more proficient you will most likely compose the of the Are Celebrities Essay Abstract from scratch. 4. Check your work : Once you have the completed abstract, check to make sure that the information in the abstract completely agrees with what is written in the paper. Confirm that all the information appearing the abstract actually appears in limitations the body of the paper. 1. Function : The function of the Introduction is to: Establish the context of the Really Our Business? work being reported. This is examples observations reports, accomplished by discussing the relevant primary research literature (with citations) and of the Media, summarizing our current understanding of the of child problem you are investigating; State the purpose of the work in the form of the hypothesis, question, or problem you investigated; and, Briefly explain your rationale and The 411 Media, Really approach and, whenever possible, the possible outcomes your study can reveal. Quite literally, the Introduction must answer the questions, What was I studying ? Why was it an important question? What did we know about it before I did this study? How will this study advance our knowledge? 2. Style : Use the active voice as much as possible.
Some use of first person is okay, but do not overdo it. 3. Structure : The structure of the Introduction can be thought of demographics as an inverted triangle - the broadest part at the top representing the most general information and focusing down to Media, Are Celebrities Really Essay the specific problem you studied. The Voucher Program Makes Public. Organize the information to present the more general aspects of the topic early in The 411 of the Essay the Introduction, then narrow toward the more specific topical information that provides context, finally arriving at your statement of purpose and rationale. A good way to get on track is to sketch out the Introduction backwards ; start with the specific purpose and then decide what is the Interpersonal scientific context in which you are asking the question(s) your study addresses. Once the of the Media, scientific context is decided, then you'll have a good sense of what level and type of air pollution in malaysia article general information with which the Introduction should begin. Here is the information should flow in The 411 Media, Are Celebrities Really Essay your Introduction: Begin your Introduction by clearly identifying the subject area of interest. Do this by using key words from your Title in the first few sentences of the Introduction to get it focused directly on topic at the appropriate level. Limitations Of A. This insures that you get to the primary subject matter quickly without losing focus, or discussing information that is too general. For example, in the mouse behavior paper, the The 411 Media, Are Celebrities Our Business? words hormones and article behavior would likely appear within the first one or two sentences of the Introduction. Establish the context by The 411 of the Are Celebrities Really Our Business? Essay providing a brief and balanced review of the pertinent published literature that is study, available on the subject.
The key is to summarize (for the reader) what we knew about the specific problem before you did your experiments or studies. This is of the Media, Are Celebrities Our Business? Essay, accomplished with a general review of the primary research literature (with citations) but should not include very specific, lengthy explanations that you will probably discuss in successes of reconstruction greater detail later in the Discussion. Of The Media, Are Celebrities Essay. The judgment of what is general or specific is difficult at first, but with practice and reading of the scientific literature you will develop e firmer sense of your audience. In the mouse behavior paper, for example, you would begin the Introduction at the level of mating behavior in limitations of a general, then quickly focus to mouse mating behaviors and then hormonal regulation of behavior. Lead the reader to your statement of purpose/hypothesis by focusing your literature review from the more general context (the big picture e.g., hormonal modulation of behaviors) to the more specific topic of The 411 of the Are Celebrities Really Essay interest to you (e.g., role/effects of reproductive hormones, especially estrogen, in modulating specific sexual behaviors of demographics of russia mice.) What literature should you look for in your review of what we know about the problem? Focus your efforts on The 411 of the Essay, the primary research journals - the journals that publish original research articles. Although you may read some general background references (encyclopedias, textbooks, lab manuals, style manuals, etc.) to get yourself acquainted with the subject area, do not cite these, becasue they contain information that is considered fundamental or common knowledge wqithin the discipline. Cite, instead, articles that reported specific results relevant to Interpersonal Conflict your study. Learn, as soon as possible, how to The 411 of the Our Business? Essay find the primary literature (research journals) and review articles rather than depending on reference books.
The articles listed in the Literature Cited of relevant papers you find are a good starting point to move backwards in a line of inquiry. Most academic libraries support the Citation Index - an index which is useful for tracking a line of Interpersonal Essay inquiry forward in of the Media, time. Some of the examples reports newer search engines will actually send you alerts of new papers that cite particular articles of interest to you. Of The Media, Are Celebrities Our Business?. Review articles are particularly useful because they summarize all the research done on a narrow subject area over a brief period of time (a year to successes of reconstruction a few years in The 411 Media, most cases). Be sure to clearly state the purpose and /or hypothesis that you investigated. When you are first learning to write in this format it is okay, and actually preferable, to in malaysia use a pat statement like, The purpose of this study was to. or We investigated three possible mechanisms to explain the . (1) blah, blah..(2) etc. It is most usual to place the statement of purpose near the end of the Introduction, often as the topic sentence of the final paragraph. It is of the Are Celebrities Essay, not necessary (or even desirable) to use the words hypothesis or null hypothesis, since these are usually implicit if you clearly state your purpose and expectations. Provide a clear statement of the successes of reconstruction rationale for your approach to the problem studied. For example: State briefly how you approached the problem (e.g., you studied oxidative respiration pathways in isolated mitochondria of cauliflower).
This will usually follow your statement of purpose in the last paragraph of the Introduction. Why did you choose this kind of experiment or experimental design? What are the scientific merits of this particular model system? What advantages does it confer in answering the particular question(s) you are posing? Do not discuss here the actual techniques or protocols used in your study (this will be done in the Materials and Methods); your readers will be quite familiar with the usual techniques and Media, Essay approaches used in of a study your field. If you are using a novel (new, revolutionary, never used before) technique or methodology, the merits of the new technique/method versus the previously used methods should be presented in the Introduction. This section is variously called Methods or Methods and Materials . 1. Of The Media, Are Celebrities Our Business?. Function : In this section you explain clearly how you carried out your study in the following general structure and organization (details follow below): the the organism(s) studied (plant, animal, human, etc.) and, when relevant, their pre-experiment handling and care, and when and demographics of russia where the study was carried out ( only if location and time are important factors); note that the term subject is Are Celebrities Our Business? Essay, used ONLY for human studies. if you did a field study , provide a description of the study site , including the examples observations reports significant physical and biological features, and the precise location (latitude and longitude, map, etc); the experimental OR sampling design (i.e., how the experiment or study was structured.
For example, controls, treatments, what variable(s) were measured, how many samples were collected, replication, the final form of the data, etc.); the protocol for collecting data , i.e., how the experimental procedures were carried out, and, how the data were analyzed (qualitative analyses and/or statistical procedures used to The 411 determine significance, data transformations used, what probability was used to decide significance, etc). Organize your presentation so your reader will understand the logical flow of the Public Essay experiment(s); subheadings work well for of the Are Celebrities Really this purpose. Each experiment or procedure should be presented as a unit, even if it was broken up over demographics of russia time. The experimental design and procedure are sometimes most efficiently presented as an The 411 Media, Really Our Business?, integrated unit, because otherwise it would be difficult to split them up. In general, provide enough quantitative detail (how much, how long, when, etc.) about your experimental protocol such that other scientists could reproduce your experiments.
You should also indicate the statistical procedures used to The Voucher Essay analyze your results, including the probability level at which you determined significance (usually at 0.05 probability). 2. Style : The style in Media, Are Celebrities Our Business? this section should read as if you were verbally describing the conduct of the experiment. You may use the active voice to a certain extent, although this section requires more use of third person, passive constructions than others. Limitations. Avoid use of the first person in this section. Remember to use the of the Our Business? Essay past tense throughout - the demographics work being reported is done, and was performed in Media, the past, not the future. Air Pollution. The Methods section is The 411 of the Are Celebrities, not a step-by-step, directive, protocol as you might see in your lab manual.
Describe the organism(s) used in the study. This includes giving the (1) source (supplier or where and The Voucher Makes Public Essay how the orgranisms were collected), (2) typical size (weight, length, etc) , (3) how they were handled, fed, and The 411 Media, Are Celebrities Really Essay housed before the study experiment, (4) how they were handled, fed, and housed during the experiment. In genetics studies include the Media, Are Celebrities Really Our Business? Essay strains or genetic stocks used. For some studies, age may be an important factor. Of Russia. For example, did you use mouse pups or adults? Seedlings or mature plants? FOR FIELD STUDIES ONLY : Describe the site where your field study was conducted. The description must include both physical and biological characteristics of the site pertinant to the study aims. Include the date(s) of the Are Celebrities Essay study (e.g., 10-15 April 1994) and the exact location of the demographics study area.
Location data must be as precise as possible: Grover Nature Preserve, ½ mi SW Grover, Maine rather than Grover Nature Preserve or Grover. When possible, give the actual latitude and longitude position of the site: these can be obtained using handheld GPS units, OR, from web resources such as Google Earth( TM ) and MapQuest( TM ). It is often a good idea to include a map (labeled as a Figure) showing the study location in The 411 of the Media, Are Celebrities relation to some larger more recognizable geographic area. Someone else should be able to go to the exact location of your study site if they want to repeat or check your work, or just visit your study area. NOTE: For laboratory studies you need not report the date and location of the successes of reconstruction study UNLESS it is necessary information for someone to have who might wish to repeat your work or use the The 411 Media, Essay same facility. Most often it is not . If you have performed experiments at a particular location or lab because it is the only place to do it, or one of a few, then you should note that in your methods and successes of reconstruction identify the lab or facility. Describe your experimental design clearly. Be sure to include the hypotheses you tested, controls , treatments , variables measured, how many replicates you had, what you actually measured , what form the data take, etc. Always identify treatments by the variable or treatment name, NOT by The 411 of the Media, Are Celebrities Essay an ambiguous, generic name or number (e.g., use 2.5% NaCl rather than test 1.) When your paper includes more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize your presentation by experiment. A general experimental design worksheet is available to help plan your experiments in examples of child the core courses.
Describe the procedures for your study in The 411 of the Media, Really Essay sufficient detail that other scientists could repeat your work to verify your findings. Foremost in your description should be the quantitative aspects of your study - the Managing Conflict masses, volumes, incubation times, concentrations, etc., that another scientist needs in order to duplicate your experiment. The 411 Really. When using standard lab or field methods and instrumentation, it is not always necessary to Program Makes Essay explain the The 411 of the Media, Are Celebrities Really Our Business? procedures (e.g., serial dilution) or equipment used (e.g., autopipetter) since other scientists will likely be familiar with them already. You may want to identify certain types of equipment by air pollution article vendor name and brand or category (e.g., ultracentrifuge vs. prep centrifuge), particularly if they are not commonly found in most labs. It is appropriate to report, parenthetically, the source (vendor) and catalog number for reagents used, e.g., . poly-L-lysine (Sigma #1309) . Of The Media, Are Celebrities Essay. When using a method described in another published source, you can save time and words by providing the relevant citation to Managing Essay the source.
Always make sure to describe any modifications you have made of a standard or published method. NOTE : Very frequently the experimental design and data collection procedures for The 411 of the Are Celebrities Our Business? an experiment cannot be separated and must be integrated together. If you find yourself repeating lots of information about the air pollution in malaysia article experimental design when describing the data collection procedure(s), likely you can combine them and be more concise. Media, Our Business? Essay. NOTE : Although tempting, DO NOT say that you recorded the of russia data , i.e., in The 411 Are Celebrities Really Essay your lab notebook, in limitations of a the Methods description. Of course you did , because that is what all good scientists do, and it is a given that you recorded your measurements and observations. Describe how the data were summarized and analyzed. Here you will indicate what types of descriptive statistics were used and which analyses (usually hypothesis tests) were employed to answer each of the questions or hypotheses tested and determine statistical siginifcance. The information should include:
Statistical software used : Sometimes it is Media, Are Celebrities, necessary to report which statistical software you used; this would be at the discretion of your instructor or the journal; how the data were summarized (Means, percent, etc) and how you are reporting measures of variability (SD,SEM, 95% CI, etc) this lets you avoid having to repeatedly indicate you are using mean ± SD or SEM. which data transformations were used(e.g., to correct for normal distribution or equalize variances); statistical tests used with reference to demographics the particular questions, or kinds of questions, they address. For example, A Paired t-test was used to compare mean flight duration before and after applying stablizers to the glider's wings. One way ANOVA was used to compare mean weight gain in weight-matched calves fed the three different rations. Comparisons among the three pH treatment groups for of the Media, each variable were done using one way ANOVA (with Tukey's post hoc test) or a Kruskal-Wallis Test (with Dunn's post hoc test).
any other numerical (e.g., normalizing data) or graphical techniques used to analyze the data what probability ( a priori ) was used to decide significance ; usually reported as the Greek symbol alpha. NOTE: You DO NOT need to say that you made graphs and tables. Here is some additional advice on particular problems common to new scientific writers. Problem : The Methods section is prone to being wordy or overly detailed. Avoid repeatedly using a single sentence to relate a single action ; this results in very lengthy, wordy passages. A related sequence of actions can be combined into one sentence to improve clarity and readability: Problematic Example : This is a very long and study wordy description of Media, a common, simple procedure. It is characterized by single actions per sentence and lots of unnecessary details.
The petri dish was placed on the turntable. The lid was then raised slightly. Successes. An inoculating loop was used to transfer culture to the agar surface. Of The. The turntable was rotated 90 degrees by hand. The loop was moved lightly back and forth over Interpersonal Conflict Essay the agar to spread the The 411 Are Celebrities Essay culture. Limitations Of A Study. The bacteria were then incubated at 37 C for 24 hr. Improved Example : Same actions, but all the The 411 Our Business? Essay important information is given in a single, concise sentence. Note that superfluous detail and Managing Interpersonal Essay otherwise obvious information has been deleted while important missing information was added. Each plate was placed on a turntable and streaked at opposing angles with fresh overnight E. coli culture using an Really, inoculating loop. The bacteria were then incubated at 37 C for 24 hr. Best: Here the author assumes the reader has basic knowledge of microbiological techniques and has deleted other superfluous information.
The two sentences have been combined because they are related actions. Each plate was streaked with fresh overnight E. Examples Of Child Reports. coli culture and incubated at 37 C for 24 hr. Problem : Avoid using ambiguous terms to identify controls or treatments, or other study parameters that require specific identifiers to be clearly understood. Designators such as Tube 1, Tube 2, or Site 1 and Really Site 2 are completely meaningless out of context and difficult to follow in context. Problematic example : In this example the reader will have no clue as to what the various tubes represent without having to constantly refer back to some previous point in the Methods. A Spec 20 was used to measure A 600 of of a Tubes 1,2, and 3 immediately after chloroplasts were added (Time 0) and every 2 min. thereafter until the DCIP was completely reduced. Tube 4's A 600 was measured only at Time 0 and at the end of the experiment. Improved example: Notice how the substitution ( in red ) of treatment and control identifiers clarifies the Are Celebrities passage both in the context of the paper, and if taken out of context. A Spec 20 was used to measure A 600 of the reaction mixtures exposed to light intensities of 1500, 750, and 350 uE/m2/sec immediately after chloroplasts were added (Time 0) and every 2 min. Successes Of Reconstruction. thereafter until the DCIP was completely reduced. The A 600 of the no-light control was measured only at Time 0 and at of the Really Our Business? Essay, the end of the examples of child observations experiment. 1. Function : The function of the Are Celebrities Our Business? Essay Results section is to study objectively present your key results, without interpretation, in an orderly and logical sequence using both text and illustrative materials (Tables and of the Media, Are Celebrities Really Essay Figures).
The results section always begins with text, reporting the key results and referring to your figures and tables as you proceed. Summaries of the Managing Essay statistical analyses may appear either in the text (usually parenthetically) or in the relevant Tables or Figures (in the legend or as footnotes to the Table or Figure). Of The Media, Essay. The Results section should be organized around Tables and/or Figures that should be sequenced to present your key findings in a logical order. The text of the Results section should be crafted to follow this sequence and highlight the evidence needed to limitations study answer the questions/hypotheses you investigated. Important negative results should be reported, too. Authors usually write the of the Media, Really Our Business? Essay text of the results section based upon the sequence of Tables and Figures. 2. Style : Write the text of the Results section concisely and limitations of a study objectively. The passive voice will likely dominate here, but use the active voice as much as possible. Use the Really past tense . Avoid repetitive paragraph structures. Do not interpret the data here. The transition into interpretive language can be a slippery slope.
Consider the following two examples: This example highlights the trend/difference that the successes of reconstruction author wants the reader to focus: The duration of exposure to running water had a pronounced effect on cumulative seed germination percentages (Fig. 2). Are Celebrities Essay. Seeds exposed to the 2-day treatment had the highest cumulative germination (84%), 1.25 times that of the limitations 12-h or 5-day groups and 4 times that of controls. In contrast, this example strays subtly into The 411 of the Media, Are Celebrities Really Our Business? Essay, interpretation by referring to optimality (a conceptual model) and tieing the observed result to that idea:
The results of the germination experiment (Fig. Demographics Of Russia. 2) suggest that the optimal time for running-water treatment is 2 days. This group showed the The 411 of the Our Business? highest cumulative germination (84%), with longer (5 d) or shorter (12 h) exposures producing smaller gains in germination when compared to Conflict the control group. Things to The 411 Media, Are Celebrities Our Business? Essay consider as you write your Results section: What are the results? : When you pose a testable hypothesis that can be answered experimentally, or ask a question that can be answered by collecting samples, you accumulate observations about limitations of a those organisms or phenomena. Those observations are then analyzed to yield an answer to The 411 Our Business? Essay the question. Demographics Of Russia. In general, the answer is the key result. The above statements apply regardless of the complexity of the analysis you employ. So, in The 411 of the an introductory course your analysis may consist of air pollution in malaysia visual inspection of figures and simple calculations of means and standard deviations; in a later course you may be expected to apply and interpret a variety of statistical tests. The 411. You instructor will tell you the level of analysis that is expected. For example, suppose you asked the question, Is the Program All Schools Public Essay average height of male students the The 411 of the Are Celebrities Really same as female students in a pool of randomly selected Biology majors ? You would first collect height data from large random samples of male and female students.
You would then calculate the descriptive statistics for those samples (mean, SD, n, range, etc) and plot these numbers. In a course where statistical tests are not employed, you would visually inspect these plots. Suppose you found that male Biology majors are, on average, 12.5 cm taller than female majors; this is the answer to Managing Interpersonal Essay the question. Notice that the outcome of a statistical analysis is not a key result, but rather an analytical tool that helps us understand what is our key result. Differences, directionality, and magnitude : Report your results so as to of the Media, Are Celebrities Really Our Business? provide as much information as possible to the reader about the article nature of differences or relationships. For eaxmple, if you testing for differences among groups, and you find a significant difference, it is Media, Are Celebrities Really Essay, not sufficient to simply report that groups A and B were significantly different. How are they different? How much are they different? It is much more informative to say something like, Group A individuals were 23% larger than those in Managing Group B, or, Group B pups gained weight at twice the rate of Group A pups.
Report the direction of differences (greater, larger, smaller, etc) and the magnitude of of the Really Our Business? differences (% difference, how many times, etc.) whenever possible. See also below about use of the word significant. Organize the results section based on the sequence of Table and Figures you'll include. Prepare the Tables and Figures as soon as all the Conflict data are analyzed and arrange them in the sequence that best presents your findings in a logical way. Media, Really Our Business? Essay. A good strategy is to note, on a draft of each Table or Figure, the one or two key results you want to addess in the text portion of the Results.
Simple rules to follow related to Tables and Figures: Tables and Figures are assigned numbers separately and in the sequence that you will refer to them from the text. The first Table you refer to is Table 1, the next Table 2 and so forth. Of Child Observations Reports. Similarly, the first Figure is Figure 1, the next Figure 2, etc. Each Table or Figure must include a brief description of the results being presented and The 411 Media, Are Celebrities Really Our Business? Essay other necessary information in a legend. Table legends go above the Table ; tables are read from top to bottom. Figure legends go below the figure ; figures are usually viewed from bottom to top. Fig. 1 . Table is Interpersonal Conflict, never abbreviated, e.g., Table 1 . The body of the Results section is a text-based presentation of the Media, Really key findings which includes references to each of the Tables and Figures. The text should guide the reader through your results stressing the Managing Interpersonal Conflict key results which provide the answers to the question(s) investigated. Of The Media, Are Celebrities Essay. A major function of the text is to Interpersonal Essay provide clarifying information.
You must refer to The 411 Media, Really Our Business? each Table and/or Figure individually and in sequence (see numbering sequence), and clearly indicate for of russia the reader the key results that each conveys. Key results depend on your questions, they might include obvious trends, important differences, similarities, correlations, maximums, minimums, etc. Some problems to avoid : Do not reiterate each value from a Figure or Table - only the key result or trends that each conveys. Really. Do not present the same data in both a Table and Figure - this is considered redundant and Interpersonal Conflict a waste of space and energy. Decide which format best shows the result and go with it. Do not report raw data values when they can be summarized as means, percents, etc. Statistical test summaries (test name, p- value) are usually reported parenthetically in conjunction with the biological results they support. Always report your results with parenthetical reference to the statistical conclusion that supports your finding (if statistical tests are being used in your course).
This parenthetical reference should include the The 411 Media, Are Celebrities Our Business? Essay statistical test used and demographics the level of significance (test statistic and DF are optional). For example, if you found that the mean height of male Biology majors was significantly larger than that of female Biology majors, you might report this result (in blue) and your statistical conclusion (shown in red) as follows: Males (180.5 ± 5.1 cm; n=34) averaged 12.5 cm taller than females (168 ± 7.6 cm; n=34) in the AY 1995 pool of Biology majors (two-sample t-test, t = 5.78, 33 d.f., p 0.001) . If the The 411 Our Business? Essay summary statistics are shown in a figure, the limitations sentence above need not report them specifically, but must include a reference to The 411 of the Really Our Business? the figure where they may be seen: Males averaged 12.5 cm taller than females in the AY 1995 pool of Biology majors (two-sample t-test, t = 5.78, 33 d.f., p 0.001; Fig. 1) . Note that the report of the key result (shown in blue) would be identical in a paper written for Interpersonal Conflict a course in which statistical testing is not employed - the section shown in The 411 of the Media, Really Our Business? red would simply not appear except reference to the figure. Avoid devoting whole sentences to report a statistical outcome alone. Use and over-use of the word significant : Your results will read much more cleanly if you avoid overuse of the word siginifcant in of russia any of its forms. In scientific studies, the use of this word implies that a statistical test was employed to make a decision about the The 411 Are Celebrities Our Business? Essay data; in this case the test indicated a larger difference in mean heights than you would expect to get by chance alone.
Limit the use of the word significant to this purpose only. If your parenthetical statistical information includes a p-value that indicates significance (usually when p 0.05), it is unncecssary (and redundant ) to use the word significant in the body of the limitations sentence (see example above) because we all interpret the p-value the same way. Likewise, when you report that one group mean is The 411 of the Media, Are Celebrities Our Business? Essay, somehow different from successes another (larger, smaller, increased, decreased, etc), it will be understood by your reader that you have tested this and found the difference to Are Celebrities Really Essay be statisticallysignificant, especially if you also report a p-value 0.05. Present the results of your experiment(s) in a sequence that will logically support (or provide evidence against) the of russia hypothesis, or answer the question, stated in the Introduction. For example, in reporting a study of the The 411 Are Celebrities Really Our Business? Essay effect of an experimental diet on the skeletal mass of the rat, consider first giving the data on skeletal mass for the rats fed the control diet and then give the data for the rats fed the experimental diet.
Report negative results - they are important! If you did not get the anticipated results, it may mean your hypothesis was incorrect and needs to be reformulated, or perhaps you have stumbled onto something unexpected that warrants further study. Moreover, the limitations absence of an effect may be very telling in many situations. In any case, your results may be of The 411 of the Media, Are Celebrities Our Business? importance to others even though they did not support your hypothesis. Do not fall into reports, the trap of thinking that results contrary to what you expected are necessarily bad data. If you carried out the work well, they are simply your results and Media, Are Celebrities Essay need interpretation. Many important discoveries can be traced to bad data. Always enter the appropriate units when reporting data or summary statistics.
for an individual value you would write, the mean length was 10 m , or, the maximum time was 140 min. Program. When including a measure of variability, place the unit after the error value, e.g., . was 10 ± 2.3 m . Are Celebrities Really. Likewise place the unit after the last in a series of numbers all having the same unit. Successes. For example: lengths of 5, 10, 15, and 20 m , or no differences were observed after 2, 4, 6, or 8 min. of incubation . 1. Function : The function of the Discussion is to interpret your results in The 411 Media, Really Essay light of examples of child what was already known about the subject of the Media, Really investigation, and to limitations study explain our new understanding of the of the Are Celebrities Really Our Business? problem after taking your results into consideration. The Discussion will always connect to the Introduction by way of the question(s) or hypotheses you posed and of child reports the literature you cited, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the Introduction. Instead, it tells how your study has moved us forward from the Really Essay place you left us at the end of the Introduction. Fundamental questions to answer here include: Do your results provide answers to your testable hypotheses?
If so, how do you interpret your findings? Do your findings agree with what others have shown? If not, do they suggest an alternative explanation or perhaps a unforseen design flaw in your experiment (or theirs?) Given your conclusions, what is our new understanding of the problem you investigated and outlined in the Introduction? If warranted, what would be the next step in your study, e.g., what experiments would you do next? 2. Interpersonal. Style : Use the active voice whenever possible in this section. Watch out for wordy phrases; be concise and make your points clearly. Use of the first person is The 411, okay, but too much use of the first person may actually distract the reader from the main points. 3. Approach : Organize the Discussion to address each of the experiments or studies for which you presented results; discuss each in examples observations the same sequence as presented in the Results, providing your interpretation of what they mean in the larger context of the problem. Do not waste entire sentences restating your results; if you need to remind the reader of the result to be discussed, use bridge sentences that relate the result to Media, Are Celebrities Really the interpretation:
The slow response of the lead-exposed neurons relative to controls suggests that. [ interpretation ]. You will necessarily make reference to the findings of The Voucher Makes All Schools others in Are Celebrities Our Business? Essay order to support your interpretations.Use subheadings, if need be, to help organize your presentation. Be wary of mistaking the reiteration of a result for an interpretation, and make sure that no new results are presented here that rightly belong in the results. You must relate your work to the findings of other studies - including previous studies you may have done and those of Essay other investigators. As stated previously, you may find crucial information in someone else's study that helps you interpret your own data, or perhaps you will be able to reinterpret others' findings in light of yours. In either case you should discuss reasons for similarities and differences between yours and of the Media, Really Our Business? others' findings. Consider how the results of other studies may be combined with yours to derive a new or perhaps better substantiated understanding of the problem. Be sure to state the conclusions that can be drawn from your results in light of these considerations.
You may also choose to briefly mention further studies you would do to clarify your working hypotheses. Make sure to Managing Conflict Essay reference any outside sources as shown in of the Are Celebrities Really Our Business? the Introduction section. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (include as needed) | FAQs | If, in of child your experiment, you received any significant help in thinking up, designing, or carrying out the work, or received materials from someone who did you a favor by The 411 Are Celebrities Really Our Business? Essay supplying them, you must acknowledge their assistance and the service or material provided. Authors always acknowledge outside reviewers of Managing Interpersonal Essay their drafts (in PI courses, this would be done only if an instructor or other individual critiqued the draft prior to Are Celebrities Our Business? evaluation) and any sources of The Voucher Program Makes All Schools funding that supported the research. Although usual style requirements (e.g., 1st person, objectivity) are relaxed somewhat here, Acknowledgments are always brief and Are Celebrities Our Business? Essay never flowery. Place the Acknowledgments between the Discussion and limitations study the Literature Cited. 1. The 411 Media, Really Our Business?. Function : The Literature Cited section gives an alphabetical listing (by first author's last name) of the references that you actually cited in the body of of russia your paper. Instructions for writing full citations for various sources are given in on separate page.
A complete format list for virtually all types of publication may be found in Huth and others(1994) . NOTE : Do not label this section Bibliography . A bibliography contains references that you may have read but have not specifically cited in the text. Bibliography sections are found in books and other literary writing, but not scientific journal-style papers. Function : An Appendix contains information that is non-essential to understanding of the paper, but may present information that further clarifies a point without burdening the body of the presentation. An appendix is an optional part of the The 411 Essay paper, and is only rarely found in published papers. Headings : Each Appendix should be identified by a Roman numeral in sequence, e.g., Appendix I, Appendix II, etc. Each appendix should contain different material. Some examples of of russia material that might be put in an appendix (not an The 411 of the Media,, exhaustive list) : raw data maps (foldout type especially) extra photographs explanation of formulas, either already known ones, or especially if you have invented some statistical or other mathematical procedures for data analysis. specialized computer programs for a particular procedure full generic names of chemicals or compounds that you have referred to in somewhat abbreviated fashion or by of reconstruction some common name in the text of your paper. diagrams of specialized apparati. Figures and Tables in Appendices. Figures and Tables are often found in an appendix. Are Celebrities Our Business? Essay. These should be formatted as discussed previously (see Tables and Figures), but are numbered in a separate sequence from those found in reports the body of the of the Media, Are Celebrities Our Business? Essay paper.
So, the first Figure in the appendix would be Figure 1, the first Table would be Table 1, and so forth. Examples Of Child Observations. In situations when multiple appendices are used, the Table and Figure numbering must indicate the appendix number as well (see Huth and of the Essay others, 1994). Department of of child reports Biology, Bates College, Lewiston, ME 04240.